The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

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Martian
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Location: Friesland, the Netherlands

The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Post by Martian » Tue 9 Dec 2014 13:09

Source: http://www.thealternativedaily.com/weed ... ease-good/
The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Posted on August 15, 2014 by The Alternative Daily

(...)

Cannabis to the rescue

Changing thoughts on alternative health and an increase in the acceptance and understanding of the benefits of medical marijuana are paving the path for this “weed” to be used for a number of debilitating medical conditions, many that do not respond well to conventional treatments.

With more and more states starting to legalize medicinal marijuana, the pressure is greater than ever on our federal government to remove the unlawful stamp they have placed on it. If medicinal marijuana was made legal by federal US law, it could become a part of the healthcare system, and made available to all individuals who have need for it. There is growing evidence demonstrating that this long-demonized plant can do a world of good for a number of medical conditions.

According to Dr. Joycelyn Elders, former US Surgeon General, “the evidence is overwhelming that marijuana can relieve certain types of pain, nausea, vomiting and other symptoms caused by such illnesses as multiple sclerosis, cancer and AIDS – or by the harsh drugs sometimes used to treat them. And it can do so with remarkable safety. Indeed, marijuana is less toxic than many of the drugs that physicians prescribe every day.”

Persons diagnosed with Lyme disease can use marijuana one of two ways. They can smoke it to reduce symptoms, or use cannabis oil to combat the condition. Rick Simpson, the man who pioneered cannabis oil, states that much of the healing qualities of the plant are lost in the smoke.

As we reported in an earlier article, cooking cannabis or smoking it reduces up to 99 percent of its benefits.Advocates of cannabis oil state that it is not only an effective way to manage symptoms of Lyme disease, but can also help the body heal.

Cannabis oil is an extremely concentrated substance that is extracted and reduced from a very high amount of cannabis into a substance with a good balance of THC and cannabinoids.

Alexis’s story

It is always easier to understand the benefits of anything when you have a real life example. Alexis was diagnosed with late-stage Lyme disease and was initially given antibiotics to manage the painful symptoms. She took these antibiotics long enough to sustain damage to her gastrointestinal tract, and was hospitalized with hemorrhagic colitis.

Doctors took Alexis off of the antibiotics and put her on pain medicine that did not touch her discomfort, so she started smoking marijuana. This took away most of her nausea, allowed her to eat again and helped manage her pain and her moods.

According to Alexis, she needed morphine and lorazepam intravenously to do the same thing that two grams of cannabis does. Now, Alexis is looking at cannabis oil as a possible long-term solution to her Lyme disease.

Shelly’s story

Shelly’s Lyme disease caused her to have up to ten seizures a day for well over a year. She started smoking marijuana and switched to a vaporizer and her seizures stopped completely.

After this, she heard about cannabis oil and decided to give it a try. She was using the oil for a month and was able to return to both work and school. She was also able to enjoy a social life and live on her own without the need of a caretaker. Her hope is that the cannabis oil will completely cure her of the Lyme disease so she can live without fear of the symptoms coming back.

Pamela’s story

The radio show High Noon interviewed Pamela, who suffered from Lyme disease. Pamela, like Alexis, had a very difficult time with pharmaceuticals and started to vaporize cannabis instead, later switching to cannabis oil.

She found that the oil completely removed all of her symptoms, and she was soon no longer bed ridden. After a short time, she ran out of the oil and the symptoms came back, confirming for her that it worked.

Note: There are no real studies confirming the use of cannabis oil for Lyme disease, many people just find that they are experimenting with what works best for them. As we reported in an earlier article, Coconut Oil and Cannabis Capsule – A Medical Miracle, the oil is being used with success to also treat cancer.

While many remain suspicious of the therapeutic benefits of cannabis, those that have had a positive experience with Lyme, cancer or any number of other conditions continue to speak out about their experiences with the hope that they can educate and inform others.

(...)

RitaA
Posts: 2768
Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Re: The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Post by RitaA » Mon 27 Apr 2015 20:50

http://www.vicnews.com/news/301163011.html
Cannabidiol paste potentially a cure for Lyme disease

by Erin Knutson - Hope Standard

posted Apr 23, 2015 at 6:00 PM— updated Apr 24, 2015 at 9:20 AM

Local resident and former Hope practitioner Dr. Ernie Murakami is on the verge of a medical breakthrough that could revolutionize the face of medicine and upset a potentially grossly misdiagnosed population, according to his extensive life’s research on Lyme disease.

