Lyme Disease News & Current Medical Research

The latest publications of scientific medical research, articles and news on Lyme disease from many resources are automatically displayed here.

List of latest Lyme news and medical research


Monday 6 July 2015

How ticks that carry Lyme disease are spreading to new regions in the US

(Wiley) Lyme disease is currently estimated to affect 300,000 people in the US every year, and blacklegged ticks, the disease's main vector, have recently flourished in areas previously thought to be devoid of this arachnid. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Monday 6 July 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation near the Arctic Circle

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Dag Hvidsten , Frode Stordal , Malin Lager , Bjørg Rognerud , Bjørn-Erik Kristiansen , Andreas Matussek , Jeremy Gray , Snorre Stuen This is the first study to determine the density of questing Ixodes ricinus in northern Norway. It was performed at two sites in Brønnøy, which has been known for its tick permissive habitats for decades and is one of the northernmost habitats with an abundant I. ricinus population in the world. From April to November 2011, all stages of host-seeking I. ricinus were collected from the two sites. The overall prevalence of nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 21% and that of adult ticks 46%. The rates of the genospecies B. afzelii, B. garinii...


Saturday 4 July 2015

Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Caused by Chronic Lyme Neuroborreliosis. A Case Report.

Authors: Schefte DF, Nordentoft T Abstract Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is often classified as idiopathic. The condition is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity, and treatment options are often unsatisfactory. A case of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in a 66-year-old woman, presenting with back and abdominal pain, urinary retention and severe constipation is described. The patient lived in an area in which Lyme disease is endemic and had been bitten by ixodes ticks. Intrathecal synthesis of anti-borrelia IgM and IgG and lymphocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was found, consistent with chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis since symptoms had lasted for more than six months. The patient's gastrointestinal function recovered and the pain subsided significant...


Friday 3 July 2015

First report of Lyme neuroborreliosis in a returned Australian traveller.

Authors: Subedi S, Dickeson DJ, Branley JM PMID: 26126566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Med J Aust)


Friday 3 July 2015

Another Tick Threat?

I understand that there's a new danger from tick bites that is worse than Lyme disease, and that a virus transmitted by these bites can actually kill you. Can you tell me where these ticks are and how to avoid them? (Source: Dr. Weil Q and A)

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Friday 3 July 2015

Epidemiological situation of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium, 2003 to 2012

Conclusion Based on hospital records and laboratory results, no increasing trend in Lyme disease was observed over the 2003–2012 period in Belgium. These results are in line with the stable incidence of erythema migrans reported by a sentinel network of general practitionners between 2003 and 2009. Multi-source surveillance of vector-borne diseases should be further implemented. (Source: Archives of Public Health)


Friday 3 July 2015

Lyme Disease: What the Wilderness Provider Needs to Know

Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Joseph D. Forrester , J. Priyanka Vakkalanka , Christopher P. Holstege , Paul S. Mead Lyme disease is a multisystem tickborne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most common vectorborne disease in the United States. Prognosis after initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is typically good if treated early. Wilderness providers caring for patients who live in or travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas should be aware of the basic biology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of Lyme disease. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)


Wednesday 1 July 2015

Enhancing Lyme Disease Surveillance by Using Administrative Claims Data, Tennessee, USA

J. L. Clayton et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)


Wednesday 1 July 2015

The increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada.

The objectives of this article are to i) raise public awareness with the help of veterinarians on the emerging and expanding risk of Lyme disease across Canada, ii) review the key clinical features of Lyme disease in dogs, and iii) provide recommendations for veterinarians on the management of Lyme disease in dogs. PMID: 26130829 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Canadian Veterinary Journal)


Tuesday 30 June 2015

Morning Break: Ebola Back in Liberia, SCOTUS Redux, Lavigne's Lyme Lament

(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web, gathered by the MedPage Today staff. (Source: MedPage Today Public Health)

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Tuesday 30 June 2015

Avril Lavigne 'doing a lot better' after Lyme disease treatment

(Source: CNN.com - Health)


Tuesday 30 June 2015

Tiny ticks could wreck your health for years says Lyme Disease Action

According to the NHS, in Britain around 3,000 people a year are diagnosed with Lyme disease. Six years ago, James, then aged ten, developed the condition. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Tuesday 30 June 2015

Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal

This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Monday 29 June 2015

'I thought I was dying,' Avril Lavigne says of Lyme disease fight

When singer Avril Lavigne went missing from the music scene, there was tons of speculation. Was she pregnant? In rehab? Going through a split from her husband, Nickelback front man Chad Kroeger? (Source: CNN.com - Health)


Monday 29 June 2015

Avril Lavigne Breaks Down During Interview About Lyme Disease

Avril Lavigne made an emotional appearance on "Good Morning America" on Monday, as she opened up about her battle with Lyme disease. The 30-year-old singer broke down in tears as she revealed she was bedridden by the disease last October and frustrated as she saw specialist after specialist, each unable to properly diagnose her Lyme disease. "They would pull up their computer and be like, 'Chronic fatigue syndrome.' Or, 'Why don't you try to get out of bed, Avril, and just go play the piano?' It's like, 'Are you depressed?'" she explained to "GMA" special contributor Jesse Palmer. The singer added, "This is what they do to a lot of people who have Lyme disease. They don't have an answer for them so they tell them, like, 'You're crazy.'" The "Complicated" singer told "GMA" she's now abou...

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Monday 29 June 2015

This Is the Weirdest Habit-Breaking Strategy

(Photo: Pablo Saldivia Salgado / EyeEm/Getty Images) By Melissa Dahl The latest episode of Psych Crunch, a new podcast hosted by Science of Us pal Christian Jarrett, is all about habits, and it includes a reference to what is maybe the weirdest habit-breaking strategy ever: Imagine your brain, say psychologists Kim Jenkins and Katy Tapper, is a city bus. Related: Changing a Habit Can Mess With Your Sense of Self This city bus is filled with noisy weirdos, as city buses often are; think of the noisy weirdos as your craving for chocolate, or the urge to bite your nails -- whatever habit you're trying to break. And you, they continue, are the driver of said bus. You can't help hearing the loud passengers, but you don't have to take direction from them; you are the one driving the bus. You'll...


Friday 26 June 2015

Save Wildlife, Save Yourself?

Protecting the environment may reduce many diseases, such as Lyme and West Nile, a study finds. The tantalizing idea suggests that conservation and human health may be more connected than we thought.» E-Mail This (Source: NPR Health and Science)


Thursday 25 June 2015

Alternative Lab Tests May Not Reliably Diagnose Lyme Disease Alternative Lab Tests May Not Reliably Diagnose Lyme Disease

Lyme disease diagnosed by alternative laboratory methods is indistinguishable by detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation from chronic fatigue syndrome, a case-control study suggests. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Thursday 25 June 2015

Inhibition of the endosymbiont “Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii” during 16S rRNA gene profiling reveals potential pathogens in Ixodes ticks from Australia

Conclusions: Abundant bacterial endosymbionts, such as CMM, limit the effectiveness of next-generation 16S bacterial community profiling in arthropods by masking less abundant bacteria, including pathogens. Specific blocking primers that inhibit endosymbiont 16S amplification during PCR are an effective way of reducing this limitation. Here, this strategy provided the first evidence of a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. and of novel “Candidatus Neoehrlichia” spp. in Australia. Our results raise new questions about tick-borne pathogens in I. holocyclus ticks. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 25 June 2015

Editorial Commentary: Life After Lyme Disease

(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)

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Thursday 25 June 2015

Long-term Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Culture-Confirmed Early Lyme Disease

The health-related quality of life of 100 subjects with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease enrolled in a prospective study with annual follow-up visits was evaluated using the 36-Item Short Form General Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) questionnaire at 11–20 years after diagnosis. The mean summary scores of physical and mental health were similar to those of the general population. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 23 June 2015

Parkinson disease: High infection burden in patients with Parkinson disease

Nature Reviews Neurology 11, 370 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2015.112 Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) were found to be more likely to have evidence of viral and bacterial infections than were controls. Bu and colleagues assessed serum samples for antibodies against cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori and other pathogens. Seropositivity for (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)


Friday 19 June 2015

Combination of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Nested PCR for Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Human Serum Samples

Publication date: April 2015 Source:Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 4 Author(s): Liu Li ZHANG , Xue Xia HOU , Zhen GENG , Yong Liang LOU , Kang Lin WAN , Qin HAO A set of universal loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers targeting the fla gene was designed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) in human samples. The sensitivity of LAMP was 20 copies/reaction, and the assay did not detect false positives among 11 other related bacteria. A positive LAMP result was obtained for 9 of the 24 confirmed cases and for 12 of 94 suspected cases. The positive rate of LAMP was the same as that of nested PCR. The LAMP is a useful diagnostic method that can be developed for rapid detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. in human sera. Combination ...


Wednesday 17 June 2015

The Putative Role of Viruses, Bacteria, and Chronic Fungal Biotoxin Exposure in the Genesis of Intractable Fatigue Accompanied by Cognitive and Physical Disability

Abstract Patients who present with severe intractable apparently idiopathic fatigue accompanied by profound physical and or cognitive disability present a significant therapeutic challenge. The effect of psychological counseling is limited, with significant but very slight improvements in psychometric measures of fatigue and disability but no improvement on scientific measures of physical impairment compared to controls. Similarly, exercise regimes either produce significant, but practically unimportant, benefit or provoke symptom exacerbation. Many such patients are afforded the exclusionary, non-specific diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome if rudimentary testing fails to discover the cause of their symptoms. More sophisticated investigations often reveal the presence of a rang...


Wednesday 17 June 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi clinical isolates induce human innate immune responses that are not dependent on genotype.

In conclusion, we demonstrate that the RST 1 and 3 isolates showed no distinction in their susceptibility to the various components of the human immune system studied here, suggesting that other factors are responsible for their differential invasiveness. PMID: 26093919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)

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Monday 15 June 2015

Macrophage Polarization during Murine Lyme Borreliosis [Host Response and Inflammation]

Infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, reliably produces an infectious arthritis and carditis that peak around 3 weeks postinfection and then spontaneously resolve. Macrophage polarization has been suggested to drive inflammation, the clearance of bacteria, and tissue repair and resolution in a variety of infectious disease models. During Lyme disease it is clear that macrophages are capable of clearing Borrelia spirochetes and exhausted neutrophils; however, the role of macrophage phenotype in disease development or resolution has not been studied. Using classical (NOS2) and alternative (CD206) macrophage subset-specific markers, we determined the phenotype of F4/80+ macrophages within the joints and heart throughout the infection time course...


Monday 15 June 2015

Infection of Interleukin 17 Receptor A-Deficient C3H Mice with Borrelia burgdorferi Does Not Affect Their Development of Lyme Arthritis and Carditis [Host Response and Inflammation]

Recently, a number of studies have reported the presence of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in patients with Lyme disease, and several murine studies have suggested a role for this cytokine in the development of Lyme arthritis. However, the role of IL-17 has not been studied using the experimental Lyme borreliosis model of infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. In the current study, we investigated the role of IL-17 in the development of experimental Lyme borreliosis by infecting C3H mice devoid of the common IL-17 receptor A subunit (IL-17RA) and thus deficient in most IL-17 signaling. Infection of both C3H and C3H IL-17RA–/– mice led to the production of high levels of IL-17 in the serum, low levels in the heart tissue, and no detectable IL-17 in the joint tissue. The develo...


Friday 12 June 2015

Widespread Borrelia miyamotoi Tick-borne Fever Found in US Widespread Borrelia miyamotoi Tick-borne Fever Found in US

A new, and potentially more severe, infection transmitted by the same ticks that carry Lyme disease was much more common in the United States in 2013 than expected, especially in the Northeast. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)


Friday 12 June 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme disease in low-incidence states

Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Joseph D. Forrester , Meghan Brett , James Matthias , Danielle Stanek , Chasisity Brown Springs , Nicola Marsden-Haug , Hanna Oltean , JoDee Summers Baker , Kiersten J. Kugeler , Paul S. Mead , Alison Hinckley Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Surveillance data from four states with a low-incidence of Lyme disease was performed. Most cases occurred after travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas. Cases without travel-related exposure in low-incidence states differed epidemiologically; misdiagnosis may be common in these areas. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Friday 12 June 2015

Geographical and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence of Lyme Disease, RMSF, Ehrlichiosis, and Coccidioidomycosis with Search Data

Authors: Vladimir Ratushny & Gideon P Smith (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)


Friday 12 June 2015

How far north are migrant birds transporting the tick Ixodes scapularis in Canada? Insights from stable hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers

Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): N.H. Ogden , I.K. Barker , C.A. Francis , A. Heagy , L.R. Lindsay , K.A. Hobson Lyme disease is emerging in Canada because of northward range expansion of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. It is hypothesised that I. scapularis feeding on passerine birds migrating north in spring are important in founding new I. scapularis populations leading to northward range expansion. However, there are no studies on how far north I. scapularis may be carried, only inferences from passive tick surveillance. We used stable hydrogen isotope (δ2H) analysis of rectrices collected from northward migrating, I. scapularis-carrying, passerine birds captured in Canada to estimate how far north I. scapularis may be...

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Thursday 11 June 2015

Teenager discovers new planet during work experience - video report

A Newcastle-under-Lyme school pupil has discovered a new planet while on a work placement. Tom Wagg, 17, was doing work experience with an astrophysics professor at Keele University when he spotted a minuscule dip in the light from a faraway star that he knew could be caused by a planet passing in front of it. Two years later the large gas form in the southern constellation of Hydra was confirmed as a planet Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)


Thursday 11 June 2015

Schoolboy on work experience discovers planet

Newcastle-under-Lyme pupil Tom Wagg spotted dip in light which revealed existence of a planet while on placement at Keele University two years agoA schoolboy doing work experience with an astrophysics professor has discovered a new planet 1,000 light years from Earth.Newcastle-under-Lyme school pupil Tom Wagg was 15 when he went for his work placement at Keele University, where he spotted a minuscule dip in the light from a faraway star that he knew could be caused by a planet passing in front of it. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)


Thursday 11 June 2015

Ticks can transmit a new Lyme-like disease

There are several good reasons to keep ticks off your body. One is that they are creepy and suck your blood. Another is that they can transmit 14 different diseases—not just Lyme disease. A report published online this week in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine describes the newest tick-borne disease in North America, which is caused by a bacterium known as Borrelia miyamotoi. The microbe was first identified in Japan in 1995. The first report of it infecting humans came from Russia in 2011. Cases began appearing in the northeastern United States in 2013. Borrelia miyamotoi is a spiral-shaped bacterium that is related to the one that causes Lyme disease, another tick-borne infection. Infection with Borrelia miyamotoi often causes a recurring fever, as well as headache, muscle aches,...


Thursday 11 June 2015

Ticked Off--What We Don't Know About Lyme Disease

I didn’t see the tiny danger lurking in my own yard. Yet for Lyme disease awareness month, just ended, it seems I am learning experientially. I’ve had Lyme at least once before, and found three attached deer ticks on me just in 10 days. I may have had Lyme a second time, last year, but diagnostic tests are so poor that we don’t know. Here’s some of what I learned from my experience and for caring for others in my infectious disease practice. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)

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Wednesday 10 June 2015

Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada

Authors: Manisha A Kulkarni, Lea Berrang-Ford, Peter A Buck, Michael A Drebot, L Robbin Lindsay & Nicholas H Ogden (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

The List Of Tick-Transmitted Diseases Is Growing

WASHINGTON (AP) — Lyme disease makes the headlines but there are plenty of additional reasons to avoid tick bites. New research highlights the latest in a growing list of tick-borne threats — a distant relative of Lyme that's easy to confuse with other illnesses. Monday's study suggests a kind of bacteria with an unwieldy name — Borrelia miyamotoi — should be on the radar when people in Lyme-endemic areas get otherwise unexplained summertime fevers. It's one of several recently discovered diseases linked to ticks in different parts of the country, a reminder to get tick-savvy no matter where you live. "People need to be aware of what tick-borne diseases are in their area," says Dr. Peter J. Krause of Yale University, a specialist who reviewed the research. "And they should know h...


Tuesday 9 June 2015

APHA Releases New Version of Control of Communicable Diseases Manual for Mobile and Web

The American Public Health Association and Unbound Medicine have announced the release of an updated version of Control of Communicable Diseases Manual for Mobile and Web that includes up-to-date information about the occurrence, transmission, resistance and control of communicable diseases. Free previews are available of chapters on Ebola, listeriosis, Lyme Disease, Rift Valley Fever and meningitis. (Source: PHPartners.org)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Alabama Lyme Disease Association Has Representation on Commission...

Alabama Lyme Disease Association representative to serve on commission to study Lyme disease, and other tick-borne illnesses in Alabama(PRWeb June 09, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/06/prweb12775051.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Bay Area Lyme Foundation awards diagnostic grant to Harvard Medical School researchers

(DDC) Harvard Medical School research collaborators Nira Pollock, M.D., Ph.D., and John Branda, M.D. have just been awarded the 2015 Emerging Leader Award from Bay Area Lyme Foundation, the leading national nonprofit funder of innovative Lyme disease research. The $100,000 grant that accompanies this award will support research on a potential biomarker for Lyme disease, which may lead to the development of a novel urine test for early Lyme disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)

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Tuesday 9 June 2015

Tick season health warning

Summer is peak season for ticks and the diseases they can spread. Lyme disease is the most well-known tick-borne illness, but it's not the only one to watch out for. Marlie Hall has more on what you need to know. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Lyme disease not the only reason to avoid ticks

Researchers say a newly identified tick-borne disease may be on the rise in the northeastern U.S. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Response to Esteve-Gassent et al.: flaB sequences obtained from Texas PCR products are identical to the positive control strain Borrelia burgdorferi B31

Feria-Arroyo et al. had reported previously that, based on PCR analysis, 45 % of Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Texas and Mexico were infected with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Parasit. Vectors 2014, 7:199). However, our analyses of their initial data (Parasit. Vectors 2014, 7:467) and a recent response by Esteve-Gassent et al. (Parasit. Vectors 2015, 8:129) provide evidence that the positive PCR results obtained from both ribosomal RNA intergenic sequences and the flagellin gene flaB are highly likely due to contamination by the B. burgdorferi B31 positive control strain. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Prevent and manage Lyme disease with antibacterials based on patient characteristics, local causative species and disease manifestations

Abstract The optimal management of Lyme disease involves the use of antibacterials as prophylaxis and to treat manifestations of the disease. Treatment guidelines offer somewhat conflicting recommendations due to the absence of strong and compelling clinical evidence regarding the treatment of this disease. Ultimate treatment decisions should be made by the physician based on clinical judgement and the individual patient’s circumstances. (Source: Drugs and Therapy Perspectives)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

New Tickborne Infection, More Common Than Once Believed, Circulating In Northeastern U.S.

While most of us are concerned about Lyme disease, a tickborne illness circulating during the spring and summertime in the Northeastern U.S, there is another, potentially more serious infection to be aware of as well. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)

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Friday 5 June 2015

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the black‐legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, within southwestern Pennsylvania

ABSTRACT Prevalence studies of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been rare for ticks from southwestern Pennsylvania. We collected 325 Ixodes scapularis ticks between 2011 and 2012 from four counties in southwestern Pennsylvania. We tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using PCR. Of the ticks collected from Pennsylvania, B. burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease) was present in 114/325 (35%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis) was present in 48/325 (15%) as determined by PCR analysis. (Source: Journal of Vector Ecology)


Thursday 4 June 2015

Lyme carditis--diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

CONCLUSION: Lyme carditis is among the rarer manifestations of Lyme borreliosis but must nevertheless be considered prominently in differential diagnosis because of the potentially severe cardiac arrhythmias that it can cause. PMID: 25838022 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Deutsches Arzteblatt International)


Thursday 4 June 2015

Bullying Borrelia: when the culture of science is under attack.

Authors: Auwaerter PG, Melia MT Abstract Although Lyme disease responds to short courses of antibiotics, tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi has been advanced by some as a frequent explanation for medically unexplained symptoms such as continual fatigue, musculoskeletal pains, and subjective neurocognitive dysfunction. Often called "chronic Lyme disease" by adherents of this philosophy, it is loosely defined, and practitioners liberally prescribe nostrums, including prolonged antimicrobial therapies, in a belief that this eradicates suspected infection. Perhaps due to the lack of supportive data, proponents of this theory have developed their own meetings, literature, activist groups, and substantial internet activities to advance their views. Forces motivating this movement are explor...

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Wednesday 3 June 2015

The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in SW Poland.

Authors: Kiewra D, Zaleśny G, Czułowska A Abstract Ticks constitute important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides the Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis, other pathogens such as Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are of increasing public health interest. In Poland, as in other European countries, Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species responsible for the majority of tick bites in humans, is the main vector of A. phagocytophilum. The aim of the study was to estimate the infection level of I. ricinus with A. phagocytophilum in selected districts, not previously surveyed for the presence of this agent. Sampling of questing ticks was performed in 12 forested sites, located in four districts (Legnica, Milicz, Lubań, and Oława)...


Wednesday 3 June 2015

Cross-border surveillance differences: tick-borne encephalitis and lyme borreliosis in the Czech Republic and Poland, 1999-2008.

Authors: Stefanoff P, Orliková H, Príkazský V, Bene C, Rosińska M Abstract We compared neighbouring regions of the Czech Republic (CZ) and Poland (PL) situated within 100 km of the country border, in order to compare surveillance systems performance in measuring the burden of tick-borne diseases in both countries. We used routine surveillance notifications from 1999-2008 on tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB). We assessed the crude risk ratio (RR) across the country border, and its estimates adjusted for both population density and the expected epidemiological gradient across the region, using negative binomial regression. The crude RR between CZ and PL was 7.43 (95% Cl 6.20-8.90) for TBE, and 1.80 (1.76-1.83) for LB. The adjusted RR for TBE increased from 4...