“The medical profession is being criminally negligent,” said Murakami of misdiagnosis’ being made in relation to the onset of Lyme disease.

An 84 year-old activist who now teaches at a naturopathic facility and is the founder of the Dr. E. Murakami Centre for Lyme Research was once a prisoner in the Japanese-Canadian Internment camps during World War II.

He is no stranger to controversy.

Mild-mannered in his approach — the patriarch, who was disenfranchised by the B.C. medical community, spoke passionately about his work during a recent presentation at the Fraser Canyon Hospital to a group about the effects of a relatively new paste on the market, known as cannabidiol.

The derivative of marijuana, which is also a vegetable, boasts healing properties equal to traditional methods (antibiotics,) without negative side effects, according to Murakami’s early findings.

His preliminary research suggests that cannabidiol, which can be legally purchased at the Green Cross Society of B.C. in Vancouver could potentially be used to treat a variety of illnesses including diabetes, cancer, fibromylagia, chronic pain and multiple sclerosis.

Having treated a vast number of Lyme disease patients and lecturing for over 40 years in the medical community as a specialist in bacteriology and immunology, Dr. Murakami sought treatment for chronic sufferers who experienced symptoms of pain, arthritis, fatigue, depression (with suicide ideation) mental fog and organ failure.

An undiagnosed epidemic of lyme disease in North America is presenting itself in the form of other illnesses and is correlative to the onset of Lyme disease, based on the results of Murakami’s work.

Current environmental conditions are providing a healthy breeding ground for ticks, who do not traditionally survive in cold temperatures. An influx of warm weather during winter months is allowing the pests to flourish and go undetected by their hosts.

This has been denied by the proper authorities, as stated by Murakami — and may also be linked to dwindling moose populations.

“I once had a patient who suffered from severe depression — the medical community said she was a mental case, but I insisted on doing the tests and we found that her symptoms were the result of Lyme disease (which is contracted through the implantation of a tick),” he said. “The leading cause of death in Lyme disease is suicide — the depression is that bad.”

Conservative in his approach toward marijuana, Murakami was dead against the use of pot smoking, but became interested in the benefits of cannabidiol paste, as it didn’t possess the psychotic effects traditionally associated with marijuana usage.

After discovering he had a brain tumor Murakami used the paste to treat it, after researching a case where cannabidiol dissolved a Glioma tumor. This resulted in its disappearance.

“I thought this was an impossibility, until I saw the MRI reports showing the absolute resolution of the tumor in four months,” he said.

Other anecdotal cases of cannabidiol treating chronic infections, which have been resistant to standard antibiotics have been cited in his preliminary research; suggesting, the possibility that cannabidiol has an antibiotic effect.

Research, which is in its initial stages and involves testing cannabidiol on live spirochetes (infectious bacteria,) has stood up to preliminary inquiry and provided solid evidence for the necessity to continue with further testing.

“I made them better and I was condemned for it,” said Murakami of the reception of his work by the medical profession and by UBC, where he was a teacher for five years.
Here are just two references that Dr. Murakami may have come across during his research:

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/ ... onal/page4
Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)
Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies

- Antitumor Effects
- Appetite Stimulation
- Analgesia

Cannabinoids are a group of 21-carbon–containing terpenophenolic compounds produced uniquely by Cannabis species (e.g., Cannabis sativa L.) .[1,2] These plant-derived compounds may be referred to as phytocannabinoids. Although delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient, other known compounds with biologic activity are cannabinol, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, and delta-8-THC. CBD, in particular, is thought to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity without the psychoactive effect (high) of delta-9-THC.

[snip]

Analgesia

Understanding the mechanism of cannabinoid-induced analgesia has been increased through the study of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, and synthetic agonists and antagonists. The CB1 receptor is found in both the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral nerve terminals. Similar to opioid receptors, increased levels of the CB1 receptor are found in regions of the brain that regulate nociceptive processing.[35] CB2 receptors, located predominantly in peripheral tissue, exist at very low levels in the CNS. With the development of receptor-specific antagonists, additional information about the roles of the receptors and endogenous cannabinoids in the modulation of pain has been obtained.[36,37]

Cannabinoids may also contribute to pain modulation through an anti-inflammatory mechanism; a CB2 effect with cannabinoids acting on mast cell receptors to attenuate the release of inflammatory agents, such as histamine and serotonin, and on keratinocytes to enhance the release of analgesic opioids has been described.[38-40] One study reported that the efficacy of synthetic CB1- and CB2-receptor agonists were comparable with the efficacy of morphine in a murine model of tumor pain.[41]
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/ ... onal/page5
Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)
Human/Clinical Studies