Wednesday 3 June 2015

[Epidemiology of Lyme disease in a healthcare area in north-west Spain].

CONCLUSIONS: Due to the increase of the disease in north-west Spain and the differences observed between the different areas, epidemiological studies are needed that increase the index of diagnostic suspicion and lead to the implementation of effective prevention measures. PMID: 25726250 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Gaceta Sanitaria)


Wednesday 3 June 2015

Recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

CONCLUSION: Targeted antibiotic treatment of Bb-related recent-onset DCM in addition to conventional heart failure therapy is associated with favorable cardiac remodeling and improvement of heart failure symptoms. PMID: 25939436 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Herz)


Wednesday 3 June 2015

Identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi from the NCI compound collection

Authors: Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang & Ying Zhang (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)

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Tuesday 2 June 2015

Your NEJM Group Today: Disseminated Lyme Image, Sumatriptan & Migraine with Aura, Boston Hospitalist Opportunity (FREE)

By the Editors NEJM Group offers so many valuable resources for practicing clinicians. Here's what we chose for you today:NEJM Clinical Practice Center: Check out … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Monday 1 June 2015

My Daughter's Mysterious Illness -- And My Own

For TueNight.com by Allison Czarnecki (Photos: Courtesy Allison Czarnecki. Photos from left to right: Allison and her daughter as a baby, Allison's daughter in the hospital getting tests, Allison's daughter now; Photo collage: Helen Jane Hearn/TueNight.com) Exactly one year ago, my teenage daughter got sick. Really sick. One day, out of the blue, she woke up and couldn't get out of bed. Up to this point, my then 14-year-old daughter had been a wildly healthy, state-championship swimmer who played the cello in an honors orchestra, earned straight As in all her classes. She was heavily involved in leadership positions in our church and in an assortment of other extracurricular activities at school and in the community. She's beautiful, talented, smart, kind, friendly, and if you were to ...


Monday 1 June 2015

Researchers' discovery may explain difficulty in treating Lyme disease

The bac­terium that causes Lyme dis­ease forms dor­mant per­sister cells, which are known to evade antibi­otics, researchers have discovered. This sig­nif­i­cant finding, they said, could help explain why it's so dif­fi­cult to treat the infec­tion in some patients. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 1 June 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co‐infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany

Abstract To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe‐based quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Bor...


Monday 1 June 2015

Efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for acute Lyme neuroborreliosis – a systematic review

ConclusionsEvidence regarding pharmacological treatment of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis is scarce and therefore insufficient to recommend preference of beta‐lactam antibiotics over doxycycline or vice versa. However, due to considerable imprecision, relevant differences between treatments cannot be excluded. No evidence suggesting benefits of extended antibiotic treatments could be identified. Further well‐designed trials are needed. Individual treatment decisions should address patients' preferences and individual conditions like prior allergic reactions. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)


Monday 1 June 2015

Seroprevalence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis in Canada as determined by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Authors: Schvartz G, Epp T, Burgess HJ, Chilton NB, Pearl DL, Lohmann KL Abstract Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are an emerging concern in Canada. We estimated the seroprevalence of EGA and equine LB by testing 376 convenience serum samples from 3 provinces using a point-of-care SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA), and investigated the agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and laboratory-based serologic tests. The estimated seroprevalence for EGA was 0.53% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 0.71% in Manitoba), while the estimated seroprevalence for LB was 1.6% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 2.86% in Manitoba). There was limited agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test for ...

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Saturday 30 May 2015

Association between body size and reservoir competence of mammals bearing Borrelia burgdorferi at an endemic site in the northeastern United States

Conclusions: These empirical findings as well as inferences from modeling suggest that small mammals on the basis of their sizes are more competent as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in this environment than medium-to large-sized mammals. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Disseminated Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 372, Issue 22, Page 2136-2136, May 2015. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) – Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence

Publication date: Available online 27 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): V. Hönig , P. Svec , P. Halas , Z. Vavruskova , H. Tykalova , P. Kilian , V. Vetiskova , V. Dornakova , J. Sterbova , Z. Simonova , J. Erhart , J. Sterba , M. Golovchenko , N. Rudenko , L. Grubhoffer Spatial distribution of Ixodes ricinus tick host-seeking activity, as well as prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were studied in the TBE endemic area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic). High variability in tick abundance detected in a network of 30 study sites was most closely associated with characteristics of vegetation cover. Of 11,182 tested tick samples, 12% carried DNA of spirochete from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex. B. afzelii and B. garin...


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Climate change influences on the annual onset of Lyme disease in the United States

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Andrew J. Monaghan , Sean M. Moore , Kevin M. Sampson , Charles B. Beard , Rebecca J. Eisen Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease occurrence is highly seasonal and the annual springtime onset of cases is modulated by meteorological conditions in preceding months. A meteorological-based empirical model for Lyme disease onset week in the United States is driven with downscaled simulations from five global climate models and four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios to project the impacts of 21st century climate change on the annual onset week of Lyme disease. Projections are made individually and collectively for the 12 eastern States whe...

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Wednesday 27 May 2015

Broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus to Borrelia infection and antigens

Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Vanessa Cook , Alan G. Barbour Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse, is one of the more abundant mammals of North America and is a major reservoir host for at least five tickborne diseases of humans, including Lyme disease and a newly-recognized form of relapsing fever. In comparison to Mus musculus, which is not a natural reservoir for any of these infections, there has been little research on experimental infections in P. leucopus. With the aim of further characterizing the diversity of phenotypes of host responses, we studied a selection of quantitative traits in colony-bred and -reared outbred P. leucopus adults that were uninfected, infected with the relapsing fever agent Borrelia...


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Tick-borne bacteria in Ixodes ricinus collected in southern Norway evaluated by a commercial kit and established real-time PCR protocols

Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): H. Quarsten , T. Skarpaas , L. Fajs , S. Noraas , V. Kjelland Ticks are important vectors of human pathogens. The knowledge of disease causing agents harboured by ticks in Norway is limited. The focus of this study was (a) to detect the bacteria of medical importance in ticks collected from the vegetation at locations in the southern part of the country and (b) to evaluate a novel commercially available multiplex PCR based method by comparing results with conventional established real-time PCR protocols. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was confirmed to be the most prevalent pathogen detected (31%) among one hundred individually analysed adult ticks. Borrelia miyamotoi, a spirochete associated...


Monday 25 May 2015

Development of a Metabolic Biosignature for Detection of Early Lyme Disease

Conclusions. The data provide proof-of-concept that metabolic profiling for early Lyme disease can achieve significantly greater (P < .0001) diagnostic sensitivity than current 2-tier serology, while retaining high specificity. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Monday 25 May 2015

Unorthodox Alternative Therapies Marketed to Treat Lyme Disease

Conclusions. Providers of alternative therapies commonly target patients who believe they have Lyme disease. The efficacy of these unconventional treatments for Lyme disease is not supported by scientific evidence, and in many cases they are potentially harmful. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)

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Friday 22 May 2015

Oligoarthritis Caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

Authors: Markowicz M, Ladstatter S, Schotta AM, Reiter M, Pomberger G, Stanek G Abstract A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions. PMID: 25992945 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 21 May 2015

Delayed Onset of the Jarisch–Herxheimer Reaction in Doxycycline-Treated Disease: A Case Report and Review of its Histopathology and Implications for Pathogenesis

Abstract: The Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction (JHR) is a transient inflammatory syndrome triggered hours after the start of antibiotic treatment of spirochete infections, namely syphilis. Clinically, JHR manifests as an abrupt onset of constitutional symptoms and exacerbation of cutaneous lesions that resolve without intervention. JHR's pathogenesis is unclear and it is histopathologically rarely reported. Herein, the authors report a 47-year-old woman, with solitary erythema migrans and positive Lyme disease serology, who presented for medical care 14 days after commencement of doxycycline therapy. She complained of malaise, facial flushing, gingival erythema, and acquisition of additional plaques characterized by swelling, increased erythema, pruritus, and exfoliative scale. Punch biopsies...


Wednesday 20 May 2015

Changes in antibody reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi three months after a tick bite. A cohort of 1,886 persons.

In conclusion, 5.4% of people with tick bites developed a rise in borrelia-specific antibodies above the 2.5% percentile in either ELISA assay, but only 40 (2.1%) developed clinical Lyme borreliosis. PMID: 25994550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Erythema Migrans

Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common objective manifestation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Systemic symptoms are usually present. Most patients do not recall a preceding tick bite. Despite a characteristic appearance, EM is not pathognomonic for Lyme disease and must be distinguished from other similar appearing skin lesions. EM is a clinical diagnosis; serologic and PCR assays are unnecessary. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are indicative of either an alternative diagnosis, or coinfection with another tick-borne pathogen. When EM is promptly treated with appropriate antimicrobial agents, the prognosis is excellent. Persons in endemic areas should take measures to prevent tick bites. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Nervous System Lyme Disease

Lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis or radiculoneuritis occur in up to 15% of patients with untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Presentations of multifocal PNS involvement can range from painful monoradiculitis to confluent mononeuropathy multiplex. Serologic testing is highly accurate after 4 to 6 weeks of infection. In CNS infection, production of anti-B burgdorferi antibody is often demonstrable in CSF. Oral antimicrobials are microbiologically curative in virtually all patients, including acute European neuroborreliosis. Severe cases may require parenteral treatment. The fatigue and cognitive symptoms seen in some patients with extra-neurological disease are neither evidence of CNS infection nor specific to Lyme disease. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Carditis

Lyme disease is a common disease that uncommonly affects the heart. Because of the rarity of this diagnosis and the frequent absence of other concurrent clinical manifestations of early Lyme disease, consideration of Lyme carditis demands a high level of suspicion when patients in endemic areas come to attention with cardiovascular symptoms and evidence of higher-order heart block. A majority of cases manifest as atrioventricular block. A minority of Lyme carditis cases are associated with myopericarditis. Like other manifestations of Lyme disease, carditis can readily be managed with antibiotic therapy and supportive care measures, such that affected patients almost always completely recover. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Arthritis

This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of Lyme arthritis. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

The majority of laboratory tests performed for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are based on detection of the antibody responses against B burgdorferi in serum. The sensitivity of antibody-based tests increases with the duration of the infection. Patients early in their illness are more likely to have a negative result. There is a need to simplify the testing algorithm for Lyme disease, improving sensitivity in early disease while still maintaining high specificity and providing information about the stage of infection. The development of a point of care assay and biomarkers for active infection would be major advances for the field. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Chronic Lyme Disease

Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, a deer tick–transmitted rickettsial infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a common cause of undifferentiated fever in the northeast and upper Midwest United States. Patients are often initially diagnosed with a mild viral infection, and illness readily resolves in most cases. However, as many as 3% develop life-threatening complications and nearly 1% die from the infection. Although coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti occur, there is little evidence to suggest synergism of disease or a role for A phagocytophilum in chronic illness. No vaccine is available. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is transmitted to humans by certain species of Ixodes ticks, which are found widely in temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Clinical features are diverse, but death is rare. The risk of human infection is determined by the geographic distribution of vector tick species, ecologic factors that influence tick infection rates, and human behaviors that promote tick bite. Rates of infection are highest among children 5 to 15 years old and adults older than 50 years. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease in Children

The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children. (Source: Infe...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

The prognosis following appropriate antibiotic treatment of early or late Lyme disease is favorable but can be complicated by persistent symptoms of unknown cause termed posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), characterized by fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints that persist for 6 months or longer after completion of antibiotic therapy. Risk factors include delayed diagnosis, increased severity of symptoms, and presence of neurologic symptoms at time of initial treatment. Two-tier serologic testing is neither sensitive nor specific for diagnosis of PTLDS because of variability in convalescent serologic responses after treatment of early Lyme disease. Optimal treatment of PTLDS awaits more precise understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in this il...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease: Knowing Good Evidence to Help Inform Practice

Depending on the clinical situation and presence or absence of preconceived notions, evaluations for Lyme disease can range from efficient visits solved with a short course of antibiotic therapy to involved encounters that include a review of long-standing, nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue and pain that are less likely to represent an active infection. While the majority of patients with authentic Lyme disease improve with treatment, some have a slower resolution of symptoms and still others appear to have problems persisting beyond 6 months, which is called posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease and Other Infections Transmitted by

INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease Advances and Challenges

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Adriana R. MarquesTeaser The majority of laboratory tests performed for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are based on detection of the antibody responses against B burgdorferi in serum. The sensitivity of antibody-based tests increases with the duration of the infection. Patients early in their illness are more likely to have a negative result. There is a need to simplify the testing algorithm for Lyme disease, improving sensitivity in early disease while still maintaining high specificity and providing information about the stage of infection. The development of a point of care assay and biomarkers for active infection would be major advances for the field. (Source: Infectious Dise...

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Cerebrovascular Events in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Cerebrovascular events in neuroborreliosis are a rare condition described only in isolated or small case series. No specific clinical or radiological features have been identified, and diagnosis is based on very different criteria. (Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Chronic Lyme Disease

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul M. LantosTeaser Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm. (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Erythema Migrans

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Robert B. NadelmanTeaser Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common objective manifestation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Systemic symptoms are usually present. Most patients do not recall a preceding tick bite. Despite a characteristic appearance, EM is not pathognomonic for Lyme disease and must be distinguished from other similar appearing skin lesions. EM is a clinical diagnosis; serologic and PCR assays are unnecessary. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are indicative of either an alternative diagnosis, or coinfection with another tick-borne pathogen. When EM is promptly treated with appropriate antimicrobial agents, the prognosis is excellent. Persons in endemic areas shou...

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Arthritis

This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of Lyme arthritis. (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Carditis

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Matthew L. Robinson , Takaaki Kobayashi , Yvonne Higgins , Hugh Calkins , Michael T. MeliaTeaser Lyme disease is a common disease that uncommonly affects the heart. Because of the rarity of this diagnosis and the frequent absence of other concurrent clinical manifestations of early Lyme disease, consideration of Lyme carditis demands a high level of suspicion when patients in endemic areas come to attention with cardiovascular symptoms and evidence of higher-order heart block. A majority of cases manifest as atrioventricular block. A minority of Lyme carditis cases are associated with myopericarditis. Like other manifestations of Lyme disease, carditis can readily be managed with...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease and Other Infections Transmitted by Ixodes scapularis

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul G. Auwaerter (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease in Children

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Sunil K. SoodTeaser The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and f...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease: Knowing Good Evidence to Help Inform Practice

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul G. Auwaerter (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): John N. AucottTeaser The prognosis following appropriate antibiotic treatment of early or late Lyme disease is favorable but can be complicated by persistent symptoms of unknown cause termed posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), characterized by fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints that persist for 6 months or longer after completion of antibiotic therapy. Risk factors include delayed diagnosis, increased severity of symptoms, and presence of neurologic symptoms at time of initial treatment. Two-tier serologic testing is neither sensitive nor specific for diagnosis of PTLDS because of variability in convalescent serologic responses after treatment of ea...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul S. MeadTeaser Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is transmitted to humans by certain species of Ixodes ticks, which are found widely in temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Clinical features are diverse, but death is rare. The risk of human infection is determined by the geographic distribution of vector tick species, ecologic factors that influence tick infection rates, and human behaviors that promote tick bite. Rates of infection are highest among children 5 to 15 years old and adults older than 50 years. (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Johan S. Bakken , J. Stephen DumlerTeaser Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, a deer tick–transmitted rickettsial infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a common cause of undifferentiated fever in the northeast and upper Midwest United States. Patients are often initially diagnosed with a mild viral infection, and illness readily resolves in most cases. However, as many as 3% develop life-threatening complications and nearly 1% die from the infection. Although coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti occur, there is little evidence to suggest synergism of disease or a role for A phagocytophilum in chronic illness. No vaccine is available. (Source: Infe...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Nervous System Lyme Disease

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): John J. HalperinTeaser Lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis or radiculoneuritis occur in up to 15% of patients with untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Presentations of multifocal PNS involvement can range from painful monoradiculitis to confluent mononeuropathy multiplex. Serologic testing is highly accurate after 4 to 6 weeks of infection. In CNS infection, production of anti-B burgdorferi antibody is often demonstrable in CSF. Oral antimicrobials are microbiologically curative in virtually all patients, including acute European neuroborreliosis. Severe cases may require parenteral treatment. The fatigue and cognitive symptoms seen in some patients with extra-neurolog...


Monday 18 May 2015

[Correspondence] Infectious causes of stroke

We read with great interest the excellent Review by Jennifer Fugate and colleagues1 about the infectious causes of stroke. Their Review is useful for daily practice, since physicians often focus excessively on autoimmune causes of central nervous system vasculitis causing stroke, while forgetting about infectious causes. However, we think that apart from neurosyphilis, which is mentioned in great detail, an additional comment on stroke caused by another spirochetal disease, Lyme neuroborreliosis, is needed. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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Friday 15 May 2015

The chemokine CXCL13 is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurosyphilis

Background: The chemokine CXCL13 has been discussed as a diagnostic parameter with high specificity for Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and as a marker of disease activity. Neurosyphilis and LNB share similar characteristics. We investigated retrospectively CXCL13 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurosyphilis at initial diagnosis and during treatment. Results: Five patients with neurosyphilis were identified retrospectively using an electronic database in a tertiary care hospital from 2005 to 2012. CXCL13 levels were measured using an ELISA. Five patients with definite LNB and 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) served as controls. Median CXCL13 levels at baseline were 972 pg/mL for neurosyphilis patients, 8,000 pg/mL for LNB patients, and 7.8 pg/mL ...


Friday 15 May 2015

Tick sialostatins L and L2 differentially influence dendritic cell responses to Borrelia spirochetes

Conclusions: This study shows that DC responses to Borrelia spirochetes are affected by tick cystatins. Sialo L influences the maturation of DC thus having impact on adaptive immune response. Sialo L2 affects the production of chemokines potentially engaged in the development of inflammatory response. The impact of cystatins on Borrelia growth in vivo is discussed. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 14 May 2015

Chronic Lyme disease

Halperin JJ (Source: Infection and Drug Resistance)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

First U.S. Center to Study Lyme Disease Launched at Johns Hopkins Medicine - 5/13/15

Fundamental research into the causes and cures of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome now has its first home base at a major U.S. medical research center with the launch of the Johns Hopkins Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center. (Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine News)

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Wednesday 13 May 2015

Space agency targets 'tick disease'

The European Space Agency gives financial backing to a Scottish project to use an app to map tick hotspots and tackle Lyme disease. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

TICKED (Calendula Officinalis, Phytolacca Decandra, Borrelia Burgdorferi, Adrenalinum, Ledum Palustre, Aconitum Napellus, Arnica Montana,) Liquid [Apotheca Company]

Updated Date: May 13, 2015 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Wednesday 13 May 2015

Mayo Clinic News Network Headline 5/13/15

In today's Mayo Clinic News Network Headline with Vivien Williams: Ticks: These disease-carrying parasites are responsible for more than 30,000 cases of Lyme disease each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mayo Clinic parasitologist Dr. Bobbi Pritt offers tips on how to prevent tick bites and what to do in case one embeds into [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Ixodes ricinus Haemocytome

Conclusions/significance This is the first systems biology approach to describe the genes expressed in the haemocytes of this neglected disease vector. A total of 2,860 coding sequences were deposited to GenBank, increasing to 27,547 the number so far deposited by our previous transcriptome studies that serves as a discovery platform for studies with I. ricinus biochemistry and physiology. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

Cross-reactive epitopes in Borrelia burgdorferi p66.

Authors: Arnaboldi PM, Dattwyler RJ Abstract Epitope mapping of the p66 outer membrane protein of Borrelia burgdorferi revealed that the protein contains numerous cross-reactive linear epitopes recognized by serum antibody in the majority of individuals tested, regardless of Lyme disease history, limiting the usefulness of this antigen in Lyme disease serodiagnostic assays. PMID: 25972406 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)

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Wednesday 13 May 2015

Vaccination with ospA-/ospB- Borrelia burgdorferi Strain 50772 Provides Significant Protection against Canine Lyme Disease.

Authors: Callister SM, LaFleur RL, Dant JC, Wasmoen TL, Jobe DA, Lovrich SD Abstract Beagles received placebo or ospA(-)/ospB(-) B. burgdorferi before tick-challenge. Twenty-eight (41%) ticks and skin from control dogs (n = 10) contained B. burgdorferi. In contrast, 12 (19%) ticks from 10 vaccine-recipients were infected (P = 0.0077) and 5 dogs yielded spirochetes from skin (P = 0.0325). In addition, 9 (90%) or 5 (50%) vaccine or placebo-recipients developed joint abnormalities, respectively (P = 0.0573). Therefore, vaccination with the ospA(-)/ospB(-) spirochete provided significant protection against Lyme disease. PMID: 25972405 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)


Tuesday 12 May 2015

Molecular Dissection of a Borrelia burgdorferi In Vivo Essential Purine Transport System [Molecular Pathogenesis]

The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is dependent on purine salvage from the host environment for survival. The genes bbb22 and bbb23 encode purine permeases that are essential for B. burgdorferi mouse infectivity. We now demonstrate the unique contributions of each of these genes to purine transport and murine infection. The affinities of spirochetes carrying bbb22 alone for hypoxanthine and adenine were similar to those of spirochetes carrying both genes. Spirochetes carrying bbb22 alone were able to achieve wild-type levels of adenine saturation but not hypoxanthine saturation, suggesting that maximal hypoxanthine uptake requires the presence of bbb23. Moreover, the purine transport activity conferred by bbb22 was dependent on an additional distal transcriptional start site ...