[snip]

Cancer Treatment

No clinical trials of Cannabis as a treatment for cancer in humans were identified in a PubMed search; however, a single, small study of intratumoral injection of delta-9-THC in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme reported potential antitumoral activity.[14,15

[snip]

Analgesia

Cannabinoids

Pain management improves a patient’s quality of life throughout all stages of cancer. Through the study of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, and synthetic agonists and antagonists, the mechanisms of cannabinoid-induced analgesia have been analyzed. The CB1 receptor is found in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral nerve terminals.[32] CB2 receptors are located mainly in peripheral tissue and are expressed in only low amounts in the CNS. Whereas only CB1 agonists exert analgesic activity in the CNS, both CB1 and CB2 agonists have analgesic activity in peripheral tissue.[33,34]

Cancer pain results from inflammation, invasion of bone or other pain-sensitive structures, or nerve injury. When cancer pain is severe and persistent, it is often resistant to treatment with opioids.

Two studies examined the effects of oral delta-9-THC on cancer pain. The first, a double-blind placebo-controlled study involving ten patients, measured both pain intensity and pain relief.[35] It was reported that 15 mg and 20 mg doses of the cannabinoid delta-9-THC were associated with substantial analgesic effects, with antiemetic effects and appetite stimulation.

In a follow-up, single-dose study involving 36 patients, it was reported that 10 mg doses of delta-9-THC produced analgesic effects during a 7-hour observation period that were comparable to 60 mg doses of codeine, and 20 mg doses of delta-9-THC induced effects equivalent to 120 mg doses of codeine.[36] Higher doses of THC were found to be more sedative than codeine.

Another study examined the effects of a whole-plant extract with controlled cannabinoid content in an oromucosal spray. In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the THC:cannabidiol nabiximols (THC:CBD) extract and THC extract alone were compared in the analgesic management of patients with advanced cancer and with moderate-to-severe cancer-related pain. Patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups: THC:CBD extract, THC extract, or placebo. The researchers concluded that the THC:CBD extract was efficacious for pain relief in advanced cancer patients whose pain was not fully relieved by strong opioids.[37] In a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial, opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly controlled chronic pain demonstrated significantly better control of pain and sleep disruption with THC:CBD oromucosal spray at lower doses (1–4 and 6–10 sprays/day), compared with placebo. Adverse events were dose related, with only the high-dose group (11–16 sprays/day) comparing unfavorably with the placebo arm. These studies provide promising evidence of an “adjuvant analgesic” effect of THC:CBD in this opioid-refractory patient population and may provide an opportunity to address this significant clinical challenge.[38] An open-label extension study of 43 patients who had participated in the randomized trial found that some patients continued to obtain relief of their cancer-related pain with long-term use of the THC:CBD oromucosal spray without increasing their dose of the spray or the dose of their other analgesics.[39]

A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study of nabiximols in 16 patients with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain showed no significant difference between the treatment and placebo groups. A responder analysis, however, demonstrated that five patients reported a reduction in their pain of at least 2 points, suggesting that a larger follow-up study may be warranted.[40]

An observational study assessed the effectiveness of nabilone in advanced cancer patients who were experiencing pain and other symptoms (anorexia, depression, and anxiety). The researchers reported that patients who used nabilone experienced improved management of pain, nausea, anxiety, and distress when compared with untreated patients. Nabilone was also associated with a decreased use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, dexamethasone, metoclopramide, and ondansetron.[41]
I have to do more internet research regarding the possible antibiotic properties of cannabidiol, however one question that comes to mind is whether cannabidiol has antimicrobial properties (as suggested in the article) and/or if the "cure" for Lyme disease has more to do with the anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects of cannabinoids.


As expected, here are some cautionary words from the FDA:

http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHea ... 421163.htm
Page Last Updated: 03/03/2015

FDA and Marijuana

Looking for Treatment

The FDA understands that caregivers and patients are looking for treatment options for unmet medical needs. In some instances, patients or their caregivers are turning to marijuana in an attempt to treat conditions such as seizures and chemotherapy-induced nausea.

Untested Drugs can have Unknown Consequences

Over the last few decades, there has been significant interest in the potential utility of marijuana for a variety of medical conditions, including those that already have FDA-approved therapies.