Monday 11 May 2015

Long-term study on ticks reveals shifting migration patterns, disease risks

Over nearly 15 years spent studying ticks, a new study has found southern Indiana to be an oasis free from Lyme disease, the condition most associated with ticks -- the second most common parasitic disease vector on Earth. This low-risk environment is changing, however, both in Indiana and in other regions of the U.S., the study suggests. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 11 May 2015

Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection - Case study.

Authors: Passamonti F, Veronesi F, Cappelli K, Capomaccio S, Reginato A, Miglio A, Vardi DM, Stefanetti V, Coletti M, Bazzica C, Pepe M Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectio...

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Monday 11 May 2015

Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the serological distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China. PMID: 26094509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Saturday 9 May 2015

Toxic Turf? Movement Grows Against Synthetic Turf

The following story was reported by the New England Center for Investigative Reporting, an independent, nonprofit news center based at Boston University and WGBH News, and published here in collaboration with The Huffington Post. NECIR trains the next generation of journalists in investigative reporting with summer high school workshops in Boston. Click here to learn more and apply today. Artificial turf fields, cushioned with recycled crushed tires and increasingly in demand for US athletic complexes, are getting some serious pushback. In Swampscott last week, town meeting members approved plans to install a new synthetic field with silica sand, a more expensive product touted as a nontoxic alternative to the small rubber pellets known as crumb rubber ubiquitous on thousands of syntheti...


Friday 8 May 2015

Babesia spp. and other pathogens in ticks recovered from domestic dogs in Denmark

Conclusions: Our data are in support of endemic occurrence of potentially zoonotic Babesia in Denmark and confirms I. ricinus as a vector of multiple pathogens of public health concern. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 4 May 2015

Global Warming May Spread Lyme Disease

Scientists tackle the difficult problem of how climate change aids the spread of the tick-borne disease -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Sunday 3 May 2015

Warmer Weather Increases Risk for Lyme Disease, Cautions Best Friends Animal Hospital

(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))

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Saturday 2 May 2015

A serological survey on Borrelia burgdorferi infection among companion dogs in Ahvaz district, southwestern Iran

Abstract Canine Lyme borreliosis is one of the most common tick-transmitted diseases in the world. The infection is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia burgdorferi. The principal vectors are various species of slow-feeding hard ticks of the Ixodes complex. Dogs are the most infected animals among the pets. The status of infection due to Borrelia in dogs remains unknown in many areas of Iran. Few studies have been reported on the distribution of this disease in the Iran dog’s population, so the aim of this survey was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Borrelia infection in companion dogs in Ahvaz district (southwestern Iran), from October 2011 to August 2013. In the present survey, a total of 168 companion dogs with different ages were examined for serum antibod...


Friday 1 May 2015

New-onset panic, depression with suicidal thoughts, and somatic symptoms in a patient with a history of lyme disease.

We present a case of a 37-year-old man with no known psychiatric history who developed panic attacks, severe depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, and neuromuscular complaints including back spasms, joint pain, myalgias, and neuropathic pain. These symptoms began 2 years after being successfully treated for a positive Lyme test after receiving a tick bite. During inpatient psychiatric hospitalization his psychiatric and physical symptoms did not improve with antidepressant and anxiolytic treatments. The patient's panic attacks resolved after he was discharged and then, months later, treated with long-term antibiotics for suspected "chronic Lyme Disease" (CLD) despite having negative Lyme titers. He however continued to have subsyndromal depressive symptoms and chronic physical symptom...


Friday 1 May 2015

Announcements: Lyme Disease Awareness Month — May 2015

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)


Friday 1 May 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection pressure shapes innate immune gene evolution in natural rodent populations across Europe.

Authors: Tschirren B Abstract Although parasite-mediated selection is assumed to be the main driver of immune gene evolution, empirical evidence that parasites induce allele frequency changes at host immune genes in time and/or space remains scarce. Here, I show that the frequency of a protective gene variant of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 in natural bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations is positively associated with the strength of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection risk across the European continent. Thereby, this study provides rare evidence for the role of spatially variable infection pressures in moulding the vertebrate immune system. PMID: 26018834 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biology Letters)


Wednesday 29 April 2015

Lyme neuroborreliosis in a patient treated with TNF-alpha inhibitor

Abstract A 57-year-old woman, receiving TNF-alpha inhibitor adalimumab for psoriasis, presented with early Lyme neuroborreliosis (Bannwarth’s syndrome). Discontinuation of adalimumab and 14-day therapy with ceftriaxone resulted in a smooth course and favorable outcome of Lyme borreliosis. This is the first report on Lyme neuroborreliosis in a patient treated with TNF-alpha inhibitor. (Source: Infection)

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Tuesday 28 April 2015

Hypercholesterolemia in Borrelia infection [Microbiology]

The Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and relapsing-fever (Borrelia hispanica) agents have distinct infection courses, but both require cholesterol for growth. They acquire cholesterol from the environment and process it to form cholesterol glycolipids that are incorporated onto their membranes. To determine whether higher levels of serum cholesterol could enhance the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Tuesday 28 April 2015

Lyme disease bacterium does not affect attraction to rodent odour in the tick vector

Conclusion: Our study suggests that the tick, and not the pathogen, controls the early stages of host choice behaviour. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 27 April 2015

Time to move Lyme Disease Awareness Month to April?

(Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies) The month of May brings many things, among them Mother's Day, tulips, and Lyme Disease Awareness campaigns. But according to Dr. Richard S. Ostfeld, a disease ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, N.Y., if we want to get a leg up on tick-borne illness we need to become vigilant earlier in the season. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Monday 27 April 2015

Interaction of spirochetes with the host fibrinolytic system and potential roles in pathogenesis.

Authors: Vieira ML, Nascimento AL Abstract The pathogenic spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, B. hermsii, B. recurrentis, Treponema denticola and Leptospira spp. are the etiologic agents of Lyme disease, relapsing fever, periodontitis and leptospirosis, respectively. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-systemic disorder and the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Tick-borne relapsing fever is persistent in endemic areas worldwide, representing a significant burden in some African regions. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that often leads to tooth loss, is caused by several potential pathogens found in the oral cavity including T. denticola. Leptospirosis is considered the most widespread zoonosis, and the predominant human disease in tropical, un...


Thursday 23 April 2015

The Lyme law.

Authors: Zubek E PMID: 25897168 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal)

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Thursday 23 April 2015

Big Tick Project to track rising threat of Lyme disease

Vets across the UK are set to take part in the Big Tick Project, the largest nationwide collection of ticks from dogs in a bid to help scientists, led by Professor Richard Wall at the University of Bristol, track what is feared to be a growing threat to people and their dogs from tick-borne zoonotic diseases such as Lyme disease (Borrelia). (Source: University of Bristol news)


Thursday 23 April 2015

Dog owners unaware their pets can transmit Lyme disease to them say vets

Vets are urging pet owners to check their animals for the pests, as a poll found half did not realise ticks can transmit deadly diseases to humans. The move is part of The Big Tick Project. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Wednesday 22 April 2015

Popliteal Cyst With Positive Antinuclear Antibodies as the Presentation of Lyme Disease

No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Saturday 18 April 2015

New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia

Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Bersissa Kumsa , Cristina Socolovschi , Didier Raoult , Philippe Parola Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. var...


Saturday 18 April 2015

Vector potential and population dynamics for Amblyomma inornatum

Publication date: Available online 14 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Jennifer S. Medlin , James I. Cohen , David L. Beck We studied the natural life cycle of Amblyomma inornatum and its vector potential in South Texas. This tick is distributed throughout South Texas and most of Central America. A. inornatum represented 1.91% of the ticks collected by carbon dioxide traps during a study of free-living ticks in the Tamaulipan Biotic Province in South Texas. The life cycle of A. inornatum in South Texas showed a clear seasonal pattern consistent with one generation per year. Nymphs emerged in the spring with a peak in February through May. Adults emerged in the summer with a peak in July through September. Detection of A. inornatum larvae was negatively correlate...

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Saturday 18 April 2015

U.S. public's experience with ticks and tick-borne diseases: Results from national HealthStyles surveys

The objective of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the U.S. public's experience with TBDs using data from annual, nationally representative HealthStyles surveys. There were 4728 respondents in 2009, 4050 in 2011, and 3503 in 2012. Twenty-one percent of respondents reported that a household member found a tick on his or her body during the previous year; of these, 10.1% reported consultation with a health care provider as a result. Overall, 63.7% of respondents reported that Lyme disease (LD) occurs in the area where they live, including 49.4% of respondents from the West South Central and 51.1% from the Mountain regions where LD does not occur. Conversely, in the New England and Mid-Atlantic regions where LD, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis are common, 13.9% and 20.8% of...


Saturday 18 April 2015

Comparative genetic diversity of Lyme disease bacteria in Northern Californian ticks and their vertebrate hosts

Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Andrea Swei , Verna C. Bowie , Rauri C.K. Bowie Vector-borne pathogens are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors, two immensely different environments for the pathogen. There is further differentiation among vertebrate hosts that often have complex, species-specific immunological responses to the pathogen. All this presents a heterogeneous environmental and immunological landscape with possible consequences on the population genetic structure of the pathogen. We evaluated the differential genetic diversity of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi, in its vector, the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and in its mammal host community using the 5S–23S ...


Thursday 16 April 2015

Harsh Northeast Winter No Hindrance To Hungry Ticks

http://media.boston.cbslocal.com/CBSBOS_1604201522190500000AA.mp4 ALBANY, N.Y. (AP) — Think you’re safe from ticks because the harsh winter froze them or because you haven’t been trekking through the woods? Think again. Researchers focused on ticks and the debilitating diseases they spread say the heavy snow that blanketed the Northeast this winter was like a cozy quilt for baby blacklegged ticks that are now questing for blood as the weather warms up. And a researcher at New York’s Binghamton University said Lyme disease-infected ticks aren’t just in forests and fields. “We’re finding plenty of infected ticks in built environments, places like city parks, playgrounds, work campuses, college campuses,” said Ralph Garruto, head of the sc...


Thursday 16 April 2015

Increasing evidence points to inflammation as source of nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease

(Elsevier Health Sciences) About 15 percent of patients with Lyme disease develop peripheral and central nervous system involvement, often accompanied by debilitating and painful symptoms. New research indicates that inflammation plays a causal role in the array of neurologic changes associated with Lyme disease, according to a study published in the American Journal of Pathology. The investigators at the Tulane National Primate Research Center and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center also showed that the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prevents many of these reactions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 16 April 2015

Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete.

Authors: Wagemakers A, Staarink PJ, Sprong H, Hovius JW Abstract Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete that has only recently been identified as a human pathogen. Borrelia miyamotoi is genetically and ecologically distinct from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, while both are present in Ixodes ticks. Over 50 patients with an acute febrile illness have been described with a B. miyamotoi infection, and two infected immunocompromised patients developed a meningoencephalitis. Seroprevalence studies indicate exposure in the general population and in specific risk groups, such as patients initially suspected of having human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here, we review the available literature on B. miyamotoi, describing its presence in ticks, reservoir hosts, and humans, and di...


Thursday 16 April 2015

Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, affects both peripheral and central nervous systems. We assessed a causal role for inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis by evaluating the induced inflammatory changes in the central nervous system, spinal nerves, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rhesus macaques that were inoculated intrathecally with live B. burgdorferi and either treated with dexamethasone or meloxicam (anti-inflammatory drugs) or left untreated. (Source: American Journal of Pathology)

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Thursday 16 April 2015

Lyme disease presenting as multiple ischaemic strokes.

Authors: Li S, Vytopil M, Hreib K, Craven DE Abstract A 46-year-old man presented with recurrent left hemiparesis and headache. MRI of brain showed an acute right pontine and subacute right thalamic infarcts and MR angiogram showed multiple intracranial arterial stenoses, suggesting cerebral vasculopathy. There was a cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytic pleocytosis with Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. Central nervous system Lyme disease occasionally presents with ischaemic strokes; this case is unusual in showing vasculopathy on brain imaging, supporting meningovasculitis as the likely mechanism. PMID: 25882056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Practical Neurology)


Thursday 16 April 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi Not Confirmed in Human-Biting Amblyomma americanum Ticks from the Southeastern United States [Bacteriology]

The predominant human-biting tick throughout the southeastern United States is Amblyomma americanum. Its ability to transmit pathogens causing Lyme disease-like illnesses is a subject of ongoing controversy. Results of previous testing by the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program and other laboratories indicated that it is highly unlikely that A. americanum transmits any pathogen that causes Lyme disease. In contrast, a recent publication by Clark and colleagues (K. L. Clark, B. Leydet, and S. Hartman, Int. J. Med. Sci. 10:915–931, 2013) reported detection of Lyme group Borrelia in A. americanum using a nested-flagellin-gene PCR. We evaluated this assay by using it and other assays to test 1,097 A. americanum ticks collected from humans. Using the Clark assay, in most sam...




Wednesday 15 April 2015

Anti-neural antibody response in patients with post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms versus those with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

Publication date: Available online 10 April 2015 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Mary Ajamian , Michael Cooperstock , Gary P. Wormser , Suzanne D. Vernon , Armin Alaedini (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)


Wednesday 15 April 2015

Motor Rotation Is Essential for the Formation of the Periplasmic Flagellar Ribbon, Cellular Morphology, and Borrelia burgdorferi Persistence within Ixodes scapularis Tick and Murine Hosts [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Borrelia burgdorferi must migrate within and between its arthropod and mammalian hosts in order to complete its natural enzootic cycle. During tick feeding, the spirochete transmits from the tick to the host dermis, eventually colonizing and persisting within multiple, distant tissues. This dissemination modality suggests that flagellar motor rotation and, by extension, motility are crucial for infection. We recently reported that a nonmotile flaB mutant that lacks periplasmic flagella is rod shaped and unable to infect mice by needle or tick bite. However, those studies could not differentiate whether motor rotation or merely the possession of the periplasmic flagella was crucial for cellular morphology and host persistence. Here, we constructed and characterized a motB mutant that is non...


Monday 13 April 2015

Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Lyme Neuroborreliosis.

Authors: Ramesh G, Didier PJ, England JD, Santana-Gould L, Doyle-Meyers LA, Martin DS, Jacobs MB, Philipp MT Abstract Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, affects both peripheral and central nervous systems. We assessed a causal role for inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis by evaluating the induced inflammatory changes in the central nervous system, spinal nerves, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rhesus macaques that were inoculated intrathecally with live B. burgdorferi and either treated with dexamethasone or meloxicam (anti-inflammatory drugs) or left untreated. ELISA of cerebrospinal fluid showed significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, chemokine ligand 2, and CXCL13 and pleocytosis in all infected animals, except dexamethason...


Monday 13 April 2015

First record of autochthonous canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis in Romania

This report supports the geographical expansion of canine ehrlichiosis caused by E canis in nonendemic regions of Europe. (Source: Veterinary Clinical Pathology)


Monday 13 April 2015

Lyme neuroborreliosis: a treatable cause of acute ocular motor disturbances in children.

CONCLUSIONS: LNB can present as acute ocular motor disorders in conjunction with fatigue and other clinical manifestations. In endemic areas, children with unexplained, acquired ocular motor abnormalities should be evaluated for LNB, a treatable medical condition. PMID: 25868792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology)

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Monday 13 April 2015

Monday's Housecall

THIS WEEK'S TOP STORIES Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition Going vegetarian means excluding certain foods. But you can still get the nutrients you need from other sources. Use this helpful guide. Lyme disease Grassy and heavily wooded areas can be home to ticks, which can carry Lyme disease. Get tips on prevention [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Friday 10 April 2015

Doctors warn about tick-borne Powassan virus

It's not as well known as Lyme disease, but the Powassan virus is also spread by ticks, and experts say it can be even more severe. WCBS's Tracee Carrasco reports. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Friday 10 April 2015

Painful blister‐free HSV‐type 1 reactivation on the site of acute Lyme borreliosis

(Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology)


Thursday 9 April 2015

Anti-Neural Antibody Response in Patients with Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Symptoms versus Those with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Authors: Ajamian M, Cooperstock M, Wormser GP, Vernon SD, Alaedini A PMID: 25866194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Clinical, Laboratory Findings and Complications of Scrub Typhus- Meningoencephalitis: Case Series (P6.311)

CONCLUSION: Scrub typhus is often underdiagnosed in India due to non-specific clinical features and lack of diagnostic facilities. Meningoencephalitis with altered LFT should raise suspicion for scrub typhus especially after ruling out TBM. Eschar may give a clue to diagnosis but it is present in only 20-30[percnt] and usually goes unnoticed in dark skinned people. It can mimic TB meningitis and starting ATT can worsen liver function. Early diagnosis and treatment with tetracycline is necessary to prevent life threatening complications.Disclosure: Dr. Eswaradass has nothing to disclose. Dr. Eswaradass has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Risk Factors and Final Diagnoses of Patients first diagnosed as Infectious Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A single-center study (I4-3B)

CONCLUSIONS: A large minority [17[percnt]] of patients was ultimately diagnosed with other conditions than ADEM, which may change longterm prognoses for patients. Vaccination prior to ADEM diagnosis is rare.Disclosure: Dr. Koelman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Chitnis has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec and Alexion. Dr. Chitnis has received research support from Merck Serono and Novartis. Dr. Mateen has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

Serum and CSF Cytokines in Patients with Active CNS Lyme Disease, other Inflammatory CNS Diseases, Encephalopathy Following Treated Lyme Disease, other Encephalopathies, and Normal Controls (S37.007)

Conclusions: Patients with neurobehavioral symptoms following treatment for Lyme disease do not show any evidence of nervous system infection or inflammation. Elevations in serum IL-7 and IL-17 in these patients may reflect T-cell dysregulation. Interestingly, such elevations were seen in symptomatic patients regardless of prior Lyme disease exposure. These results warrant further investigation, as IL-7 may represent a useful biomarker, and could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.Disclosure: Dr. Halperin has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for The Neurologist. Dr. Halperin holds stock and/or stock options in Abbott Labs, Bristol Myers Squib, Johnson & Johnson. Dr. Pacheco-Quinto has nothing to disclose. Dr. Herdt has nothing to disclose. Dr...


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Risk Factors and Final Diagnoses of Patients first diagnosed as Infectious Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A single-center study (P1.106)

CONCLUSIONS: A large minority [17[percnt]] of patients was ultimately diagnosed with other conditions than ADEM, which may change longterm prognoses for patients. Vaccination prior to ADEM diagnosis is rare.Disclosure: Dr. Koelman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Chitnis has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec and Alexion. Dr. Chitnis has received research support from Merck Serono and Novartis. Dr. Mateen has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Neuropathic Pain Treatments and Quality of Life Results in Leprosy Patients (P6.313)

CONCLUSION: This study highlights the superiority of Group 1 compared to Group 2 when analyzing the results. Although Group 1 was statistically superior to Group 2, the Limitations by Emotional Aspects criteria showed no statistical difference in both. One might speculate as hypothesis for this finding, aspects that go beyond pharmacotherapy, such as the impact of stigma related to the presence of cutaneous manifestations.Disclosure: Dr. Dornas has nothing to disclose. Dr. Nascimento has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pupe has nothing to disclose. Dr. Araujo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Davidovich has nothing to disclose. Dr. Vianna has nothing to disclose. Dr. Coutinho has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bittar has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Increased intracranial pressure as a presentation of Lyme disease in children: A case series. (P1.310)

Conclusion: The presence of fever, rash, cranial nerve enhancement on MRI, and lymphocytosis on CSF analysis is helpful in distinguishing between idiopathic PTC and PTC secondary to Lyme. Absence of rash does not exclude Lyme and remains a diagnostic consideration in Lyme endemic areas. Disclosure: Dr. Obeid has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ramgopal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Cleves has nothing to disclose. Dr. Nowak has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Utility of Broad-Range PCR Testing in Suspected CNS Infections (P6.317)

CONCLUSIONS: In our series the most common reason for a positive broad-range PCR result was contamination. Unlike endocarditis, in suspected CNS infections broad-range PCR was not useful, probably because the etiologies are often viruses (which are not amenable to broad-range PCR) or non-infectious. CSF might not be the ideal specimen for intra parenchymal processes. Further research is needed to identify which syndromes and specimen source would be ideal for broad-range PCR in CNS infection.Disclosure: Dr. Koffman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bernatowicz has nothing to disclose. Dr. Shrestha has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bhimraj has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

Severe ascending muscle spasms associated with diffuse perineural Tarlov cysts. (P3.316)

CONCLUSION: Diffuse Tarlov cysts may cause episodic severe widespread, ascending muscle spasms.Disclosure: Dr. Safarpour has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mulukutla has nothing to disclose. Dr. Khokhar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Jabbari has received research support from Allergan Inc., Merz Pharma, and Ipsen. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Borrelia Hispanica: an Emerging Infectious Agent Causing Neuroborreliosis (P6.310)

CONCLUSIONS: BH infection uses as a vector the tick Ornithodoros erraticus and its clinical expression is relapsing fever. BH is located mainly in Morocco and recently its genome has been sequenced. After an extensive review of the literature (Pubmed) we did not find any cases of CNS involvement by BH. The case presented above was characterized by the virulent CNS involvement by BH, the neuroimaging findings and therapeutic management, which may help to identify similar cases. If new cases confirmed the settlement of this zoonosis in Spain, an epidemiological study and control in mammals would be required.Disclosure: Dr. cerdan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sánchez Martínez has nothing to disclose. Dr. Palazon Cabanes has nothing to disclose. Dr. Carreon Guarnizo has nothing t...