More recently, several states have also passed laws that remove state restrictions on health care professionals using marijuana as a medical treatment for a variety of conditions. A number of other states are considering similar legislation regarding the use of marijuana in medical settings.

FDA’s Role in the Drug Approval Process

The FDA has not approved marijuana as a safe and effective drug for any indication. The agency has, however, approved one drug containing a synthetic version of a substance that is present in the marijuana plant and one other drug containing a synthetic substance that acts similarly to compounds from marijuana but is not present in marijuana. Although the FDA has not approved any drug product containing or derived from botanical marijuana, the FDA is aware that there is considerable interest in its use to attempt to treat a number of medical conditions, including, for example, glaucoma, AIDS wasting syndrome, neuropathic pain, cancer, multiple sclerosis, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and certain seizure disorders.

Before conducting testing in humans of a drug that has not been approved by the FDA, an investigator submits an investigational new drug (IND) application, which is reviewed by the FDA. An IND includes protocols describing proposed studies, the qualifications of the investigators who will conduct the clinical studies, and assurances of informed consent and protection of the rights, safety, and welfare of the human subjects. The FDA reviews the IND to ensure that the proposed studies, generally referred to as clinical trials, do not place human subjects at unreasonable risk of harm. The FDA also verifies that there are adequate assurances of informed consent and human subject protection.

The FDA’s role in the regulation of drugs, including marijuana and marijuana-derived products, also includes review of applications to market drugs to determine whether proposed drug products are safe and effective for their intended indications. The FDA’s drug approval process requires that clinical trials be designed and conducted in a way that provide the agency with the necessary scientific data upon which the FDA can make its approval decisions. Without this review, the FDA cannot determine whether a drug product is safe and effective. It also cannot ensure that a drug product meets appropriate quality standards. For certain drugs that have not been approved by the FDA, such as marijuana, the lack of FDA approval and oversight means that the purity and potency of the drug may vary considerably.

As with other drugs that are not approved by the FDA, the agency works closely with the medical and patient communities, and our federal partners when necessary, to allow access to experimental treatments through the expanded access provisions described in the FDA’s statute and regulations. The FDA’s expanded access provisions are designed to facilitate the availability of investigational products to patients with serious diseases or conditions when there is no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy available, either because the patients have exhausted treatment with or are intolerant of approved therapies, or when the patients are not eligible for an ongoing clinical trial.

FDA Supports Sound Scientific Research

The FDA also has an important role to play in supporting scientific research into the medical uses of marijuana and its constituents in scientifically valid investigations as part of the agency’s drug review and approval process. As a part of this role, the FDA supports those in the medical research community who intend to study marijuana.

The FDA also supports research into the medical use of marijuana and its constituents through cooperation with other federal agencies involved in marijuana research. Conducting clinical research using marijuana involves interactions with other federal agencies:

• The FDA reviews the IND application and the research protocol submitted by the applicant.
• The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) reviews the registration application filed by the researcher.
• The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) within the National Institutes of Health operates pursuant to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. NIDA has been designated the responsible agency to supply research-grade marijuana to researchers.

State Legislation on Marijuana

Several states have either passed laws that remove state restrictions on the medical use of marijuana and its derivatives or are considering doing so. The FDA supports researchers who conduct adequate and well-controlled clinical trials which may lead to the development of safe and effective marijuana products to treat medical conditions. We have talked to several states, including Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, New York and Pennsylvania, who are considering support for medical research of marijuana and its derivatives to ensure that their plans meet federal requirements and scientific standards.
I'm not sure why marijuana and/or its derivatives would be safer for residents of one state over another, but each individual state does have to pass legislation to permit the legal use of medical marijuana. It seems a bit like reinventing the wheel when states (in the U.S.) and provinces (in Canada) have to do this.

Edited to add:

Dr. Murakami is apparently collaborating with Dr. Eva Sapi -- at least according to this Facebook post:

https://www.facebook.com/ernie.murakami ... 45?fref=nf
Ernie Murakami
March 30 at 9:11pm · Edited

[snip]

Other anecdotal cases of cannabidiol treating chronic infections resistant to the standard antibiotics convinced me that there was an antibiotic effect with hemp cannabidiol..

Research initiated by our association has in the first stage of testing Cannabidiol on live spirochetes has now provided us the positive evidence based study needed to continue with further testing. This second stage study is being conducted at New Haven University and a special thanks to all the donators who has made this possible. Part of the positive first stage results were presented in Fernie B.C. Oct 28th 2014 and at Cranbrook B.C. Oct 29th 2014.

This was the successful in-vitro study of the destruction of live spirochetes in the test tube and the second stage is being completed this week end and the results summarized thus far on survival forms is with equally hopeful exciting expectations.

The destruction of the cysts have been a major concern for LLMDs since there are serious permanent side effects from the medications that are required .

Hemp cannbidiol a vegetative compound may become the answer for the treatment of acute and chronic Lyme disease but invivo studies are necessary

.Completed experimentation presentations for both stages have been granted to Dr. Eva Sapi for the Murakami center For Lyme Disease at the ILADS meeting on April 10, 2015 in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania, USA.


Dr. Ernie Murakami M.D. Clinical Associate Professor Emeritus, UBC.
B.A. Bacteriology and Immunology ,UBC.
Does anyone recall hearing/reading anything about this?
Last edited by RitaA on Tue 28 Apr 2015 9:11, edited 1 time in total.

RitaA
Posts: 2768
Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Re: The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Post by RitaA » Mon 27 Apr 2015 21:51

I need to step out for a few hours, but I'm going to start with this 1998 book chapter extract that mentions both immune modulation and the possible infection-fighting properties of marijuana components:

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.100 ... -5347-2_24
Drugs of Abuse, Immunomodulation, and Aids
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 437, 1998, pp 215-222

Cannabinoid Receptors and the Cytokine Network

Thomas W. Klein, Catherine Newton, Herman Friedman

Abstract

Marijuana components, especially Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have been shown to modulate immune function in both in vivo and in vitro paradigms1. However, the impact of drug-induced immunomodulation on host resistance to infection is uncertain and only a few studies have been reported coupling animal infection models and drug treatment. The molecular mechanisms of drug-induced immunomodulation are also unknown. An endogenous cannabinoid system has been described over the past few years composed of receptors and ligands2 and evidence suggests that cells of the immune system express these receptors3-5. However, the precise role of these receptors in drug-induced immunomodulation is not clear.
Fast forwarding to 2014 ...

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/978678/abs/
Mediators of Inflammation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 978678, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/978678

Research Article

Experimental Cannabinoid 2 Receptor-Mediated Immune Modulation in Sepsis

J. Sardinha,1 M. E. M. Kelly,1 J. Zhou,2,3 and C. Lehmann1,2,3

1 Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R2
2 Department of Anesthesia, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 2Y9
3 Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R2

Received 7 November 2013; Revised 25 February 2014; Accepted 4 March 2014; Published 3 April 2014
Academic Editor: Magdalena Klink

Copyright © 2014 J. Sardinha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sepsis is a complex condition that results from a dysregulated immune system in response to a systemic infection. Current treatments lack effectiveness in reducing the incidence and mortality associated with this disease. The endocannabinoid system offers great promise in managing sepsis pathogenesis due to its unique characteristics. The present study explored the effect of modulating the CB2 receptor pathway in an acute sepsis mouse model. Endotoxemia was induced by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice and intestinal microcirculation was assessed through intravital microscopy. We found that HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist) reduced the number of adherent leukocytes in submucosal venules but did not restore muscular and mucosal villi FCD in endotoxemic mice. AM630 (CB2 receptor antagonist) maintained the level of adherent leukocytes induced by LPS but further reduced muscular and mucosal villi FCD. URB597 (FAAH inhibitor) and JZL184 (MAGL inhibitor) both reduced the number of adherent leukocytes in submucosal venules but did not restore the mucosal villi FCD. Using various compounds we have shown different mechanisms of activating CB2 receptors to reduce leukocyte endothelial interactions in order to prevent further inflammatory damage during sepsis.

RitaA
Posts: 2768
Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Re: The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Post by RitaA » Mon 27 Apr 2015 22:10

http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/15/health/ma ... -advances/
10 diseases where medical marijuana could have impact

By Jen Christensen, CNN

Updated 12:11 PM ET, Thu April 16, 2015
Chronic pain

Some animal and small human studies show that cannabinoids can have a "substantial analgesic effect." People widely used them for pain relief in the 1800s. Some medicines based on cannabis such as Sativex are being tested on multiple sclerosis patients and used to treat cancer pain. The drug has been approved in Canada and in some European countries. In another trial involving 56 human patients, scientists saw a 30% reduction in pain in those who smoked marijuana.
Epilepsy

Medical marijuana extract in early trials at the NYU Langone Medical Center showed a 50% reduction in the frequency of certain seizures in children and adults in a study of 213 patients recently.
Multiple sclerosis

Using marijuana or some of the chemicals in the plant may help prevent muscle spasms, pain, tremors and stiffness, according to early-stage, mostly observational studies involving animals, lab tests and a small number of human patients. The downside -- it may impair memory, according to a small study involving 20 patients.