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with Laboratory Abnormalities of Unknown Significance (LAUS) --Where Does It Begin and Where Does It End? (P4.144)

CONCLUSIONS: Further detailed analysis of progression rate by site of onset, sex, age, treatment will require assimilation of clinic-based datasets of properly analyzed ALS-LAUS patients from multiple clinic sites. The appropriate role of IVIg in ALS-LAUS patients requires further study following explication of the natural history of these patients compared with non-ALS-LAUS patients. The determination as to whether auto-antibodies to additional antigens may play a role in the progression rate of ALS-LAUS compared with sporadic ALS needs to be systematically studied. Study Supported by: Carolinas ALS Research FundDisclosure: Dr. Brooks has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec, Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Acorda Therapeutics, Cytokinetics, Synapse, and the National Ins...


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Subarachnoid hemorrhage: a rare complication of pyogenic bacterial meningitis (P6.312)

Conclusion: SAH in meningitis could be explained by vasculitis or undetected ruptured mycotic aneurysm induced by acute inflammation from meningitis. In conclusion, with supportive clinical features, we should consider meningitis as a differential diagnosis in patient with non-traumatic and non-aneurysmal SAH as these two conditions have totally different treatment.Disclosure: Dr. Julayanont has nothing to disclose. Dr. Wang has nothing to disclose. Dr. Laengvejkal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Tantikittichaikul has nothing to disclose. Dr. DeToledo has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

Successful Treatment of Eastern Equine Encephalitis with Early, Empiric Initiation of Intravenous Immunoglobulin: A Case Report (P6.306)

CONCLUSIONS: We report the successful treatment of suspected EEE with early, empiric use of IVIG. Given the significant mortality and morbidity associated with untreated EEE, early use of IVIG prior to serologic diagnosis may be beneficial when clinical suspicion is high.Disclosure: Dr. Erkkinen has nothing to disclose. Dr. Srikanth has nothing to disclose. Dr. Lyons has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Current Infectious Disease Reports. Dr. Vaitkevicius has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

First Reported Case of a Brain Abscess with Ustekinumab for Psoriatic Arthritis (P6.314)

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of a patient taking Ustekinumab that developed a brain abscess after a dental procedure. Considering the high prevalence of patients that are treated with immune-modulating medications for various medical conditions, and the higher risk of infections that they entail, it may be beneficial to recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for such patients when undergoing dental and minor surgical procedures.Disclosure: Dr. Rahman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Thomas has nothing to disclose. Dr. Rahman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Javed has nothing to disclose. Dr. Jovan has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

An unusual presentation of Neuro Lyme (P6.308)

CONCLUSIONS: Neuro-Lyme should be suspected with unexplained neurological symptoms and signs in endemic areas.Disclosure: Dr. Tom has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mohamed has nothing to disclose. Dr. Holloway has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

A unique case of leptomeningitis associated with rheumatoid-like arthritis and naegleria fowleri. (P6.316)

Conclusions NF in brain tissue coincided with new onset rheumatoid arthritis and leptomeningitis. These findings have not been previously documented.Disclosure: Dr. Rodriguez Alvarez has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mirchandani has nothing to disclose. Dr. Khan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Medin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Seidman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Madison-Antenucci has nothing to disclose. Dr. Espina has nothing to disclose. Dr. Teal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mergen has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Treatment of North American Lyme Neuroborrelliosis with Oral Doxycycline and Intravenous Ceftriaxone: A comparative case series. (P6.309)

CONCLUSIONS: Oral Doxycycline may be a comparable alternative to treating North American Lyme Neuroborrellosls. Further systematic studies are needed.Disclosure: Dr. Alario has nothing to disclose. Dr. Baldwin has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Neuroborreliosis Parkinsonism and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder (P7.292)

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case report to our knowledge of a patient developing RBD in addition to post-infectious parkinsonism due to neurodegeneration of the midbrain and basal ganglia from neuroborreliosis.Disclosure: Dr. Werbaneth has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zuzuarregui has nothing to disclose. Dr. Hohler has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Fulminant necrotizing encephalitis associated with malignant cerebral edema and transtentorial herniation in the setting of acute seasonal influenza pneumonia. (P6.315)

We describe the most severe neurological complication associated with seasonal influenza: necrotizing encephalitis with malignant cerebral edema. We review the pathogenesis surrounding this neurological manifestation.We suggest a monitoring approach in this particular setting. INTRODUCTION: Influenza-related neurological complications are rare and have variable presentation. Influenza-related necrotizing encephalitis with associated malignant cerebral edema represents the most severe manifestation of the spectrum of influenza-related neurological complications, and carries very high mortality. METHOD: This is a case report with review of previously described cases (Pubmed search). RESULTS: A previously healthy 43 year old woman presented with upper respiratory symptoms over 24-hourswas and...


Monday 6 April 2015

An Association Between Morgellons Disease and Lyme Disease?An Association Between Morgellons Disease and Lyme Disease?

While Morgellons disease has sometimes been considered a delusional syndrome, this microscopic and molecular study suggests that it is an infectious illness associated with Borrelia spirochetes. BMC Dermatology (Source: Medscape Dermatology Headlines)


Monday 6 April 2015

A Gardener with a Fever for 2 Weeks

Dr. Margaret Greenwood-Erickson: Today's case is that of a 58-year-old man who was sent to the emergency department (ED) by his primary care physician (PCP) for evaluation of fevers and lightheadedness. He had been well until 2 weeks before ED presentation when he developed nonproductive cough, malaise, weakness, and daily subjective fevers. He was seen by his PCP 2 days before presentation and started on doxycycline for treatment of presumptive Lyme disease. Laboratory tests, including a Lyme titer, were sent. (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)


Friday 3 April 2015

Preventive Behaviors and Knowledge of Tick-Borne Illnesses: Results of a Survey From an Endemic Area

Conclusions: Public health interventions focusing on accurately communicating risk, improving knowledge both of LD symptoms and of ticks that carry the disease, as well as teaching preventive behaviors may help reduce tick-borne illness rates. (Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice)

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Friday 3 April 2015

Efficacy of a fixed combination of permethrin 54.5% and fipronil 6.1% (Effitix®) in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus

Conclusions: The study has shown under laboratory conditions, that Effitix® is a safe and an effective combination to treat and protect dogs from Ixodes ricinus up to 37 days after administration. The high immediate efficacy of 98% evaluated at 48 hours post-treatment was particularly interesting, meaning that Effitix has a curative effect against ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and provides a rapid control of existing Ixodes ricinus infestation on a dog at the time of treatment. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 2 April 2015

'I thought I was dying,' Avril Lavigne says of Lyme disease

(Source: CNN.com - Health)


Thursday 2 April 2015

Lyme disease: recent advances and perspectives

Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja and Catherine Ayn Brissette (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Avril Lavigne and Lyme Disease: Your Questions Answered

Singer Avril Lavigne revealed in the latest issue of People Magazine that she has been diagnosed with Lyme disease. (Source: ABC News: Health)


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Combination of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Nested PCR for Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Human Serum Samples.

Authors: Zhang LL, Hou XX, Geng Z, Lou YL, Wan KL, Hao Q Abstract A set of universal loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers targeting the fla gene was designed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) in human samples. The sensitivity of LAMP was 20 copies/reaction, and the assay did not detect false positives among 11 other related bacteria. A positive LAMP result was obtained for 9 of the 24 confirmed cases and for 12 of 94 suspected cases. The positive rate of LAMP was the same as that of nested PCR. The LAMP is a useful diagnostic method that can be developed for rapid detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. in human sera. Combination of the LAMP and nested PCR was more sensitive for detecting B. burgdorferi s.l. in human serum samples. PMID...


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Host cell heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are ligands for OspF‐related proteins of the Lyme disease spirochete

Summary Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, spreads from the site of the tick bite to tissues such as heart, joints and the nervous system. Host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), highly modified repeating disaccharides that are present on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrix, are common targets of microbial pathogens during tissue colonization. While several dermatan sulfate‐binding B. burgdorferi adhesins have been identified, B. burgdorferi adhesins documented to promote spirochetal binding to heparan sulfate have not yet been identified. OspEF‐related proteins (Erps), a large family of plasmid‐encoded surface lipoproteins that are produced in the mammalian host, can be divided into the OspF‐related, OspEF leader peptide (Elp), and OspE‐related subfamilies. We show h...

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Wednesday 1 April 2015

Seroprevalence of lyme borreliosis in Scottish blood donors

(Source: Transfusion Medicine)


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Skin and arthropods: an effective interaction used by pathogens in vector-borne diseases

Abstract In the last years, the skin has been described as a major interface in arthropod borne diseases. Although it constitutes an efficient immune and physical barrier, pathogens have developed effective strategies to thwart the host. In this process, the arthropod plays a major role. For mosquitoes, the quick blood meal is made through an efficient inoculation process directly into the blood vessel. For the long lasting blood meal of hard ticks, the sophisticated biting pieces and the tick saliva provide potent tools to help pathogen transmission. Lyme borreliosis and leishmaniases have been particularly well investigated in this context. (Source: European Journal of Dermatology)


Tuesday 31 March 2015

New insights into Lyme disease

Publication date: August 2015 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5 Author(s): Brandon N. Peacock , Teshome B. Gherezghiher , Jennifer D. Hilario , Gottfried H. Kellermann Lyme borreliosis is transmitted through the bite of a tick that is infected by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical manifestation of the disease can lead to heart conditions, neurological disorders, and inflammatory disorders. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of oxidative stress and intracellular communication in Lyme borreliosis patients. Mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic ionized calcium was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Lyme borreliosis patients and healthy controls. Mit...


Sunday 29 March 2015

20 pupils violently ill after schoolgirl smoking addict, 12, passed round prescription nicotine spray

The dispenser was passed around a group of Year Seven and Eight pupils at Wolstanton High School, in Newcastle-under-Lyme (Source: Telegraph Health)

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Sunday 29 March 2015

Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and pu...


Saturday 28 March 2015

Inflammatory mediator release from primary rhesus microglia in response to Borrelia burgdorferi results from the activation of several receptors and pathways

Conclusions: Several receptors and pathways, with both positive and negative effects, mediate inflammation of primary microglia in response to B. burgdorferi, resulting in a complex, tightly regulated immune network. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)


Friday 27 March 2015

Infection of Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) with Borrelia sp. reveals a low reservoir competence under experimental conditions

Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Sarah Bonnet , Valérie Choumet , Sébastien Masseglia , Martine Cote , Elisabeth Ferquel , Thomas Lilin , Maud Marsot , Jean-Louis Chapuis , Gwenaël Vourc’h Reservoir competence is a key parameter in understanding the role of host species in the epidemiology of multi-host—especially vector-borne—pathogens. With this aim in view, we studied the reservoir competence of the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi) recently introduced into Europe, for the multi-host tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sl, the agent of Lyme borreliosis. T. sibiricus were experimentally exposed to bites from Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii...


Friday 27 March 2015

NGS population genetics analyses reveal divergent evolution of a Lyme Borreliosis agent in Europe and Asia

Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Fanny Gatzmann , Dirk Metzler , Stefan Krebs , Helmut Blum , Andreas Sing , Ai Takano , Hiroki Kawabata , Volker Fingerle , Gabriele Margos , Noémie S. Becker Borrelia bavariensis is a recently described agent of Lyme disease within the B. burgdorferi sensu lato species complex and exhibits a strong capacity for human pathogenicity. B. bavariensis strains are widely distributed in Eurasia spanning the distribution range of the tick vectors Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus. It has been suggested that B. bavariensis forms two populations, one of which arose through vector adaptation and geographic expansion. We have performed phylogenetic and population genetic analyses with next-generation s...


Thursday 26 March 2015

Mother left with a paralysed face and in crippling pain after being bitten on the HIP by a tick while gardening

Claire Dean, 43, from Castle Douglas, Scotland, developed Lyme disease after being bitten by a tick in her garden. She suffered pain so bad she had to quit her job and is still receiving physiotherapy for her face. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Tuesday 24 March 2015

Characterization of the β-barrel assembly machine accessory lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi

Conclusions: Combined structural studies, functional assays, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BB0028 and BB0324 are the respective BamB and BamD orthologs in B. burgdorferi, and are important in membrane integrity and/or outer membrane protein localization. The borrelial BamB and BamD proteins both interact specifically and independently with BamA to form a tripartite BAM complex in B. burgdorferi. A working model has been developed to further analyze outer membrane biogenesis and outer membrane protein transport in this pathogenic spirochete. (Source: BMC Microbiology)


Monday 23 March 2015

Climate change 'might bring rise in UK mosquito-borne diseases'

Conclusion Overall, this review provides insights into how climate change might lead to the transmission of tropical diseases in what are currently temperate parts of the world, such as the UK. Predicting what may happen in the future can help countries make sure they are prepared for such an eventuality. This review was informed by a search for relevant literature, but may not have captured or included all relevant studies. Most of the studies were modelling studies, which are reliant on various assumptions that may or may not turn out to be correct. It's not possible to say with any certainty what will occur in the future. The authors also note that climate change is not the only factor affecting vector-borne diseases. Many other factors are equally important, such as socioeconomic de...


Monday 23 March 2015

Canine vector-borne infections in Mauritius

Conclusions: Infection with these pathogens had no significant effect on the packed cell volume (PCV), but high tick burdens were significantly associated with the presence of a tick-borne pathogen. This is the first study of its kind on the dog population in Mauritius and demonstrates the presence of previously undocumented canine vector-borne infections on the island. The relatively high proportion of infected dogs within the study should alert clinicians to the presence of canine vector-borne diseases on the island of Mauritius. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)


Monday 23 March 2015

Bacterial and protozoal agents of canine vector-borne diseases in the blood of domestic and stray dogs from southern Portugal

Conclusions: The molecular identification of CVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic concern, reinforces the importance to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities to prevent the risk of transmission of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and to other vertebrate hosts including humans. The prevalence of the selected pathogens was lower than that previously found in cats from the same region, probably because veterinarians and owners are more aware of them in the canine population and control measures are used more often. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)


Monday 23 March 2015

[Review] Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK

During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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Saturday 21 March 2015

Lyme disease: A case report of a 17-year old male with fatal Lyme carditis

We describe a case of a 17-year-old adolescent who died unexpectedly after a 2-week viral-like syndrome. Postmortem examination was remarkable for diffuse pancarditis characterized by extensive infiltrates of lymphocytes and focal interstitial fibrosis. (Source: Cardiovascular Pathology)


Saturday 21 March 2015

Lyme disease: a case report of a 17-year-old male with fatal Lyme carditis

We describe a case of a 17-year-old adolescent who died unexpectedly after a 3-week viral-like syndrome. Postmortem examination was remarkable for diffuse pancarditis characterized by extensive infiltrates of lymphocytes and focal interstitial fibrosis. (Source: Cardiovascular Pathology)


Wednesday 18 March 2015

An investigation of binding ability of Ixodes persulcatus Schulze Salp15 with Lyme disease spirochetes.

Authors: Murase Y, Konnai S, Yamada S, Githaka N, Isezaki M, Ito T, Takano A, Ando S, Kawabata H, Murata S, Ohashi K Abstract Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, has several suppressive modes of activity against host immunity and plays a critical role in the transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes in Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus, major vectors of Lyme disease in North America and Western Europe. Salp15 adheres to Borrelia burgdorferi and specifically interacts with its outer surface protein C (OspC), protecting the spirochete from antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and facilitating infection in the mice. Recently, we identified two Salp15 homologues, IperSalp15-1 and IperSalp15-2, in I. persulcatus, a vector for Lyme disease in Japan. Here we describe the function of Ipe...


Tuesday 17 March 2015

Apparent Role for Borrelia burgdorferi LuxS during Mammalian Infection [Bacterial Infections]

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, controls protein expression patterns during its tick-mammal infection cycle. Earlier studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi synthesizes 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (autoinducer-2 [AI-2]) and responds to AI-2 by measurably changing production of several infection-associated proteins. luxS mutants, which are unable to produce AI-2, exhibit altered production of several proteins. B. burgdorferi cannot utilize the other product of LuxS, homocysteine, indicating that phenotypes of luxS mutants are not due to the absence of that molecule. Although a previous study found that a luxS mutant was capable of infecting mice, a critical caveat to those results is that bacterial loads were not quantified. To more precisely determine whether LuxS se...


Monday 16 March 2015

Lyme: inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction

Publication date: Available online 16 March 2015 Source:Redox Biology Author(s): Brandon N. Peacock , Teshome B. Gherezghiher , Jennifer D. Hilario , Gottfried H. Kellermann Lyme borreliosis is transmitted through the bite of a tick that is infected by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical manifestation of the disease can lead to heart conditions, neurological disorders, and inflammatory disorders. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of oxidative stress and intracellular communication in Lyme borreliosis patients. Mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic ionized calcium was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Lyme borreliosis patients and healthy cont...

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Sunday 15 March 2015

Physician reported incidence of early and late Lyme borreliosis

Conclusions: This is the first reported nationwide physician survey on the incidence of tick bites and the whole range of manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, including persisting symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis. This is crucial for complete assessment of the public health impact of Lyme borreliosis. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Saturday 14 March 2015

Association of Toll-like Receptor 2 Arg753Gln and Toll-like Receptor 1 Ile602Ser Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Leptospirosis in an Argentine Population.

In conclusion, the present data suggest that the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR1 Ile602Ser SNPs influence the risk of developing leptospirosis and its severity. PMID: 25784560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)


Friday 13 March 2015

RNA-Seq-based analysis of changes in Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression linked to pathogenicity

Our objectives aimed at the differentially expressed genes that contribute to Borrelia-specific disease diversity. The results indicated a total of 731 genes were differentially expressed between B. burgdorferi B31 and B. garinii SZ isolates, including those encoding lipoproteins and purine transport proteins. The findings also provide an empirical basis for studying the mechanism of action of specific genes as well as their potential usefulness for the diagnosis and management of Lyme disease. Image: Giemsa-stained Borrelia isolate. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 12 March 2015

Neuromyelitis optica phenotype associated with therapy-responsive acute peripheral neuropathy

A 51-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of Churg-Strauss syndrome (in remission for 20 years)–associated mesangial glomerulonephritis and end-stage renal disease with a recent renal transplant and previously cured cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection who was on a tapering dose of tacrolimus presented with sudden onset of lower extremity numbness. Symptoms progressed to complete paraplegia and sensory loss over 24 hours. The following day, ascending paresis extended to bilateral upper extremities, with high thoracic sensory level and complete blindness. Initial MRI revealed contrast enhancement of bilateral prechiasmatic optic nerve as well as T2 hyperintensities involving the central gray matter of the entire spinal cord with associated edema. CSF analysis documented neutrophilic pleo...


Tuesday 10 March 2015

Treatment of Menière’s Disease

Opinion statement Diagnosis of Menière’s disease is made with a characteristic patient history, including discrete episodes of vertigo lasting 20 min or longer, accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss, which is typically low frequency at first, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Workup includes audiometry, a contrast enhanced MRI of the internal auditory canals, and exclusion of other diseases that can produce similar symptoms, like otosyphilis, autoimmune inner ear disease, perilymphatic fistula, superior semicircular canal syndrome, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, vestibular paroxysmia, and temporal bone tumors. A history of migraine should be sought as well because of a high rate of co-occurrence (Rauch, Otolaryngol Clin North Am 43:1011–1017, 2010). Treatment begins with...

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Tuesday 10 March 2015

Evolution and population genomics of the Lyme borreliosis pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi

Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015 Source:Trends in Genetics Author(s): Stephanie N. Seifert , Camilo E. Khatchikian , Wei Zhou , Dustin Brisson Population genomic studies have the potential to address many unresolved questions about microbial pathogens by facilitating the identification of genes underlying ecologically important traits, such as novel virulence factors and adaptations to humans or other host species. Additionally, this framework improves estimations of population demography and evolutionary history to accurately reconstruct recent epidemics and identify the molecular and environmental factors that resulted in the outbreak. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, exemplifies the power and promise of the application of population genomics to microbia...


Monday 9 March 2015

Evolution and population genomics of the Lyme borreliosis pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Seifert SN, Khatchikian CE, Zhou W, Brisson D Abstract Population genomic studies have the potential to address many unresolved questions about microbial pathogens by facilitating the identification of genes underlying ecologically important traits, such as novel virulence factors and adaptations to humans or other host species. Additionally, this framework improves estimations of population demography and evolutionary history to accurately reconstruct recent epidemics and identify the molecular and environmental factors that resulted in the outbreak. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, exemplifies the power and promise of the application of population genomics to microbial pathogens. We discuss here the future of evolutionary studies in B. burgdorferi, focus...


Saturday 7 March 2015

First arrived takes all: inhibitory priority effects dominate competition between co-infecting Borrelia burgdorferi strains

Different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, induce a strong inhibitory priority effect in the mouse host and help the most infective bacterial strains to become more prevalent. (Source: BMC Microbiology)


Friday 6 March 2015

Lyme CNS Infection Mimics Stroke in TeenagerLyme CNS Infection Mimics Stroke in Teenager

Lyme neuroborreliosis can mimic stroke or epilepsy and should be ruled out in some cases of sudden-onset meningoencephalitis with neuropsychiatric symptoms, researchers reported. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Thursday 5 March 2015

Human seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two comparable regions of the eastern Alps is not correlated to vector infection rates

This study describes occurrence and geographic dispersion of Borrelia spp. in the Tyrols, discusses possible reasons for significant differences in human seroprevalence, and indicates that prevalence of Borrelia in vector ticks is not a direct predictive factor for the local seroprevalence in humans. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Thursday 5 March 2015

Genetic variation in transmission success of the Lyme borreliosis pathogen Borrelia afzelii

Publication date: Available online 4 March 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Nicolas Tonetti , Maarten J. Voordouw , Jonas Durand , Séverine Monnier , Lise Gern The vector-to-host and host-to-vector transmission steps are the two critical events that define the life cycle of any vector-borne pathogen. We expect negative genetic correlations between these two transmission phenotypes, if parasite genotypes specialized at invading the vector are less effective at infecting the vertebrate host and vice versa. We used the tick-borne bacterium Borrelia afzelii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe, to test whether genetic trade-offs exist between tick-to-host, systemic (host-to-tick), and a third mode of co-feeding (tick-to-tick) transmission. We worked with six ...