RitaA
Posts: 2768
Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Re: The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Post by RitaA » Tue 28 Apr 2015 9:29

So it appears that cannabinoids really do possess antibacterial properties. Only time will tell if they are effective when it comes to certain tick-borne pathogens.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481
J Nat Prod. 2008 Aug;71(8):1427-30. doi: 10.1021/np8002673. Epub 2008 Aug 6.

Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.

Appendino G1, Gibbons S, Giana A, Pagani A, Grassi G, Stavri M, Smith E, Rahman MM.

Author information

1Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Alimentari, Farmaceutiche e Farmacologiche, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy.

Abstract

Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has long been known to contain antibacterial cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated. All five major cannabinoids (cannabidiol (1b), cannabichromene (2), cannabigerol (3b), Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (4b), and cannabinol (5)) showed potent activity against a variety of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains of current clinical relevance. Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety (abnormal cannabinoids), and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety (pre-cannabinoids). Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibacterial activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid affinity for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibacterial pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity.

PMID:
18681481
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
http://www.researchgate.net/publication ... al_strains
Article

In vitro antibacterial activity of Cannabis sativa leaf extracts to some selective pathogenic bacterial strains

Abdul Majid
PhD Scholar (Microbiology)
Hazara University, Mānsehra

International Journal of Biosciences 02/2014; 4(4):65-70 DOI: 10.12692/ijb/4.4.65-70

ABSTRACT

Plants materials are important for animal and human health care and also important for microbial controlling
program. This present study has been attempt to determine the antibacterial activity of Cannabis sativa leaf extract to some selective pathogenic bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomunas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella by using leaf Ethanol extract and Hot water extract. Antibacterial activity of Cannabis Sativa was evaluated by well diffusion methods. The highest zone of inhibition produced by Ethanol extract. The leaf of Cannabis Sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (24.1mm) against Staphylococcus aureus, (10.3mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (22.2mm) against Escherichia coli, (18.1mm) against Enterococcus faecalis respectively and inactive against the two strains Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella. The minimum inhibitory effect of C. sativa leaf extract is due to certain compounds present in the C.sativa. Further research should be done to identify the compounds responsible for its activity which can be used as medicines to control a wide range of disease in the world.

RitaA
Posts: 2768
Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Re: The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Post by RitaA » Tue 28 Apr 2015 9:39

http://www.safeaccessnow.org/using_medical_cannabis
Guide to using medical cannabis
Cannabis 101

[snip]

... While THC has been the focus of breeding and research due to its various psychoactive and therapeutic effects, non-psychoactive cannabinoids have physiologic effects that can be therapeutic.

o Cannabidiol (CBD) relieves convulsions, inflammation, anxiety and nausea—many of the same therapeutic qualities as THC but without psychoactive effects. It is the main cannabinoid in low-THC cannabis strains, and modern breeders have been developing strains with greater CBD content for medical use.
o Cannabinol (CBN) is mildly psychoactive, decreases intraocular pressure, and seizure occurrence.
o Cannabichromene (CBC) promotes the analgesic effects (pain relief) of THC and has sedative (calming) effects.
o Cannabigerol (CBG) has sedative effects and antimicrobial properties, as well as lowers intraocular pressure.
o Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is showing promise for type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders.

[snip]
http://quantumenergetics.org/images/Can ... cology.pdf
Cannabidiol: An Overview of Some Pharmacological Aspects

Raphael Mechoulam, Linda A. Parker, and Ruth Gallily

Page 13S:

CBD: ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS

The pathogenesis involved in inflammatory reactions is complex and multifunctional. It is triggered and maintained by various intercellular mediators—the cytokines. One of these cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), is particularly important in triggering a cascade of other cytokines, which also participate in the inflammatory process.

[snip]

Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous modulator with diverse biological functions.39 It is produced by most mammalian cells and mediates multiple physiological and pathological processes. For example, it is a major endogenous regulator of vascular homeostasis and serves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and other parts of the body. NO has also been shown to possess antibacterial and antitumor activity40 and affects various aspects of the inflammatory cascade.

It is well known, however, that many weapons of the immune system, which have the capacity to eliminate microbes and tumors, can also harm the host. For example, high levels of TNF, ROI, and NO can cause inflammation and damage cells and tissues and may also contribute to septic shock. Therefore, a primary therapeutic goal of using drugs acting on the immune system is to limit the effects of TNF, ROI, and NO. A vast literature documents the immune-modulating effects of cannabinoids, mainly of Δ9-THC, in vivo and in vitro.41 A partial list of in vitro effects of Δ9-THC includes inhibition of the proliferative responses of T lymphocytes, inhibition of cytotoxic T cell activity, suppression of macrophage function and antigen presentation, and inhibition of NO production by macrophages. CBD has been reported to cause modulation of TNF, IL-1, and IFN-γ production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.42,43 It suppresses chemokine production by a human B cell line.44 These potentially anti-inflammatory properties of CBD, together with the lack of psychotropic effects and low toxicity, prompted Malfait et al45 to test the potential of CBD as a therapeutic agent in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).

[snip]

Page 17S:

Antioxidative Effect

CBD, like many other cannabinoids, is a potent antioxidative agent.45,87 CBD was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or α-tocopherol. The neuroprotection exhibited by CBD was unaffected by cannabinoid receptor antagonists. In view of its liposolubility, it may exert (nonspecific?) action both in the periphery and in the brain as it crosses the blood-brain barrier.

CONCLUSION

The nonpsychotropic CBD exhibits a plethora of effects, many of which may be of therapeutic importance or may serve as leads for pharmaceutical development. It is unfortunate that the mechanism(s) of CBD action is still obscure; however, recent work on the stereospecificity of CBD action on its inhibition of anandamide uptake and hydrolysis, as well as on its antioxidative effects, may lead to elucidation of this longstanding enigma.

The research in Jerusalem was supported by the Israel Science Foundation, and the research in Canada was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research.
Edited to add:

http://yubanet.com/scitech/New-Open-Acc ... T_5NMZ0zL8
New Open Access Journal on Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Launching Fall 2015

Journal will be the premier open source for authoritative cannabis and cannabinoid research, discussion, and debate

Published on Apr 28, 2015 - 7:59:26 AM

By: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Publishers

NEW ROCHELLE, NY, April 25, 2015 - Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, a new peer-reviewed, open access journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers (http://www.liebertpub.com/), is the only journal dedicated to the scientific, medical, and psychosocial exploration of clinical cannabis, cannabinoids, and the biochemical mechanisms of endocannabinoids. Launching in fall 2015, the Journal will be the premier open source for authoritative cannabis and cannabinoid research, discussion, and debate. The Journal will publish under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY) license to ensure broad dissemination and participation.

The medical use of cannabis has become a global phenomenon. There are now 1.1 million users of legal medical cannabis in the U.S. Increasing numbers of jurisdictions in the U.S. and around the world are allowing access to herbal cannabis, and a broad new range of policy initiatives are emerging to regulate cannabis production and use to conduct high-quality research. Several medicines based on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, have been approved as pharmaceutical drugs as medical therapy for a variety of diseases and neurological conditions, such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis, and pain, including cancer and neuropathic pain.

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research will publish fully peer-reviewed, evidence-based original articles, review articles, and perspectives on cannabis, cannabinoids, and the endocannabinoid system. The Journal will publish a broad range of human and animal studies including basic and translational research; clinical studies; behavioral, social, and epidemiological issues; and ethical, legal, and regulatory controversies.

An interdisciplinary community including pharmacologists and psychopharmacologists, toxicologists, biochemists, neurologists, psychiatrists, physicians, and other healthcare practitioners, addiction specialists, and regulators and policymakers are invited to participate in this new open access resource.

Topics in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research will include:

Biochemical process of the endocannabinoid system * Cannabinoid receptors and signaling * Pharmaceuticals based on cannabis and cannabinoids * Optimal dosing and drug delivery * Short- and long-term effects on the brain and behavior * Toxicological studies * Analgesic effects, including neuropathic pain and chronic nerve injury * Neurological disorders, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and glaucoma * Use of cannabis as antinauseants and antispasmodics * Immune function and chronic inflammation, including HIV * Cancer and cancer-related treatment * Screening and assessment for marijuana misuse and addiction * Social, behavioral, and public health impact * Ethics, regulation, legalization, and public policy

Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research will build a central forum and repository for peer-reviewed open access papers, as more high-quality research is needed to move the field forward.