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Wednesday 4 March 2015

Management of Pediatric Patients with Synovial Fluid White Blood-Cell Counts of 25,000 to 75,000 Cells/mm3 After Aspiration of the Hip

Conclusions: Septic arthritis of the hip is the most common ultimate diagnosis in children with synovial fluid WBC values of 25,000 to 75,000 cells/mm3 (25 to 75 x 109 cells/L) following hip aspiration, and it should be high on the differential diagnosis, even in cases with synovial fluid WBC values of <50,000 cells/mm3 (<50 x 109 cells/L). Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. (Source: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery)


Wednesday 4 March 2015

Molecular and pharmacological characterization of the Chelicerata pyrokinin receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

Authors: Yang Y, Nachman RJ, Pietrantonio PV Abstract We identified the first pyrokinin receptor (Rhimi-PKR) in Chelicerata and analyzed structure-activity relationships of cognate ligand neuropeptides and their analogs. Based on comparative and phylogenetic analyses, this receptor, which we cloned from larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the ortholog of the insect pyrokinin (PK)/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN)/diapause hormone (DH) neuropeptide family receptor. Rhimi-PKR functional analyses using calcium bioluminescence were performed with a developed stable recombinant CHO-K1 cell line. Rhimi-PKR was activated by four endogenous PKs from the Lyme disease vector, the tick Ixodes scapularis (EC50s range: 85.4 nM-546 nM), a...


Tuesday 3 March 2015

Provider Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Lyme Disease in Arkansas

Abstract Lyme disease (LD), a vector-borne disease, causes illness for many individuals in the United States. All of the conditions for the promulgation of LD are present in one Southern state in the United States; yet this state reports lower numbers of LD than adjacent states. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between this Southern state’s primary care providers’ knowledge and attitudes regarding the diagnosis and reporting of LD. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted via a mailed questionnaire by the Arkansas Department of Health to 2,693 primary care providers. Respondents were 660 primary care providers from all regions of this state. Secondary data were analyzed using descriptive, Chi square, and logistic regression techniques. Analys...


Monday 2 March 2015

Teenager with stroke symptoms actually had Lyme disease

(American College of Emergency Physicians) A Swiss teenager, recently returned home from a discotheque, came to the emergency department with classic sudden symptoms of stroke, only to be diagnosed with Lyme disease. The highly unusual case presentation was published online last Thursday in Annals of Emergency Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)

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Monday 2 March 2015

Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis With Transient Hemiparesis and Aphasia

We report a case of a female teenager presenting with sudden-onset aphasia and transient right-sided faciobrachial hemiplegia, along with headache and agitation. Ischemia, vasculitis, or another structural lesion was excluded by brain imaging. Toxicologic evaluation results were negative. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography and electroencephalography showed left parietotemporal brain dysfunction. Lumbar puncture result, although atypical, suggested bacterial infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was initiated. Finally, microbiological cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed Lyme neuroborreliosis, showing specific intrathecal antibody production and high level of C-X-C motif chemokine 13. The patient rapidly recovered. To our knowledge, this report for the first time illustrates that acute...


Sunday 1 March 2015

First Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Serum of the Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Northern Portugal by Nested-PCR

In this study, Borrelia DNA was detected for the first time by nested-PCR in three different sera, suggesting that the wild boar may be a potential reservoir for this spirochete. Sequencing results show 100% similarity with Borrelia afzelii. Further studies are needed to evaluate the public health risks associated with boar hunting. (Source: EcoHealth)


Sunday 1 March 2015

In patients with defects in Toll‐like and Interleukin‐1 receptor (TIR)‐dependent signalling septic arthritis may present like Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology)


Sunday 1 March 2015

Characteristics of seroconversion and implications for diagnosis of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: acute and convalescent serology among a prospective cohort of early Lyme disease patients

Abstract Two-tier serology is often used to confirm a diagnosis of Lyme disease. One hundred and four patients with physician diagnosed erythema migrans rashes had blood samples taken before and after 3 weeks of doxycycline treatment for early Lyme disease. Acute and convalescent serologies for Borrelia burgdorferi were interpreted according to the 2-tier antibody testing criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Serostatus was compared across several clinical and demographic variables both pre- and post-treatment. Forty-one patients (39.4 %) were seronegative both before and after treatment. The majority of seropositive individuals on both acute and convalescent serology had a positive IgM western blot and a negative IgG western blot. IgG seroconvers...


Friday 27 February 2015

In Northeast, Weather Changes May Mean More Ticks, Earlier

Warming trend could affect the spread of Lyme disease, research suggests Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Climate Change, Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)

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Friday 27 February 2015

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi -infected ticks from wildlife hosts, a response to Norris et al .

In a recent Letter to the Editor, Norris et al. questioned the validity of some of our data reported by Feria-Arroyo et al. The main issue investigated by us was the potential impact of climate change on the probable distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region,. As an ancillary issue, an analysis of sequence data for the intergenic spacer of Borrelia burgdorferi was conducted.. In the present letter, we provide further evidence supporting our original results, and advocate that extensive study of the population genetics of B. burgdorferi is needed in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Many California bird species host Lyme disease bacteria, study finds

Ticks carrying the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease are infesting Northern California’s birds and may be hitching rides on them into suburban settings, according to a new UC Berkeley study. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Repeat or persistent Lyme disease: persistence, recrudescence or reinfection with Borrelia Burgdorferi?

Authors: Shapiro ED Abstract Whether or not Borrelia burgdorferi can persist after conventional treatment with antimicrobials has been a very controversial issue. Two recent studies took different approaches to try to answer this question. In one, investigators showed that, in each of 22 instances in 17 patients with two consecutive episodes of culture-proved erythema migrans, the strains of B. burgdorferi were different based on their genotypes. This indicated that the repeat episodes were due to new infections rather than recrudescence of the original infection. In another study, in which persistence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by using xenodiagnosis, no viable B. burgdorferi were cultured from ticks fed on any of the patients. There continues to be no evidence that viable B. ...


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers

Publication date: February 2015 Source:Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Volume 38 Author(s): Naouelle Azzag , Elisabeth Petit , Christelle Gandoin , Corinne Bouillin , Farida Ghalmi , Nadia Haddad , Henri-Jean Boulouis Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly ...


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Brief Report: Long‐Term Assessment of Fibromyalgia in Patients With Culture‐Confirmed Lyme Disease

ConclusionFibromyalgia was observed in only 1% of 100 patients with culture‐confirmed early Lyme disease; this frequency is consistent with that observed in the general population. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Factors associated with preventive behaviors regarding Lyme disease in Canada and Switzerland: a comparative study

Conclusions: These results strongly suggest that social and contextual factors such as the epidemiological status of a region are important considerations to take into account when designing effective prevention campaigns for Lyme disease. It furthermore underlines the importance for public health authorities to better understand and monitor these factors in targeted populations in order to be able to implement preventive programs that are well adapted to a population and the epidemiological contexts therein. (Source: BMC Public Health)

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Tuesday 24 February 2015

Your NEJM Group Today: Groin Hernia in Adults, Late Lyme & Fatigue, Wisconsin IM Opportunities (FREE)

By The Editors NEJM Group offers so many valuable resources for practicing clinicians. Here's what we chose for you today: … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Tuesday 24 February 2015

Discovery and targeted proteomics on cutaneous biopsies infected by Borrelia to investigate Lyme disease.

This study thus shows that a targeted SRM approach is a promising tool for the early direct diagnosis of Lyme disease with high sensitivity (<10 fmol OspC per mg of human skin biopsy). PMID: 25713121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics : MCP)


Tuesday 24 February 2015

Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers - Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis in Europe.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences of these three zoonotic diseases are not negligible and information targeting the public is needed. Moreover, the results highlight the lack of standardised surveys among different European countries. It was also noted that epidemiological data on leptospirosis are very scarce. PMID: 25780827 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Friday 20 February 2015

Increasing Residential Proximity of Lyme Borreliosis Cases to High-Risk Habitats: A Retrospective Study in Central Bohemia, the Czech Republic, 1987–2010

Abstract An analysis of historical data on Lyme borreliosis in Central Bohemia between 1987–2010 has revealed that the rate of peri-domestic exposure, the proximity of patients’ residences to high-risk habitats, and the number of disease cases have been interdependent variables and that their common upturn can be dated back to the start of the 1990s or earlier. The data indicate that the disease rise is attributable to translocation of part of the at-risk population nearer to natural environments, rather than to mere intensification of people’s peri-domestic exposure at existing residential locations, or changes in the natural environment itself. (Source: EcoHealth)

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Thursday 19 February 2015

Structural Mechanisms Underlying Sequence-Dependent Variations in GAG Affinities of Decorin Binding Protein A, a Borrelia burgdorferi Adhesin

Decorin binding protein A (DBPA) is an important surface adhesin of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPA facilitates the bacteria’s colonization of human tissue by adhering to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a sulfated polysaccharide. Interestingly, DBPA sequence variation among different strains of Borrelia spirochetes is high, resulting in significant differences in their GAG affinities. However, the structural mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. We determined the solution structures of DBPAs from strain N40 of Borrelia burgdorferi and strain PBr of Borrelia gariini, two DBPA variants whose GAG affinities deviate significantly from strain B31, the most well studied version of DBPA. Our structures revealed that significant dif...


Thursday 19 February 2015

Structural Mechanisms Underlying Sequence-Dependent Variations in GAG Affinities of Decorin Binding Protein A, a Borrelia burgdorferi Adhesin.

Authors: Morgan AM, Wang X Abstract Decorin binding protein A (DBPA) is an important surface adhesin of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPA facilitates the bacteria's colonization of human tissue by adhering to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a sulfated polysaccharide. Interestingly, DBPA sequence variation among different strains of Borrelia spirochetes is high, resulting in significant differences in their GAG affinities. However, the structural mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. We determined the solution structures of DBPAs from strain N40 of Borrelia burgdorferi and strain PBr of Borrelia gariini, two DBPA variants whose GAG affinities deviate significantly from strain B31, the most well studied version of DBPA. Our str...


Wednesday 18 February 2015

In a warmer world, ticks that spread disease are arriving earlier, expanding their ranges

In the northeastern United States, warmer spring temperatures are leading to shifts in the emergence of the blacklegged ticks that carry Lyme disease and other tick-borne pathogens. At the same time, milder weather is allowing ticks to spread into new geographic regions. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 16 February 2015

Integrin binding by Borrelia burgdorferi P66 facilitates dissemination but is not required for infectivity

Summary P66, a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein with porin and integrin‐binding activities, is essential for murine infection. The role of P66 integrin‐binding activity in B. burgdorferi infection was investigated and found to affect transendothelial migration. The role of integrin binding, specifically, was tested by mutation of two amino acids (D205A,D207A) or deletion of seven amino acids (Del202–208). Neither change affected surface localization or channel‐forming activity of P66, but both significantly reduced binding to αvβ3. Integrin‐binding deficient B. burgdorferi strains caused disseminated infection in mice at 4 weeks post‐subcutaneous inoculation, but bacterial burdens were significantly reduced in some tissues. Following intravenous inoculation, the Del20...

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Thursday 12 February 2015

BORRELIA BABESIA REMEDY (Babesia Microti, Borrelia Burgdorferi Nosode) Liquid [Deseret Biologicals, Inc.]

Updated Date: Feb 12, 2015 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Thursday 12 February 2015

Exploring the association between Morgellons disease and Lyme disease: identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in Morgellons disease patients

Conclusions: Our study using multiple detection methods confirms that MD is a true somatic illness associated with Borrelia spirochetes that cause Lyme disease. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment for this spirochete-associated dermopathy. (Source: BMC Dermatology)


Tuesday 10 February 2015

Forthcoming Issues

Lyme Disease (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 10 February 2015

Immunization with a recombinant subunit OspA vaccine markedly impacts the rate of newly acquired Borrelia burgdorferi infections in client-owned dogs living in a coastal community in Maine, USA

Background: In North America, Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative bacterial agent of canine Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted following prolonged attachment and feeding of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus. Its prevention is predicated upon tick-avoidance, effective on-animal tick control and effective immunization strategies. The purpose of this study is to characterize dogs that are newly seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in relation to compliant use of a recombinant OspA canine Lyme borreliosis vaccine. Specifically, Preventive Fractions (PF) and Risk Ratios (RR) associated with the degree of vaccine compliancy (complete versus incomplete) are determined. Methods: 6,202 dogs were tested over a five year period in a single veterinary hospital utilizing...


Sunday 8 February 2015

Management of the marginal zone lymphomas.

Authors: Vannata B, Stathis A, Zucca E Abstract Marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) represent around 8 % of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. During the last decades a number of studies have addressed the mechanisms underlying the disease development. Extranodal MZL lymphoma usually arises in mucosal sites where lymphocytes are not normally present from a background of either autoimmune processes, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis or Sjögren syndrome or chronic infectious conditions. In the context of a persistent antigenic stimulation, successive genetic abnormalities can progressively hit a B-cell clone among the reactive B-cells of the chronic inflammatory tissue and give rise to a MALT lymphoma. The best evidence of an etiopathogenetic link is available for the association between Helicobacter...

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Friday 6 February 2015

The high cost of Lyme disease

The U.S. spends more than a billion dollars caring for patients who contract this tick-borne illness (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Friday 6 February 2015

Lyme Disease More Serious, Costly Than Believed: Study

Prolonged illness in infected Americans costs up to $1.3 billion a year in treatments, researchers find (Source: WebMD Health)


Thursday 5 February 2015

Lyme Disease Costs Up to $1.3 Billion Per Year to Treat, Study Finds

New research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests that a prolonged illness associated with Lyme disease in some patients is more widespread and serious than previously understood. (Source: Public Health News Headlines from Johns Hopkins)

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Thursday 5 February 2015

Lyme disease costs up to $1. 3 billion per year to treat, study finds

New research suggests that a prolonged illness associated with Lyme disease is more widespread and serious in some patients than previously understood. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Thursday 5 February 2015

T2 Biosystems, Canon to develop Lyme disease test

T2 Biosystems and Canon U.S. Life Sciences team up to develop a diagnostic test panel for the rapid detection of Lyme disease. T2 Biosystems (NSDQ:TTOO) and Canon U.S. Life Sciences are teaming up to develop a diagnostic test panel for the rapid detection of Lyme disease. Canon, T2 Biosystems Inc.News Well, Diagnostics, Lyme diseaseread more (Source: Mass Device)


Thursday 5 February 2015

Lyme disease costs up to $1.3 billion per year to treat, study finds

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Lyme disease, transmitted by a bite from a tick infected by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, had long been considered easy to treat, usually requiring a single doctor's visit and a few weeks of antibiotics for most people. But new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests that a prolonged illness associated with the disease in some patients is more widespread and serious than previously understood. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 5 February 2015

T2 Biosystems And Canon U.S. Life Sciences Announce Joint Collaboration To Develop Novel Test Panel To Rapidly Detect Lyme Disease

T2 Biosystems, Inc. (Nasdaq:TTOO) a company developing innovative diagnostic products to improve patient health today announced that the company has entered into a multi-year, strategic agreement with Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc. to jointly develop a novel diagnostic test panel to rapidly detect Lyme disease, a tick-borne bacterial infection that, if left untreated, can cause chronic joint inflammation, neurological disorders and cognitive defects. (Source: Medical Design Online News)


Wednesday 4 February 2015

Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease

This study utilizes retrospective data on medical claims and member enrollment for persons aged 0-64 years who were enrolled in commercial health insurance plans in the United States between 2006-2010. 52,795 individuals treated for Lyme disease were compared to 263,975 matched controls with no evidence of Lyme disease exposure. Results Lyme disease is associated with $2,968 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 2,807-3,128, p (Source: PLoS One)

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Wednesday 4 February 2015

Tick-borne infections in horses from Tuscany, Italy

To estimate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in horses living in areas of Tuscany (Italy) with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 160 clinically healthy grazing horses were tested by PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Coxiella burnetii, Babesia caballi, and Theileria equi. Tick-borne infections were detected in 70 (43.75%) horses, in particular 43 animals (26.87%) resulted positive for T. equi, 41 (25.62%) for A. phagocytophilum, 6 (3.75%) for C. (Source: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science)


Tuesday 3 February 2015

Co-feeding transmission in Lyme disease pathogens

Review Articles MAARTEN J. VOORDOUW, Parasitology, Volume 142 Issue 02, pp 290-302Abstract (Source: Parasitology)


Sunday 1 February 2015

Diseases from North America: focus on tick-borne infections.

Authors: Nathavitharana RR, Mitty JA Abstract Tick-borne infections are seen throughout the United States, with varying geographical locations. Many of these infections are also increasingly seen in Europe. Certain ticks (eg Ixodes) can transmit more than one infection. Diagnosis, particularly in early infection, can be challenging and therefore knowledge of the distinguishing clinical features and epidemiology of these diseases is important. Testing for Lyme disease often causes confusion for patients and medical providers, as serological tests may be negative in early infection and conversely may be positive for years after infection. Newer tests, such as the C6 ELISA, may play a role in Lyme diagnosis. Additionally, the value of a simple blood film should not be underestimated f...


Wednesday 28 January 2015

Severe babesiosis and Borrelia burgdorferi co-infection

(Source: QJM)


Wednesday 28 January 2015

Opening a Window Into Lyme [Technology Corner]

(Source: Clinical Chemistry)

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Monday 26 January 2015

Strange New Tattoo Discovered On 'Ötzi The Iceman' Mummy

Researchers in Italy announced this week that they had discovered a strange new tattoo on the ribcage of the 5,300-year-old mummy known as Ötzi the Iceman. The find raises to 61 the number of Ötzi's known tattoos, and it came as a big surprise. "We didn't expect to find a tattoo on the thoracic, as all the other tattoos are mainly close to joints and on his lower back and legs," Dr. Albert Zink, director of the Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano and one of the scientists behind the discovery, told The Huffington Post in an email. (Story continues below image.) Ötzi's newly discovered tattoo, on the lower right side of the mummy's chest. Ötzi was discovered in 1991 by a pair of German hikers in the Otztal Alps, near the border between Austria and Italy. Since then, re...


Saturday 24 January 2015

Investigation of tick-borne bacteria ( Rickettsia spp. , Anaplasma spp. , Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador

Conclusions: This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Friday 23 January 2015

[Protection against tick bites.]

Authors: Boulanger N, Lipsker D Abstract There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an...


Wednesday 21 January 2015

Integrin binding by Borrelia burgdorferi P66 facilitates dissemination but is not required for infectivity

Summary P66, a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein with porin and integrin binding activities, is essential for murine infection. The role of P66 integrin binding activity in B. burgdorferi infection was investigated and found to affect transendothelial migration. The role of integrin binding, specifically, was tested by mutation of two amino acids (D205A,D207A) or deletion of seven amino acids (Del202‐208). Neither change affected surface localization or channel forming activity of P66, but both significantly reduced binding to αvβ3. Integrin binding deficient B. burgdorferi strains caused disseminated infection in mice at four weeks post‐subcutaneous inoculation, but bacterial burdens were significantly reduced in some tissues. Following intravenous inoculation, the Del202‐208 b...


Tuesday 20 January 2015

Lyme borreliosis in southern United Kingdom and a case for a new syndrome, chronic arthropod-borne neuropathy

Research Articles M. S. DRYDEN, K. SAEED, S. OGBORN, P. SWALES, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 03, pp 561-572Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)

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Tuesday 20 January 2015

γδ T Cells and dendritic cells in refractory Lyme arthritis.

Authors: Divan A, Budd RC, Tobin RP, Newell-Rogers MK Abstract Lyme disease is a multisystem infection transmitted by tick vectors with an incidence of up to 300,000 individuals/yr in the United States. The primary treatments are oral or i.v. antibiotics. Despite treatment, some individuals do not recover and have prolonged symptoms affecting multiple organs, including the nervous system and connective tissues. Inflammatory arthritis is a common symptom associated with Lyme pathology. In the past decades, γδ T cells have emerged as candidates that contribute to the transition from innate to adaptive responses. These cells are also differentially regulated within the synovia of patients affected by RLA. Here, we review and discuss potential cellular mechanisms involving γδ T cel...


Monday 19 January 2015

Yolanda Foster Blogs About Her Battle With Lyme Disease: 'I Have Lost the Ability to Read'

"Real Housewives of Beverly Hills" star Yolanda Foster spoke up about her struggle with Lyme disease in a new blog post on BravoTV.com. She used to post regularly on the site, but started this letter with an apology to fans: "I would like to apologize for my lousy participation in the blogging department at the moment. Although writing is usually my favorite thing to do, I unfortunately have lost the ability to do so in an intelligent matter at this time." She then described her struggle to do everyday tasks: "I have lost the ability to read, write, or even watch TV, because I can't process information or any stimulation for that matter. It feels like someone came in and confiscated my brain and tied my hands behind my back to just watch and see life go by without me participating in it."...


Thursday 15 January 2015

Synanthropic rodents and their ectoparasites as carriers of a novel haemoplasma and vector-borne, zoonotic pathogens indoors

Rodents (mainly house mice, brown rats) were caught in buildings. Their spleen and blood-sucking ectoparasites were molecularly analysed. Key findings include a novel haemoplasma genotype and the sporadic occurrence of Rickettsia helvetica, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Bartonella sp. Image: The European mouse flea (Leptopsylla segnis). (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 15 January 2015

Lyme Disease Update for the General Dermatologist

Abstract Lyme disease is an Ixodes tick–borne illness that may arise from different species of the Borrelia spirochete and may be propagated in various hosts. Humans are considered dead-end hosts in this propagation cycle but may have a range of Lyme disease characteristics as a result of borrelial infection. Lyme disease has varied cutaneous manifestations, and the approach to diagnosis and treatment is based on the patient, the region, and suspected coinfection with another tick-borne illness. An understanding of the distribution of the Ixodes tick, its vectors, and the most likely dermatologic presentation based on these factors allows the dermatologist to make appropriate testing and treatment recommendations. Our aim is to simplify this approach for the treating practitione...


Wednesday 14 January 2015

Tick-borne pathogens and the vector potential of ticks in China

Ticks, as obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites, attack a broad range of vertebrates and transmit a great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. They are considered second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, and the most important vector of pathogens of domestic and wild animals. Of the 117 described species in the Chinese tick fauna, 60 are known to transmit one or more diseases: 36 species isolated within China and 24 species isolated outside China. Moreover, 38 of these species carry multiple pathogens, indicating the potentially vast role of these vectors in transmitting pathogens. Spotted fever is the most common tick-borne disease, and is carried by at least 27 tick species, with Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis ranked as the second and third most widespre...

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Wednesday 14 January 2015

Lyme Disease Symptoms Can Mimic Bipolar Disorder

Lyme disease is one of several medical conditions with symptoms that can mimic those of bipolar disorder. Here's a story about one such incident. (Source: About.com Bipolar Disorder)


Wednesday 14 January 2015

Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.

Authors: Azzag N, Petit E, Gandoin C, Bouillin C, Ghalmi F, Haddad N, Boulouis HJ Abstract Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indic...


Tuesday 13 January 2015

Effects of Borrelia on host immune system: Possible consequences for diagnostics

Conclusions The immune status of the borreliosis patient needs to be considered, especially in Stage 3 in conjunction with clinical symptoms in the diagnosis. Borrelia has the ability to manipulate both the innate and active immunity and alter the cytokines secreted hence alter the path of the immune response. Immune parameters such as IFN-gamma/IL-10, lymphocyte markers, complement C3a, C4a, and total immunoglobulin levels may help to discriminate between stages and monitor treatment outcomes. The level of immune dysfunction in Stage 3 may depend on the number of co-infections delivered by a tick bite, such as Babesia, and Rickettsia, the genospecies of Borrelia, other pathogens, the patients’ biome and immunogenetics. (Source: Advances in Integrative Medicine)


Tuesday 13 January 2015

Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis. The more the better?

Authors: Dessau RB, Møller JK, Kolmos B, Henningsson AJ Abstract A multiplex bead based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contains 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay, thus a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. 49 Danish patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), 218 blood donor controls, a set of 61 Swedish patients with LNB and 139 non-LNB patients investigated for suspected LNB were used. There are four parts developed in the study: A characterization of the sero-epidemiological antibody response pattern, the construction of a diagnostic score, evaluation of the scoring method using an independent dataset and an assessment of the analytical quality of the multi...


Saturday 10 January 2015

Peripheral facial palsy as an initial symptom of Lyme neuroborreliosis in an Austrian endemic area.

CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of our study, we recommend CSF testing in any case for patients with facial palsy in an endemic area from June to October especially if additional radicular symptoms are present. To establish recommendations for a diagnostic workup in patients with facial palsy in areas endemic for Borrelia, the seasonal clustering of LNB as well as specific clinical features should also be confirmed in a future prospective trial. PMID: 25576332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)

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Friday 9 January 2015

[Obituary] Willy Burgdorfer

Medical entomologist who discovered the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. Born on June 27, 1925, in Basel, Switzerland, he died from complications of Parkinson's disease on Nov 17, 2014, in Hamilton, MT, USA, aged 89 years. (Source: LANCET)


Friday 9 January 2015

'My parents kicked me out when I was depressed. I thank them for it'

Deeply depressed in her early thirties, Porochista Khakpour regressed to a state of childlike helplessness - until her parents kicked her out (Source: Telegraph Health)


Friday 9 January 2015

Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H

Publication date: Available online 9 January 2015 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics Author(s): Kalvis Brangulis , Ivars Petrovskis , Andris Kazaks , Inara Akopjana , Kaspars Tars Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some C...


Friday 9 January 2015

Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H.

Authors: Brangulis K, Petrovskis I, Kazaks A, Akopjana I, Tars K Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some CFHRs, namely ErpA, ErpC and ErpP. We have determined the crystal structure of ErpP at 2.53Å resolution and the crystal structure of E...


Thursday 8 January 2015

Update on persistent symptoms associated with Lyme disease

Purpose of reviewLyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The pathogenesis, ecology, and epidemiology of Lyme disease have been well described, and antimicrobial treatment is very effective. There has been controversy about whether infection can persist and cause chronic symptoms despite treatment with antimicrobials. This review summarizes recent studies that have addressed this issue. Recent findingsThe pathogenesis of persistent nonspecific symptoms in patients who were treated for Lyme disease is poorly understood, and the validity of results of attempts to demonstrate persistent infection with B. burgdorferi has not been established. One study attempted to use xenodiagnosis to detect B. burgdorferi in patients who have...

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Tuesday 6 January 2015

Search for blood or water is influenced by Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus

Finding a host and maintaining its water balance are two crucial needs for Ixodes ricinus that are not compatible with each other. Ticks benefit from the infection by Borrelia burgdorferi by better survival (more fat and more resistance to desiccation) and by an increased questing period (lower need to rehydrate), leading to more opportunities to find a host and to transmit Borrelia. Image: Host-finding behaviour that is not compatible with maintaining water balance in Ixodes ricinus is influenced Borrelia burgdorferi. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 6 January 2015

BB0323 and Novel Virulence Determinant BB0238: Borrelia burgdorferi Proteins That Interact With and Stabilize Each Other and Are Critical for Infectivity

We have shown that Borrelia burgdorferi gene product BB0323 is essential for cell fission and pathogen persistence in vivo. Here we describe characterization of a conserved hypothetical protein annotated as BB0238, which specifically interacts with the N-terminal region of BB0323. We show that BB0238 is a subsurface protein, and similar to BB0323, exists in the periplasm and as a membrane-bound protein. Deletion of bb0238 in infectious B. burgdorferi did not affect microbial growth in vitro or survival in ticks, but the mutant was unable to persist in mice or transmit from ticks—defects that are restored on genetic complementation. Remarkably, BB0238 and BB0323 contribute to mutual posttranslational stability, because deletion of one causes dramatic reduction in the protein level of ...


Tuesday 6 January 2015

Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms.

Authors: Meriläinen L, Herranen A, Schwarzbach A, Gilbert L Abstract Spirochete bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the Northern hemisphere. There is a long-standing debate regarding the role of pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis, while very little is known about the characteristics of these morphological variants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic formation in different culturing conditions at physiological temperature. Interestingly, human serum induced the bacteria to change its morphology to round bodies. In addition, biofilm-like colonies in suspension were found to be part of B. burgdorferi's normal in vitro growth. Further studies provided e...


Thursday 1 January 2015

Lyme Disease in Athletes

This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, with focus on the athletic population. (Source: Current Sports Medicine Reports)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Laboratory Testing for Lyme Neuroborreliosis

To the Editor In their Viewpoint published in JAMA Neurology, Melia et al discussed diagnosis of Lyme disease, a tick-borne infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, focusing primarily on the disease’s affliction of the central nervous system, which is a condition commonly referred to as neuroborreliosis. (Source: JAMA Neurology)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Evaluation of two commercially available rapid diagnostic tests for Lyme borreliosis

Abstract The diagnosis of Lyme disease is very complicated and a single diagnostic method cannot exclude infection. We assessed the performance of two commercially available Borrelia burgdorferi rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in comparison to multiple laboratory-based diagnostic assays using specimens with a gradually increasing probability of Borrelia infection. Based on 200 specimens, the analytical sensitivities for IgG and IgM were 18 and 23 % for the Lyme RDT and 24 and 32 % for the Borreliose Complete RDT. The sensitivity for detecting diagnosed Lyme borreliosis cases was low (26 % Lyme RDT and 32 % with the Borreliose Complete RDT respectively), whereas the specificity was good (85 % Lyme RDT and 88 % Borreliose Complete). Based on this evaluation, the performance of R...

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Thursday 1 January 2015

The BBA33 lipoprotein binds collagen and impacts Borrelia burgdorferi pathogenesis

Summary Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, adapts to the mammalian hosts by differentially expressing several genes in the BosR and Rrp2‐RpoN‐RpoS dependent pathways, resulting in a distinct protein profile relative to that seen for survival in the Ixodes spp. tick. Previous studies indicate that a putative lipoprotein, BBA33, is produced in an RpoS‐dependent manner under conditions that mimic the mammalian component of the borrelial lifecycle. However, the significance and function for BBA33 is not known. Given its linkage to the BosR/Rrp2‐RpoN‐RpoS regulatory cascade, we hypothesized that BBA33 facilitates B. burgdorferi infection in the mammalian host. The deletion of bba33 eliminated B. burgdorferi infectivity in C3H mice, which was rescued by genetic ...


Thursday 1 January 2015

Lyme Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment Guidelines, and Controversy

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 30,000 people per year are diagnosed with Lyme disease (LD) in the United States. LD can be effectively treated if diagnosed early in the course of disease. A more difficult disease path may follow if early symptoms go unnoticed and untreated. Complicating this clinical situation is the controversy over LD serologic diagnostic reliability and the terminology and treatment approaches to later stage LD. Nurse practitioners should have a working knowledge of the clinical presentation of LD at various stages and the diagnostic testing and treatment regimen guidelines recommended. (Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Laboratory Testing for Lyme Neuroborreliosis—Reply

In Reply We agree with Lautner and colleagues that, in addition to the ratio of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, tests, such as CSF white blood cell count, can be useful in the assessment of neuroborreliosis. Indeed, CSF analysis is a pivotal tool in making a diagnosis of meningitis. However, whether liberal use of CSF testing to assess for possible neuroborreliosis among patients not suspected to have meningitis would be practiced (given barriers to obtaining samples) or aid in enhancing diagnosis is uncertain. (Source: JAMA Neurology)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Lyme disease in athletes.

This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, with focus on the athletic population. PMID: 25574885 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Sports Medicine Reports)

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Wednesday 31 December 2014

Lyme Helps Spread Other Tick Infections

Mice infected with Lyme and the Babesia parasite are more likely to pass on babesiosis than mice infected with babesiosis alone. Christopher Intagliata reports -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 29 December 2014

Lyme disease enhances spread of emerging tick infection

Mice that are already infected with the pathogen that causes Lyme disease appear to facilitate the spread of a lesser-known but emerging disease, babesiosis, into new areas. The finding provides a possible answer as to why human babesiosis is only emerging in areas where Lyme disease is well established. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 29 December 2014

Putting Heart Block Back in the “Lyme Light”

We report a case of syncope in a young patient who presented with high-degree, variable atrioventricular heart block. Despite having no other classic manifestations of Lyme disease, she was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for Lyme carditis on high clinical suspicion due to geographic location. The heart block resolved within 24h of treatment. Although rare, we demonstrate the importance of considering Lyme carditis in patients who present with new-onset heart block and a history of living in an endemic area. Initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy can lead to rapid resolution of this condition. <Learning objective: Although uncommon, Lyme carditis may present without any other classic signs or symptoms of Lyme disease. It should be considered in any patient who presents with n...


Monday 29 December 2014

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks from Eastern China.

Authors: Hou J, Ling F, Chai C, Lu Y, Yu X, Lin J, Sun J, Chang Y, Ye X, Gu S, Pang W, Wang C, Zheng X, Jiang J, Chen Z, Gong Z Abstract To explore the tick distribution and prevalence of Borrelia in Zhejiang Province, we performed a survey in nine sites. A total of 447 adult ticks of 11 species were captured and the dominant tick species were Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes sinensis and the abundance of tick species in different areas varied significantly. Overall, 4.70% of the ticks were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Borrelia. The average PCR positive rates were 5.19% for H. longicornis, 3.45% for Amblyomma testudinarium, 1.06% for I. sinensis, 5.00% for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and 19.44% for Ixodes granulatus, respectively. No Borrelia DNA was de...

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Thursday 25 December 2014

Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011.

Authors: Wilking H, Fingerle V, Klier C, Thamm M, Stark K Abstract To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008-2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed. PMID: 25531140 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 25 December 2014

Soluble cysteine-rich tick saliva proteins Salp15 and Iric-1 from E. coli

Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014 Source:FEBS Open Bio Author(s): Philipp Kolb , Jolanta Vorreiter , Jüri Habicht , Detlef Bentrop , Reinhard Wallich , Michael Nassal Ticks transmit numerous pathogens, including borreliae, which cause Lyme disease. Tick saliva contains a complex mix of anti-host defense factors, including the immunosuppressive cysteine-rich secretory glycoprotein Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis ticks and orthologs like Iric-1 from I. ricinus. All tick-borne microbes benefit from the immunosuppression at the tick bite site; in addition, borreliae exploit the binding of Salp15 to their outer surface protein C (OspC) for enhanced transmission. Hence, Salp15 proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that also target borreliae. However, recombina...


Wednesday 24 December 2014

New Tick-Borne 'Bourbon Virus' Is Deadly And Unlike Anything Previously Seen In U.S.

Researchers have identified the cause of a Kansas farmer's mysterious death this summer as Bourbon virus. Thought to be transmitted by ticks, the virus "was fast-moving and severe, causing lung and kidney failure, and shock," The New York Times reported, killing the previously healthy man after only 10 days in the hospital. Together, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and University of Kansas Hospital researchers identified the virus as a thogotovirus, part of a larger type of viruses called orthomyxoviruses, Dana Hawkinson, M.D., an infectious disease specialist at The University of Kansas Hospital said in the video statement above. Bourbon virus, named after Bourbon County, Kansas, where the only known patient lived, is similar to viruses seen previously in Eastern Europ...


Wednesday 24 December 2014

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI (Borrelia Burgdorferi) Liquid [Newton Laboratories, Inc.]

Updated Date: Dec 24, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))

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Wednesday 24 December 2014

Myocarditis in dogs: etiology, clinical and histopathological features (11 cases: 2007–2013)

Conclusions Although the clinical pattern in patients with myocarditis is diverse, the definitive morphological diagnosis is made based on the histopathological examination. This examination can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of myocarditis combined with the presence of spore forms of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the heart specimens of dogs. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)


Tuesday 23 December 2014

Increased expression of Fas receptor and Fas ligand in the culture of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

Publication date: Available online 22 December 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Sambor Grygorczuk , Joanna Osada , Anna Moniuszko , Renata Świerzbińska , Maciej Kondrusik , Joanna Zajkowska , Justyna Dunaj , Milena Dąbrowska , Sławomir Pancewicz Apoptosis of the lymphocytes plays an essential role in the regulation of inflammatory/immune responses and its abnormalities may contribute to a chronic infection, persistent inflammation and autoimmunity. Its role in the pathogenesis of the late Lyme borreliosis manifestations has not been studied so far. We have measured Th lymphocyte apoptosis rate, membrane expression of pro-apoptotic Fas receptor, and supernatant concentrations of selected soluble pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in cultures of peripheral blood mono...


Friday 19 December 2014

Fencing and mowing as effective methods for reducing tick abundance on very small, infested plots

Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Simone Del Fabbro The tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) transmits a large variety of pathogens to humans and is therefore a matter of concern for public health. Different strategies for reducing the risk of tick bite, and thus of infection, have been developed and vary according to the kind of exposure (occupational, recreational, peridomestic). The present study (carried out in an endemic region for both Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis) aimed to assess the efficacy of two simple and cheap interventions for reducing I. ricinus abundance around residential properties surrounded by wooded areas. The immediate impact of exclosures (host-targeted control methods) and mowing (vegetation man...


Thursday 18 December 2014

Panuveitis Caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato Infection

A 13-year-old boy who presented with a red left eye, painful eye movement, blurred vision, photophobia and increased lacrimation, was diagnosed with 1-sided panuveitis with optic disk edema. Diagnostic work-up revealed borrelial antibodies in serum. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis was substantiated by demonstration of lymphocytic pleocytosis, intrathecal borrelial antibody synthesis, improvement after treatment with ceftriaxone and exclusion of other causes. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Thursday 18 December 2014

Ebola 3.0

By Susan J. Blumenthal, M.D., and Jennifer Sherwood, M.P.H. The doctors, nurses and other health care workers who responded to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa were recently named Time magazine's "Person of the Year." The courageous individuals who dedicate their careers and risk their lives to help in times of global public health emergencies such as Ebola deserve this recognition. A new report shows that health care workers have more than 100 times the risk of being infected with Ebola in Sierra Leone as the general public there. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 622 health care workers have acquired the virus and 346 of them have died in the affected countries. The recent death of a physician in the United States, who had been working in Sierra Leone and had tested ne...

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Thursday 18 December 2014

From Lyme disease emergence to endemicity: a cross sectional comparative study of risk perceptions in different populations

Conclusion: This study suggests that risk perception of LD differs between populations and regional experts living in different epidemiological situations. Monitoring of knowledge and risk perception in local populations may help to better target LD communication efforts in accordance with population specific attributes thereby enhancing prevention efficacy. (Source: BMC Public Health)


Tuesday 16 December 2014

Mechanisms of Borrelia burgdorferi internalization and intracellular innate immune signaling

Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja and Aurelie Kern (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)


Tuesday 16 December 2014

CD4+ T Cells Promote Antibody Production but Not Sustained Affinity Maturation during Borrelia burgdorferi Infection [Host Response and Inflammation]

We report that CD4 T cells were effectively primed and TFH cells induced after B. burgdorferi infection. These CD4 T cells contributed to the control of B. burgdorferi burden and supported the induction of B. burgdorferi-specific IgG responses. However, while affinity maturation of antibodies against a prototypic T-dependent B. burgdorferi protein, Arthritis-related protein (Arp), were initiated, these increases were reversed later, coinciding with the previously observed involution of germinal centers. The cessation of affinity maturation was not due to the appearance of inhibitory or exhausted CD4 T cells or a strong induction of regulatory T cells. In vitro T-B cocultures demonstrated that T cells isolated from B. burgdorferi-infected but not B. burgdorferi-immunized mice supported the ...


Tuesday 16 December 2014

Diagnosis not to be missed: Lyme carditis, rare but reversible cause of complete atrioventricular block

We present a 43-year-old male who presented with complete heart block and also illsustained ventricular tachycardia due to Lyme carditis that reversed completely with antibiotic therapy. (Source: Indian Heart Journal)


Monday 15 December 2014

NY Governor Must Decide Today On Shielding Doctors Who Use Unproven Lyme Disease Treatments

NY legislators passed a law to protect doctors who treat "Chronic Lyme Disease," a non-existent condition that has spurred a raft of quack treatments. Some doctors have built their entire practices around offering expensive treatments to patients who are convinced they have Chronic Lyme. These patients and their doctors are lobbying for NY Governor Cuomo to sign the law, which he must sign or veto today, December 15. If this becomes law, doctors will be protected from any investigation into their questionable treatments. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)

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Sunday 14 December 2014

Lyme Disease, Fibromylagia Link Evaporates

(MedPage Today) -- Earlier studies may have included patients who did not have Lyme disease. (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)


Thursday 11 December 2014

Threat of attacks of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Lyme borreliosis within urban heat islands in south-western Poland

Urban heat islands may exert an impact on tick abundance and activity within cities e.g. city parks where the risk of human infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes is very high. Image: Ixodes ricinus female. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 9 December 2014

Lyme disease: diagnostic issues and controversies

Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, Ahead of Print. (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)


Tuesday 9 December 2014

Glycosaminoglycan binding by Borrelia burgdorferi adhesin BBK32 specifically and uniquely promotes joint colonization

Summary Microbial pathogens that colonize multiple tissues commonly produce adhesive surface proteins that mediate attachment to cells and/or extracellular matrix in target organs. Many of these ‘adhesins’ bind to multiple ligands, complicating efforts to understand the role of each ligand‐binding activity. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, produces BBK32, first identified as a fibronectin‐binding adhesin that promotes skin and joint colonization. BBK32 also binds to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which, like fibronectin is ubiquitously present on cell surfaces. To determine which binding activity is relevant for BBK32‐promoted infectivity, we generated a panel of BBK32 truncation and internal deletion mutants, and identified variants specifically defective for...


Monday 8 December 2014

Clinical Reasoning: A 28-year-old man with progressive gait disturbance and encephalopathy

A 28-year-old man with sickle cell disease presented with 7 months of difficulty walking. Initial examination 3 months prior to admission to our hospital was thought to be consistent with a polyneuropathy. He was areflexic, was unable to stand on toes or heels with decreased sensation on the left foot to light touch and vibration, had difficulty with heel to shin, and was unable to perform tandem gait. Laboratory tests revealed anemia (hemoglobin 7.2 g/dL) and elevated creatinine (1.49 g/dL). HIV, antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, hepatitis serologies, rapid plasma reagin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, copper, SSA/B, and Lyme titers were unremarkable. B12 deficiency (B12 188 pg/mL) and a mildly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 24 mm/hour were fou...