RitaA
Posts: 2768
Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Re: The “Weed” that Could End Lyme Disease for Good

Post by RitaA » Tue 9 Jun 2015 3:39

The following isn't specific to Lyme disease, however it does relate to scientific research into the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana:

http://news.ubc.ca/2015/06/08/medical-c ... potential/
Medical cannabis company donates $1 million to explore plant’s healing potential

Media Release | June 8, 2015

Medical marijuana producer National Green Biomed Ltd. has committed $1 million to the University of British Columbia to allow researchers to study the therapeutic effects of cannabis. The company has made an application and is awaiting approval from Health Canada to produce and sell medical marijuana.

The contribution will support research by assistant professor of medicine M-J Milloy, who is studying marijuana’s potential to treat HIV, and alleviate pain and nausea caused by acute illness and medications used to combat HIV and AIDS.

Milloy, an infectious disease epidemiologist with the UBC Division of AIDS and the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, was the lead investigator on a study published in March that found that HIV positive people who used marijuana at least daily had less than half the concentration of the HIV virus in their blood compared to people who rarely or never consumed cannabis. The study, published in Drug and Alcohol Review, was the first epidemiological evidence from human studies that shows cannabis interacts with the underlying mechanism of HIV disease – not just its symptoms.

“Because cannabis has been seen primarily as a recreational drug, its medicinal implications have been much overlooked in formal research circles,” said National Green Chairman Herb Dhaliwal, a former MP and federal cabinet minister from Vancouver. “Now, thanks to evolving attitudes, it’s time for the science to catch up. We believe our partnership will help UBC create a standing research program into the possible therapeutic benefits of medical cannabis.”

Milloy examines barriers to effective HIV and AIDS treatment, such as homelessness and incarceration, and how addiction treatment can facilitate adherence to HIV therapy. He is leading a U.S. National Institutes of Health study involving about 1,000 people living with HIV/AIDS who also use illicit drugs. He also participated in the scientific evaluation of Insite, Vancouver’s supervised injection facility, and helped demonstrate how it reduced the number of overdose deaths in the Downtown Eastside.

“We have long heard from our patients that they perceive that they obtain health benefits from cannabis use,” said Dr. Julio Montaner, head of the UBC Division of AIDS and director of the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. “This contribution will allow us to begin to rigorously assess whether these benefits are truly real.”

The partnership resulting from National Green’s contribution forms part of UBC’s start an evolution campaign, the most ambitious fundraising and alumni engagement campaign in Canadian history.

“One of the great virtues of universities is their willingness and freedom to look for answers in unconventional places,” said Arvind Gupta, UBC’s president and vice chancellor. “Canadian attitudes on the issue of marijuana’s legality and availability are still very much in flux. But if marijuana can help reduce pain or nausea, or even treat disease, we have a duty to find out. We are grateful to National Green for supporting our efforts to help answer these questions.”

BACKGROUND | MEDICINAL MARIJUANA

A new venture: National Green Biomed was incorporated in 2014, founded by a group that included Dhaliwal and David Sidoo, a private investment banker and a member of the UBC Board of Governors. The Richmond, B.C. company is awaiting a license from Health Canada to cultivate marijuana at a site in the Fraser Valley Regional District. National Green has already contributed $200,000 to UBC researchers and the remaining funds will be given out over five years.

Promising signs: The medical role for cannabinoids is not definitive. Although laboratory-based studies have often yielded positive results, the number of controlled studies using placebos in humans has been limited by the legal prohibition against marijuana. One promising study in 2011 found that in an animal model, intravenously-administered THC led to lower levels of the simian version of HIV and to increased life expectancy.

An evolving marketplace: Since April 2014, Canadians with a signed doctor’s recommendation can legally buy marijuana from one of 19 private, federally-licensed producers. The producers ship the product directly to consumers, after verifying the legitimacy of the medical document. (The U.S. federal government, meanwhile, still categorizes marijuana as having no proven medical value.) A large but unknown number of Canadians self-medicate with marijuana obtained illegally. Colorado, Washington, Alaska, Oregon and Washington, D.C. have legalized marijuana for non-medical use.

Oral sprays and capsules: An oral spray derived from marijuana has been available by prescription to treat pain in multiple sclerosis patients since 2005. Another drug, an artificial version of THC in capsule form, is prescribed for nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, and to treat appetite loss among people living with HIV.

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