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Monday 8 December 2014

Posterior spinal cord infarctions due to neurosyphilis

An 86-year-old patient with multiple vascular risk factors including 3 previous strokes woke up with a sensation of wet lower limbs, with bilateral loss of proprioception in legs on examination. Cervical MRI showed 2 acute medullary ischemic lesions in the posterior columns at level C3 and C4 (figure 1, A–D). Biological screening including HIV serology, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL), and Lyme disease serology showed an increased TPHA titer of 1:320, with a negative VDRL. (Source: Nature Clinical Practice)


Sunday 7 December 2014

Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: Forests, parks and cemeteries

In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)

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Sunday 7 December 2014

Continuing increase of tick bites and Lyme disease between 1994 and 2009

Conclusions Our observation of increases in GP consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans diagnoses between 1994 and 2009 are confirmed by the parallel increase of tick bites reported by the general population, although consultation rates slightly increased. For every sixty tick bites in the general population in 2007, we observed one GP consult for erythema migrans. The increase in tick bites poses a progressive threat to public health. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Sunday 7 December 2014

Epidemiology and cost of hospital care for Lyme borreliosis in Germany: Lessons from a health care utilization database analysis

Publication date: February 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 6, Issue 1 Author(s): B. Lohr , I. Müller , M. Mai , D.E. Norris , O. Schöffski , K.-P. Hunfeld To date, relatively little is known about the economic and medical impact of Lyme borreliosis (LB) on European health care systems, especially for the inpatient sector. This retrospective analysis is based on data provided for the years 2007–2011 by a German statutory health insurance company (DAK-Gesundheit) covering approximately 6 million insured. Total cost was calculated for a 1-year period both from the third-party payers and from the societal perspective, respectively. In our cohort the incident diagnosis of LB was coded for 2163 inpatient cases during the years 2008–2011. The median inpatient time was 9 ...


Sunday 7 December 2014

Borrelia spirochetes in Russia: Genospecies differentiation by real-time PCR

Publication date: October 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 6 Author(s): T.A. Mukhacheva , S.Y. Kovalev Spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis which is widespread in Russia. Nowadays, three clinically important B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. bavariensis sp. nov., can be found in Russia, as well as B. miyamotoi, which belongs to the tick-borne relapsing fever group of spirochetes. Several techniques have been developed to differentiate Borrelia genospecies. However, most of them do not allow detection of all of these genospecies simultaneously. Also, no method based on the RT-PCR TaqMan approach has been proposed to differentiate the genetically closely related species B. ...


Saturday 6 December 2014

Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Tick-Borne Disease Cases among Humans and Canines in Illinois (2000-2009).

Authors: Herrmann JA, Dahm NM, Ruiz MO, Brown WM Abstract Four tick-borne diseases (TBDs), anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease (LD), and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), are endemic in Illinois. The prevalence of human and canine cases of all four TBDs rose over the study period with significant differences in geographic distribution within the state. Among human cases, there were associations between cases of RMSF and LD and total forest cover, seasonal precipitation, average mean temperature, racial-ethnic groups, and gender. Estimated annual prevalence of three canine TBDs exceeded human TBD cases significantly in each region. There was concordance in the number of human and canine cases by county of residence, in annual prevalence trends, and in time of year at which t...


Friday 5 December 2014

[Comment] Chikungunya virus control: is a vaccine on the horizon?

Vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue are among the most prevalent and important infectious diseases in the world. For example, WHO estimated that 40% of the world's population is at risk of dengue virus infection and up to 100 million infections might occur annually. West Nile virus and Lyme disease are prominent examples of vector-borne diseases, with over 5600 and 31 000 human cases estimated, respectively, in 2012 in the USA alone. (Source: LANCET)


Friday 5 December 2014

Proteomic analysis of three Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato native species and disseminating clones: Relevance for Lyme vaccine design

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics)


Thursday 4 December 2014

Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011

H. Wilking et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)


Tuesday 2 December 2014

Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease.

Authors: Galeone M, Colucci R, D'Erme AM, Moretti S, Lotti T Abstract Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most...

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Tuesday 2 December 2014

Bull's-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans.

Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient's appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis. PMID: 23133445 [PubMed] (Source: Dermatology Research and Practice)


Tuesday 2 December 2014

Long‐Term Assessment of Fibromyalgia in Patients with Culture‐Confirmed Lyme Disease

Conclusions: Fibromyalgia was observed in only 1% of 100 patients with culture‐confirmed early Lyme disease, a frequency consistent with that found for the general population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Monday 1 December 2014

Chronic neuroborreliosis by B. garinii: an unusual case presenting with epilepsy and multifocal brain MRI lesions.

Authors: Matera G, Labate A, Quirino A, Lamberti AG, Borzà G, Barreca GS, Mumoli L, Peronace C, Giancotti A, Gambardella A, Focà A, Quattrone A Abstract Late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) represents a challenging entity whose diagnosis requires a combination of clinical and laboratory findings, surrounded by much controversy. Here we describe a patient who had a peculiar form of late LNB with CNS lesions shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and epileptic seizures, etiologically diagnosed by conventional and molecular methods. The current case provides evidence that patients presenting with epileptic seizures and MRI-detected multifocal lesions, particularly when a facial palsy has also occurred, should raise the suspicion of LNB, as this diagnosis has important implic...


Monday 1 December 2014

Deciphering the interface between a CD40 receptor and borrelial ligand OspA

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Patrik Mlynarcik , Lucia Pulzova , Elena Bencurova , Andrej Kovac , Miguel A. Dominguez , Stanislav Hresko , Mangesh R. Bhide Neuroborreliosis is serious sequelae of Lyme borreliosis. Neuroinvasion is largely relied on successful translocation of Borrelia across the blood–brain barrier. Adherence of Borrelia to brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) seems to be critical for translocation. Here we unfold the interface between OspA and CD40 molecules, major ligand and receptor, that are involved in adhesion of Borrelia to BMECs. We found that a region between Asn127 and Asp205 of OspA forms the CD40-receptor binding site. This region encompasses human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE...


Monday 1 December 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)

(Source: Pediatrics in Review)

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Friday 28 November 2014

Update on Lyme Carditis and Associated Sudden Cardiac DeathUpdate on Lyme Carditis and Associated Sudden Cardiac Death

This report on Lyme carditis reminds clinicians that Lyme disease should be considered as a cause of cardiac symptoms in patients who live in or have visited a high-incidence Lyme disease region. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Friday 28 November 2014

Impact of Biodiversity and Seasonality on Lyme Pathogen Transmission

Lyme disease imposes increasing global public health challenges. To better understand the joint effects of seasonal temperature variation and host community composition on the pathogen transmission, a stage-structured periodic model is proposed by integrating seasonal tick development and activity, multiple host species and complex pathogen transmission routes between ticks and reservoirs. Two thresholds, one for tick population dynamics and the other for Lyme-pathogen transmission dynamics, are identified and shown to fully classify the long-term outcomes of the tick invasion and disease persistence. Seeding with the realistic parameters, the tick reproduction threshold and Lyme disease spread threshold are estimated to illustrate the joint effects of the climate change and host community...


Friday 28 November 2014

Invasive potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospC type L strains increases the possible disease risk to humans in the regions of their distribution

Borrelia burgdorferi ospC type L strains disseminate into host like strains responsible for Lyme disease worldwide, increasing the risk of LD in the southeastern USA, where strains are distributed. Image: Scanning electron microscopy image of low-passage culture of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Friday 28 November 2014

Impact of biodiversity and seasonality on Lyme-pathogen transmission

Lyme disease imposes increasing global public health challenges. To better understand the joint effects of seasonal temperature variation and host community composition on the pathogen transmission, a stage-structured periodic model is proposed by integrating seasonal tick development and activity, multiple host species and complex pathogen transmission routes between ticks and reservoirs. Two thresholds, one for tick population dynamics and the other for Lyme-pathogen transmission dynamics, are identified and shown to fully classify the long-term outcomes of the tick invasion and disease persistence. Seeding with the realistic parameters, the tick reproduction threshold and Lyme disease spread threshold are estimated to illustrate the joint effects of the climate change and host community...

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Wednesday 26 November 2014

What ticks do under your skin: two-photon intravital imaging of Ixodes scapularis feeding in the presence of the lyme disease spirochete.

Authors: Bockenstedt LK, Gonzalez D, Mao J, Li M, Belperron AA, Haberman A Abstract Lyme disease, due to infection with the Ixodes-tick transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-transmitted disease in the northern hemisphere. Our understanding of the tick-pathogen-vertebrate host interactions that sustain an enzootic cycle for B. burgdorferi is incomplete. In this article, we describe a method for imaging the feeding of Ixodes scapularis nymphs in real-time using two-photon intravital microscopy and show how this technology can be applied to view the response of Lyme borrelia in the skin of an infected host to tick feeding. PMID: 24600332 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

The association of lyme disease with loss of sexual libido and the role of urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggested an association between Lyme disease and loss of libido. Moreover, this loss of libido did not seem to be associated with urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. Given these results, we recommend further studies to confirm the association. PMID: 24987563 [PubMed] (Source: International Neurourology Journal)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction symptoms in lyme disease.

CONCLUSIONS: This first systematic controlled study confirms that Lyme disease is associated with urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. Further evaluation of detrusor function is warranted in this disease. PMID: 24143291 [PubMed] (Source: International Neurourology Journal)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Neurogenic bladder in lyme disease.

Authors: Kim MH, Kim WC, Park DS Abstract Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor...


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Editorial Commentary: Comparison of Lyme Disease Serologic Assays and Lyme Specialty Laboratories

(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Variability in results from negative binomial models for lyme disease measured at different spatial scales.

This study seeks to explore how sensitive/consistent negative binomial models are when they are used to study Lyme disease at different spatial scales (at the regional and sub-regional levels). The study area includes the thirteen states in the Northeastern United States with the highest Lyme disease incidence during the 2002-2006 period. Lyme disease incidence at county level for the period of 2002-2006 was linked with several previously identified key landscape and climatic variables in a negative binomial regression model for the Northeastern region and two smaller sub-regions (the New England sub-region and the Mid-Atlantic sub-region). This study found that negative binomial models, indeed, were sensitive/inconsistent when used at different spatial scales. We discuss various plausible...


Tuesday 25 November 2014

A Comparison of Lyme Disease Serologic Test Results From 4 Laboratories in Patients With Persistent Symptoms After Antibiotic Treatment

Conclusions. Although there was surprisingly little difference among the laboratories in percentage of positive results on most assays using CDC criteria, interlaboratory variability was considerable and remains a problem in LD testing. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Nervous System Lyme Disease

Abstract Lyme disease, a multisystem spirochetal infection, continues to be the subject of considerable debate, but not controversy. Recent years have seen improvements in diagnostic tools, better understanding of pathophysiology, and increasing evidence of efficacy of standard treatment regimens. Nervous system involvement is particularly confusing to patients and many physicians. A rational approach based on objective findings can clarify the cause and dictate the best treatment of patients’ difficulties. Diagnosis for all but the earliest cases rests on the combination of likely contact with infected Ixodes ticks and laboratory confirmation of exposure to the causative organism, Borrelia burgdorferi (two-tier serology, combining ELISA with a confirmatory Western blot). Treat...

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Tuesday 25 November 2014

Stage‐Specific Global Alterations in the Transcriptomes of Lyme Disease Spirochetes During Tick Feeding and Following Mammalian Host‐Adaptation

Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in nature within an enzootic cycle involving a mammalian reservoir and an Ixodes sp. tick vector. The transmission, survival and pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi depend on the bacterium's ability to modulate its transcriptome as it transits between vector and reservoir host. Herein, we employed an amplification‐microarray approach to define the B. burgdorferi transcriptomes in fed larvae, fed nymphs and in mammalian host‐adapted organisms cultivated in dialysis membrane chambers. The results show clearly that spirochetes exhibit unique expression profiles during each tick stage and during cultivation within the mammal; importantly, none of these profiles resembles that exhibited by in vitro‐grown organisms....


Monday 24 November 2014

Evaluating the need for a specialist service on Lyme disease in Australia.

Authors: Janakiraman R, Wan A PMID: 25414457 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Australasian Psychiatry)

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Monday 24 November 2014

Many animals steal defenses from bacteria: Microbe toxin genes have jumped to ticks, mites and other animals

Bacteria compete for resources in the environment by injecting deadly toxins into their rivals. Researcher have now discovered that many animals steal toxins from bacteria to fight unwanted microbes growing on them. Genes for these toxins have jumped from bacterial to animals. These genes are now permanently incorporated into the genomes of these animals. Deer ticks, which can carry Lyme disease, are one of the many diverse organisms in which toxin gene transfers from bacteria to animal has occurred. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 24 November 2014

Animals steal defenses from bacteria

(University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine) Bacteria compete for resources in the environment by injecting deadly toxins into their rivals. Researcher have now discovered that many animals steal toxins from bacteria to fight unwanted microbes growing on them. Genes for these toxins have jumped from bacterial to animals. These genes are now permanently incorporated into the genomes of these animals. Deer ticks, which can carry Lyme disease, are one of the many diverse organisms in which toxin gene transfers from bacteria to animal has occurred. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Monday 24 November 2014

The degree of damage in the peripheral facial nerve palsy in children depending on the cause: The role of Lyme neuroborreliosis

Conclusions The role of neuroborreliosis among the infectious factors ought to be emphasized. It seems significant that in patients with confirmed Lyme disease the stage of facial nerve damage was considerably deeper and the recovery was slower. (Source: Polish Annals of Medicine)


Monday 24 November 2014

Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function

Nature advance online publication 24 November 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13965 Authors: Seemay Chou, Matthew D. Daugherty, S. Brook Peterson, Jacob Biboy, Youyun Yang, Brandon L. Jutras, Lillian K. Fritz-Laylin, Michael A. Ferrin, Brittany N. Harding, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, X. Frank Yang, Waldemar Vollmer, Harmit S. Malik & Joseph D. Mougous Horizontal gene transfer allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits. Although documented instances of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce antibacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial ...


Monday 24 November 2014

Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by Borrelia burgdorferi in human immune cells correlates with pathogenic potential.

Authors: Love AC, Schwartz I, Petzke MM Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial agent of Lyme disease, induces the production of type I IFNs by human DCs through TLR7 and TLR9 signaling. This type I IFN response occurs in a genotype-dependent manner, with significantly higher levels of IFN-α elicited by B. burgdorferi strains that have a greater capacity for causing disseminated infection. A B. burgdorferi strain that was previously shown to induce IFN-α was found to elicit significantly higher levels of IDO1 protein and its downstream metabolite, kynurenine, compared with a B. burgdorferi mutant that lacks a single linear plasmid (lp36); this mutant is unable to induce IFN-α and is severely attenuated for infectivity in mice. Production of IDO by mDC and pDC populations, p...

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Monday 24 November 2014

Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function

Authors: Seemay Chou, Matthew D. Daugherty, S. Brook Peterson, Jacob Biboy, Youyun Yang, Brandon L. Jutras, Lillian K. Fritz-Laylin, Michael A. Ferrin, Brittany N. Harding, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, X. Frank Yang, Waldemar Vollmer, Harmit S. Malik & Joseph D. Mougous Horizontal gene transfer allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits. Although documented instances of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce antibacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial competition. The type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) proteins are p...


Thursday 20 November 2014

Willy Burgdorfer, Who Found Bacteria That Cause Lyme Disease, Is Dead at 89

Dr. Burgdorfer’s familiar finding while conducting tick surgery solved the mysteries of an ailment that had affected scores of people. (Source: NYT Health)


Thursday 20 November 2014

Landscape risk factors for Lyme disease in the eastern broadleaf forest province of the Hudson River valley and the effect of explanatory data classification resolution

This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity) and aggregate classes (e.g., forest, developed). Percent of each landcover type, median income, and centroid coordinates were calculated by census tract. Regression results from individual and aggregate variable models were compared with the dispersion parameter-based R 2 ( R α 2 ) and AIC. The maximum R α 2 was 0.82 and 0.83 for the best aggregate and individual model, respectively. The AICs for the best models differed by less than 0.5%. The aggregate model variables included forest, developed, agric...


Tuesday 18 November 2014

Go for a walk – you could discover the meaning of life

If you have a burning question about yourself, the answer might be all around you – that’s the theory behind Street Wisdom“The street is an invisible university, if you know how to look.” I am intrigued. This is the promise of Street Wisdom, a walking group with a twist, who offer something pretty ambitious, if not downright mystical. It’s free to take part, the website advises, and all I’ll need are warm clothes and a question I want answering. Feeling curious and a bit confused, I book myself in to the next event.A week later, I join seven other people seeking exercise and answers, on a hill in the Dorset coastal town of Lyme Regis. Leading the session is the founder Chris Baréz-Brown, a long-haired, twinkly eyed cross between Richard Branson and a wizard. I greet him,...


Monday 17 November 2014

Lyme law uses "junk science" says expert.

Lyme law uses "junk science" says expert. CMAJ. 2014 Nov 17; Authors: Brown C PMID: 25404395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: cmaj)

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Saturday 15 November 2014

Uveitis: The Collaborative Diagnostic Evaluation.

Authors: Harman LE, Margo CE, Roetzheim RG Abstract Uveitis, or inflammation of the uveal tract (i.e., iris, ciliary body, and choroid), results from a heterogeneous collection of disorders of varying etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms. Uveitis is caused by a systemic disease in 30% to 45% of patients. Primary care physicians may be asked to evaluate patients with uveitis when an underlying systemic diagnosis is suspected but not apparent from eye examination or history. If the history, physical examination, and basic laboratory studies do not suggest an underlying cause, serologic tests for syphilis and chest radiography for sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are recommended. Typing for human leukocyte antigen-B27 is appropriate for patients with recurrent anterior uveitis. Because th...


Friday 14 November 2014

Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnosis of cutaneous infections in dermatopathology.

Authors: Swick BL Abstract Conventional methods, including microscopy, culture, and serologic studies, are a mainstay in the diagnosis of cutaneous infection. However, owing to limitations associated with these techniques, such as low sensitivity for standard microscopy and in the case of culture delay in diagnosis, polymerase chain-reaction based molecular techniques have taken on an expanding role in the diagnosis of infectious processes in dermatopathology. In particular, these assays are a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infection, leprosy, Lyme disease, syphilis, rickettsioses, leishmaniasis, and some fungal and viral infections. Already in the case of tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial infection, standardized polymerase c...


Wednesday 12 November 2014

Molecular Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Case of Autochthonous Lyme Arthritis

S. I. Brummitt et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)


Tuesday 11 November 2014

Evaluation of Borrelia real time PCR DNA targeting OspA, FlaB and 5S–23S IGS and Borrelia 16S rRNA RT-qPCR

Publication date: December 2014 Source:Journal of Microbiological Methods, Volume 107 Author(s): Bertie H.C.G.M. de Leeuw , Boulos Maraha , Leonie Hollemans , Hein Sprong , Afke H. Brandenburg , Pieter J. Westenend , Johannes G. Kusters Borrelia burgdorferi non-sensu lato (s.l.) strains occurred in the Netherlands. A multiplex OspA, FlaB, IGS real time PCR was compared to 16S rRNA/rDNA RT-qPCR with lower average Cycle threshold (Ct) and LOD on strain dilutions. Multiplexing increased sensitivity on CSF samples (n=74), distinguishing B. burgdorferi s.l. from non-s.l. strains. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods)


Monday 10 November 2014

Skylar’s story: My heart surgery scar makes me appreciate life

About the blogger: Skylar Bayer, 28, is a PhD student at the University of Maine. When she was one day old, she had open-heart surgery for transposition of the great arteries, a congenital heart defect where the heart’s two main arteries are physically swapped. But her heart defect didn’t keep her from being a kid like any other and hasn’t stopped her from following her passions. If anything, it’s made her appreciate life all the more.  I can still recall being a five-year-old girl in the women’s locker room of the swim and tennis club my family attended in the summer. I’m peering around the room at all the other girls’ and women’s chests, and I notice for the first time that no one else has the same six-inch scar down the middle of their chests that ...

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Monday 10 November 2014

pncA and bptA Are Not Sufficient To Complement Ixodes scapularis Colonization and Persistence by Borrelia burgdorferi in a Linear Plasmid lp25-Deficient Background [Molecular Pathogenesis]

In this study, we complemented an lp25-deficient borrelial strain with pncA alone or pncA accompanied by bptA to evaluate the ability of the complemented strains to restore larval colonization and persistence through transstadial transmission relative to that of wild-type B. burgdorferi. The acquisition of the complemented strains by tick larvae from infected mice and/or the survival of these strains was significantly decreased when assayed by cultivation and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Only 10% of the pncA-complemented strain organisms were found by culture to survive 17 days following larval feeding, while 45% of the pncA- and bptA-complemented strain organisms survived, with similar results by PCR. However, neither of the complemented B. burgdorferi strains was capable of persisting throug...


Sunday 9 November 2014

Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China

Conclusion The MLVA protocol esytablished in this study is easy and can show strains' phylogenetic relationships to distinguish the strains of Borrelia species. It is useful for further phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses of Borrelia strains. (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences)


Sunday 9 November 2014

Lyme Borreliosis-associated Risk Factors in Residents of Beijing Suburbs: a Preliminary Case-control Study

Publication date: October 2014 Source:Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 10 Author(s): Xiang Feng DOU , Yan Ning LYU , Yi JIANG , Chang Ying LIN , Li Li TIAN , Quan WANG Yi , Yu Song YANG , Chao LI , Yu Lan SUN , Zeng Zhi GUAN , Xiu Chun ZHANG , Xin Yu LI (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences)


Friday 7 November 2014

It's free! QB3 inks equipment donation deal for biomed startups

One of the lures of the University of California's QB3 incubator network for life sciences startups is access to the same core facilities — centralized sites with million-dollar pieces of equipment — used by top-flight medical researchers. Now QB3 and partner American Laboratory Trading Inc. believe they've found a way to help young biotech and medical device companies find more commonly used equipment without paying a penny more. It's part of a push by ALT, an East Lyme, Conn.-based pre-owned… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)


Friday 7 November 2014

Coinfection of tick cell lines has variable effects on replication of intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens

Publication date: June 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 4 Author(s): Anna Moniuszko , Claudia Rückert , M. Pilar Alberdi , Gerald Barry , Brian Stevenson , John K. Fazakerley , Alain Kohl , Lesley Bell-Sakyi Ticks transmit various human and animal microbial pathogens and may harbour more than one pathogen simultaneously. Both viruses and bacteria can trigger, and may subsequently suppress, vertebrate host and arthropod vector anti-microbial responses. Microbial coinfection of ticks could lead to an advantage or disadvantage for one or more of the microorganisms. In this preliminary study, cell lines derived from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus were infected sequentially with 2 arthropod-borne pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Ehrlichia rumina...

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Thursday 6 November 2014

Neoplasms Misdiagnosed as “Chronic Lyme Disease”

Clinical features of Lyme disease include erythema migrans rash, facial palsy, arthritis, and peripheral neuropathy. In endemic areas, patients with erythema migrans can be diagnosed clinically. Otherwise, diagnosis is based on the history of possible exposure, compatible clinical features, and … Continued (Source: JAMA Oncology)


Thursday 6 November 2014

LYME PLUS (Not Applicable) Liquid [Deseret Biologicals, Inc.]

Updated Date: Nov 6, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Tuesday 4 November 2014

That's Not Chronic Lyme, It's Cancer

(MedPage Today) -- Three case reports demonstrate the risks of "assuming that patients have chronic Lyme disease." (Source: MedPage Today Hematology/Oncology)


Tuesday 4 November 2014

Lyme Misdiagnosis Can Divert Patients From Correct TreatmentLyme Misdiagnosis Can Divert Patients From Correct Treatment

In three cases Lyme misdiagnosis led to delayed diagnosis and treatment for cancers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Tuesday 4 November 2014

The Clinical Spectrum of Skin Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis in 204 Children in Austria.

In conclusion, erythema migrans with multiple lesions and borrelial lymphocytoma appear to be more frequent in children than in adults, whereas acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is a rarity in childhood. The outcome after antibiotic therapy was excellent in children, and appears to be better than in adults. PMID: 25366035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Dermato-Venereologica)

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Monday 3 November 2014

New test shows promise in identifying new drugs to treat lyme disease

A test has been developed by researchers which they say will allow them to test thousands of FDA-approved drugs to see if they will work against the bacteria that causes tick-borne Lyme disease. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 3 November 2014

New Test Shows Promise in Identifying New Drugs to Treat Lyme Disease

Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have developed a test they say will allow them to test thousands of FDA-approved drugs to see if they will work against the bacteria that causes tick-borne Lyme disease. (Source: Public Health News Headlines from Johns Hopkins)


Monday 3 November 2014

New test shows promise in identifying new drugs to treat Lyme disease

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have developed a test they say will allow them to test thousands of FDA-approved drugs to see if they will work against the bacteria that causes tick-borne Lyme disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Monday 3 November 2014

Case report of rare chronic myelogenous leukemia related multibacterial splenic abscess presenting with scrotal swelling

CONCLUSION This case illustrated an unusual presentation of CML because the patient presented with splenomegaly, a multibacterial splenic abscess, and scrotal swelling. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)


Saturday 1 November 2014

Bilateral vocal cord paralysis requiring tracheostomy due to neuroborreliosis.

We report the case of a 90-year-old man who presented with dysphonia and right upper and lower extremity weakness. His course was complicated by bilateral vocal cord paralysis and respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy. The diagnosis of borreliosis was made by detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi on enzyme immunoassay and Western blot. The patient received IV ceftriaxone for 2 weeks, followed by complete recovery of motor and vocal function over 2 months. Our case is the third report of bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the literature, and the first one, to our knowledge, presenting with respiratory failure requiring an artificial airway. Physicians should be aware of this unusual complication of neuroborreliosis. PMID: 25367481 [PubMed - in process] (S...

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Saturday 1 November 2014

Disseminated Lyme Disease Presenting With Nonsexual Acute Genital Ulcers

Conclusions and RelevanceAlthough the etiology of NAGU is unknown, the vulvar ulcers may result from an exuberant immune response to infection. Most patients with NAGU exhibit nonspecific symptoms such as myalgias and fever, suggesting an infectious agent, but the majority have no identifiable pathogen. In addition to previously reported associations with systemic infection, which are reviewed herein, Lyme disease should be considered in women presenting with acute-onset genital ulcers. (Source: JAMA Dermatology)


Saturday 1 November 2014

Lyme disease

The multisystemic inflammatory condition Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried on ticks and transmitted via their bite. The facts about this disease are useful to dentists who may be called on to manage oral manifestations (Table 1). (Source: Dental Abstracts)


Saturday 1 November 2014

[In Process Citation].

We present the case of a 26 year old man reporting to the family doctor due to swelling and redness of the foot. After thrombosis and a tumorous mass could be excluded, the suspicion fell on an acrodermatitis chronica atrophican which could be confirmed by laboratory tests. During therapy there was a significant regression of the cutaneous lesion. The treatment of the Lyme disease was taken over by the casualty insurer. PMID: 25391746 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Praxis)


Friday 31 October 2014

Lyme Carditis Can Cause Sudden Cardiac Death Lyme Carditis Can Cause Sudden Cardiac Death

Lyme disease might be a cause of cardiac symptoms in patients living in or visiting high-incidence areas and might contribute to sudden cardiac death, the CDC has warned healthcare providers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Friday 31 October 2014

CDC Reports Two New Suspected Cases of Sudden Death Linked to Lyme Carditis (FREE)

By Cara Adler Edited by André Sofair, MD, MPH, and William E. Chavey, MD, MS Lyme carditis occurs in about 1% of patients with Lyme disease and rarely is associated with death, according to an MMWR … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

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Friday 31 October 2014

Notes from the field: update on lyme carditis, groups at high risk, and frequency of associated sudden cardiac death - United States.

Authors: Forrester JD, Meiman J, Mullins J, Nelson R, Ertel SH, Cartter M, Brown CM, Lijewski V, Schiffman E, Neitzel D, Daly ER, Mathewson AA, Howe W, Lowe LA, Kratz NR, Semple S, Backenson PB, White JL, Kurpiel PM, Rockwell R, Waller K, Johnson DH, Steward C, Batten B, Blau D, DeLeon-Carnes M, Drew C, Muehlenbachs A, Ritter J, Sanders J, Zaki SR, Molins C, Schriefer M, Perea A, Kugeler K, Nelson C, Hinckley A, Mead P Abstract On December 13, 2013, MMWR published a report describing three cases of sudden cardiac death associated with Lyme carditis. State public health departments and CDC conducted a follow-up investigation to determine 1) whether carditis was disproportionately common among certain demographic groups of patients diagnosed with Lyme disease, 2) the frequency of dea...



Thursday 30 October 2014

Borrelial lymphocytoma cutis: A diagnostic dilemma

Rajat Kandhari, Sanjiv Kandhari, Sudhir JainIndian Journal of Dermatology 2014 59(6):595-597Lymphocytoma cutis (LC) is one of the most common types of cutaneous B cell pseudolymphoma. Borrelial LC occurs most commonly in areas endemic for Ixodes ricinus tick in Europe, and it is rare in North America. The disease is rarely seen in India and may cause diagnostic difficulties for dermatologist residing in parts of the world that are not endemic for Lyme disease. The diagnosis is critical as LC may present as the only early manifestation of Lyme disease. Herein, we have presented a case of borrelial LC in an 11-year-old boy of German descent, residing in India. (Source: Indian Journal of Dermatology)


Wednesday 29 October 2014

LYME HP (Not Applicable) Liquid [Energique, Inc.]

Updated Date: Oct 29, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Wednesday 29 October 2014

Performance evaluation of the Elecsys® Syphilis assay for detecting total antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

Authors: Enders M, Hunjet A, Gleich M, Imdahl R, Mühlbacher A, Schennach H, Chaiwong K, Sakuldamrongpanich T, Turhan A, Sertöz R, Wolf E, Mayer W, Tao C, Wang LL, Semprini S, Sambri V Abstract Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if it is not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard and diagnosis usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study we evaluate the treponemal Elecsys® Syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples i.e. when syphilis is suspected, or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys® Syphilis assay was compared he...


Wednesday 29 October 2014

A Concise Critical Analysis of Serologic Testing for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

Abstract Diagnostic testing for Lyme disease in the clinical setting primarily relies on assessment of serologic responses to infection, with the exception of the early localized phase of disease, in which the diagnosis must be made clinically, due to the recognized insensitivity of serologic testing at this phase of disease. For the diagnosis of early disseminated and late disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a two-tiered approach to testing consisting of initial IgM and IgG quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by confirmation of all indeterminate or positive ELISA tests with separate IgG and IgM Western blots. This critical analysis addresses the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of serologic testing f...


Saturday 25 October 2014

Evaluating the Child with Acute Hip Pain (“Irritable Hip”) in a Lyme Endemic Region

To estimate the prevalence of Lyme infection among children presenting with acute, nontraumatic hip pain in a Lyme endemic region and to investigate predictors of Lyme disease among children with suspected transient synovitis. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)


Friday 24 October 2014

Vasculitis and stroke due to Lyme neuroborreliosis – a review

Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Ahead of Print. (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Friday 24 October 2014

Cerebral sinuvenous thrombosis: a rare complication of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

We present a case of a patient with cerebral sinuvenous thrombosis who was first treated for neuroborreliosis. PMID: 25341456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)


Tuesday 21 October 2014

Efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for neuroborreliosis--protocol for a systematic review

DiscussionThis systematic review will summarize the available evidence from RCTs and non-randomized studies regarding pharmacological treatment of neuroborreliosis. The available evidence will be summarized and discussed to provide a basis for decision-making for patients and healthcare professionals.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014008839 (Source: BioMed Central)


Tuesday 21 October 2014

Efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for neuroborreliosis—protocol for a systematic review

Discussion This systematic review will summarize the available evidence from RCTs and non-randomized studies regarding pharmacological treatment of neuroborreliosis. The available evidence will be summarized and discussed to provide a basis for decision-making for patients and healthcare professionals. Systematic review registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014008839 (Source: Systematic Reviews)


Monday 20 October 2014

Spatial and Temporal Emergence Pattern of Lyme Disease in Virginia.

In this study, we analyze spatial patterns of the disease using a statistical smoothing analysis based on areal (census tract level) count data of Lyme disease cases in Virginia from 1998 to 2011. We also use space and space-time scan statistics to reveal the presence of clusters in the spatial and spatiotemporal distribution of Lyme disease. Our results confirm and quantify the continued emergence of Lyme disease to the south and west in states along the eastern coast of the United States. The results also highlight areas where education and surveillance needs are highest. PMID: 25331806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)


Sunday 19 October 2014

Lyme Disease Activists Protest at IDWeekLyme Disease Activists Protest at IDWeek

Lyme disease advocates registered as attendees at the infectious diseases conference are calling for physicians to update their guidelines. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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Sunday 19 October 2014

Natural Foci Diseases as a Stable Biological Threat

Abstract The key aspects of the natural foci of especially dangerous diseases as a type of biological threats are presented. Approaches to epidemiological surveillance and control to the spread of the agents of especially dangerous diseases on endemic areas are described for zoonosis that has a medical value. The knowledge of specific design of tools for the implementation of epidemiological surveillance, monitoring and evaluation of natural foci diseases in developing countries is low; accordingly, little is known on the ecology and transmission dynamics for the agents of especially dangerous diseases. Important is to know the effectiveness of serological monitoring of the indigenous population to determine the activity of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, ti...


Thursday 16 October 2014

Homozygous hemoglobin S (HbSS) presenting with bilateral facial nerve palsy: a case report

Conclusion: Bilateral facial nerve palsy may be an initial presentation of sickle cell anemia patients in the absence of other overt clinical presentations. Therefore sickle cell anemia should be considered among others, in the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve palsy. Furthermore, this case report has highlighted the important role of physiotherapy in the management of bilateral facial nerve palsy. (Source: BMC Research Notes)


Thursday 16 October 2014

Persistent Lyme Empiric Antibiotic Study Europe (PLEASE) - design of a randomized controlled trial of prolonged antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis

This article describes the background and design issues of the PLEASE study protocol. The results of this study may provide evidence for prescribing or withholding prolonged antibiotic treatment.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01207739, Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2469 (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 16 October 2014

Lyme disease: A rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment.

Authors: Borchers AT, Keen CL, Huntley AC, Gershwin ME Abstract Lyme disease was originally identified in Lyme, Connecticut, based upon an unusual cluster of what appeared to be patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. It was subsequently identified as a new clinical entity originally called Lyme arthritis based on the observation that arthritis was a major clinical feature. However, Lyme arthritis is now called Lyme disease based upon the understanding that the clinical features include not only arthritis, but also potential cardiac, dermatologic and neurologic findings. Lyme disease typically begins with an erythematous rash called erythema migrans (EM). Approximately 4-8% of patients develop cardiac, 11% develop neurologic and 45-60% of patients manifest arthritis. The disea...


Thursday 16 October 2014

Center For Salivary Diagnostics Could ‘Revolutionize’ Health Care Landscape

CAMBRIDGE (CBS) – There was a ribbon cutting ceremony in Cambridge at the Forsyth Institute’s new Center for Salivary Diagnostics. WBZ NewsRadio’s Mary Blake reports the research there is cutting edge. Dr. Phil Stashenko, President and CEO of the Forsyth Institute, says the institute partnered with the Massachusetts Life Sciences Center, obtaining a $4.2 million development grant. He says over the past year, they have built out some core facilities and renovated space in their Cambridge research facility. He predicts the work there will be groundbreaking “We think that the center has the potential to revolutionize the health care landscape by creating new opportunities for early disease prevention and detection,” Dr. Stashenko said. “The mouth is the portal to the bod...

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Wednesday 15 October 2014

A Unique Case of Adolescent Neuroborreliosis Presenting with Multiple Cranial Neuritis and Cochlear Inflammation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, and is caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In children, neuroborreliosis usually presents as peripheral facial nerve palsy and lymphocytic meningitis, and only rarely is associated with cranial polyneuritis. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)


Tuesday 14 October 2014

Selective Whole Genome Amplification for Resequencing Target Microbial Species from Complex Natural Samples [Methods, Technology, and Resources]

Population genomic analyses have demonstrated power to address major questions in evolutionary and molecular microbiology. Collecting populations of genomes is hindered in many microbial species by the absence of a cost effective and practical method to collect ample quantities of sufficiently pure genomic DNA for next-generation sequencing. Here we present a simple method to amplify genomes of a target microbial species present in a complex, natural sample. The selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) technique amplifies target genomes using nucleotide sequence motifs that are common in the target microbe genome, but rare in the background genomes, to prime the highly processive phi29 polymerase. SWGA thus selectively amplifies the target genome from samples in which it originally repr...


Tuesday 14 October 2014

Long-Term Assessment of Fatigue in Patients with Culture-Confirmed Lyme Disease

Fatigue is a common symptom with numerous causes. Severe fatigue is thought to be an important manifestation of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The frequency with which severe fatigue occurs as a long-term sequela in prospectively followed Lyme disease patients, however, is unknown. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Sunday 12 October 2014

Lyme and other Stealth Infections

Publication date: January 2014 Source:Advances in Integrative Medicine, Volume 1, Issue 1 Author(s): Gull Herzberg (Source: Advances in Integrative Medicine)


Saturday 11 October 2014

Antibodies to decorin-binding protein B (DbpB) in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children

(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Thursday 9 October 2014

Assessing the Contribution of Songbirds to the Movement of Ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi in the Midwestern United States During Fall Migration

Abstract The geographic distributions of Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) and the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (the causative agent of Lyme disease) are expanding in the USA. To assess the role of migratory songbirds in the spread of this tick and pathogen, we captured passerines in central Illinois during the fall of 2012. We compared forested sites in regions where I. scapularis populations were either previously or not yet established. Ticks were removed from birds and blood samples were taken from select avian species. Ticks were identified by morphology and molecular techniques were used to detect B. burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks and avian blood samples. Ixodes spp. were detected on 10 of 196 migrants (5.1%), with I. scapularis larvae found on 2 i...


Saturday 4 October 2014

Disease Risk in a Dynamic Environment: The Spread of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Minnesota, USA

Abstract As humans and climate change alter the landscape, novel disease risk scenarios emerge. Understanding the complexities of pathogen emergence and subsequent spread as shaped by landscape heterogeneity is crucial to understanding disease emergence, pinpointing high-risk areas, and mitigating emerging disease threats in a dynamic environment. Tick-borne diseases present an important public health concern and incidence of many of these diseases are increasing in the United States. The complex epidemiology of tick-borne diseases includes strong ties with environmental factors that influence host availability, vector abundance, and pathogen transmission. Here, we used 16 years of case data from the Minnesota Department of Health to report spatial and temporal trends in Lyme dis...


Friday 3 October 2014

Well: Think Like a Doctor: Mirror, Mirror Solved!

Readers solve the case of a 62-year-old man with fatigue, neck and arm pain, and a droopy face. (Source: NYT)


Wednesday 1 October 2014

Co-infections with Borrelia species , Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in patients with tick-borne encephalitis

Conclusions were such that differential diagnosis in patients after the tick bite, presenting with acute symptoms, should include not only TBE and Lyme disease, but also other diseases transmitted by ticks. In patients with low parasitemia in suspicion of Babesia spp. infection PCR seems to be a more sensitive method than blood smear. Co-infection with various tick-borne pathogens must be always considered, especially in endemic regions. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)


Wednesday 1 October 2014

Lyme Borreliosis-associated Risk Factors in Residents of Beijing Suburbs: a Preliminary Case-control Study.

Authors: Dou XF, Lyu YN, Jiang Y, Lin CY, Tian LL, Wang QY, Yang YS, Li C, Sun YL, Guan ZZ, Zhang XC, Li XY Abstract A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relative factors in the environments, agricultural works, outdoor activities, and the effectiveness of Lyme borreliosis (LB)- associated personal protective measures in Beijing. Thirty-four cases and 272 controls were personally interviewed by well-trained interviewers. Venous blood samples were taken from each subject. Sowing or harvesting in summer (OR=2.571, 95% CI: 1.109-5.962), living in house with weeding in the yard (OR=2.247, 95% CI: 1.062-4.755), and residence at the plain area (OR=2.630, 95% CI: 1.050-6.588) were the independent relative factors for seropositive LB. Wearing long pants and c...


Wednesday 1 October 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato serology in the Netherlands: guidelines versus daily practice

Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare guideline recommendations and day-to-day practice of serological testing for Lyme borreliosis (LB) in a laboratory located in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, serving both regional hospitals and primary care physicians. By telephone interview, we obtained clinical information regarding 488 requests for LB serology. Screening for LB was performed with a C6-peptide EIA and confirmed by recombinant immunoblot. A total of 82 % of the requests were not supported by guideline’s recommendations and either originated from patients with atypical symptoms and a low a priori chance for LB or from patients for which testing on LB was not recommended for other reasons. C6-EIA screening was positive in 5 % of patients with atypical symptoms, com...


Tuesday 30 September 2014

Lyme arthritis: Immune surveillance stops joint-invading Borrelia in mice

Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 638 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.172 Author: Sarah Onuora Why don't mice get lyme arthritis? New research led by Paul Kubes suggests immune surveillance by invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are more abundant in the joints of mice than humans, blocks the Lyme-disease inducing pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi from entering the joints. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)


Saturday 27 September 2014

Generic Drug Prices On The Rise

BOSTON (CBS) — Generic drugs are the workhorses of health care. They are safe, effective, and affordable and they treat everything from migraines to life-threatening illnesses. But in the past few years, pharmacists and their patients have noticed a significant cost increase in some medicines. The prices are so high in some cases that patients are choosing to go without. Ron Nadir of Chelmsford takes 16 different medications for a number of different health issues. “Diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and a few others,” he said. All those health problems make it impossible to work full time so he is happy he has Medicaid help to pay for his meds. “I’m grateful for that,” he said. But even with that help, Ron may have trouble covering the cost of his medications ...

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Thursday 25 September 2014

Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is influenced by the test used: Comparison of two ELISAs, immunoblot and CXCL13 testing

To compare Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibodies by two different ELISAs, an immunoblot (IB) and CXCL13. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)


Wednesday 24 September 2014

Tick-Borne Diseases on the Rise Thanks to Global Warming

Lyme disease is bad enough. But it's just the beginning of a host of odd and ugly diseases ticks transmit, public health officials are finding -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Wednesday 24 September 2014

Tick-Borne Diseases on the Rise, Thanks to Global Warming

Lyme disease is bad enough. But it's just the beginning of a host of odd and ugly diseases ticks transmit, public health officials are finding -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Wednesday 24 September 2014

Lyme Disease Surges North

One of the clearest signs of health risks in a warming world has emerged in one of the world’s most advanced economies, as Canada belatedly struggles to cope with Lyme disease's migration in... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Tuesday 23 September 2014

Blood transfusion transmission of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in mice.

CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that transfusion transmission of B. miyamotoi can occur in mice and suggest that it also may occur in humans. PMID: 25251880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transfusion)

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Monday 22 September 2014

Mothers May Pass Lyme Disease to Children in the Womb

Doctors treating Lyme see evidence that pregnant women can transmit the disease to their children. But public health experts say the science isn't so clear -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 22 September 2014

Has Climate Change Made Lyme Disease Worse?

As Lyme disease spreads across the U.S., those in its path cope with a debilitating, bewildering array of maladies, misery and afflictions -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 22 September 2014

Tick Bite Prophylaxis: Results From a 2012 Survey of Healthcare Providers

Summary In a recent national survey, over 30% of healthcare providers (HCPs) reported prescribing tick bite prophylaxis in the previous year. To clarify provider practices, we surveyed HCPs to determine how frequently and for what reasons they prescribed tick bite prophylaxis. We included four questions regarding tick bite prophylaxis in the DocStyles 2012 survey, a computer‐administered questionnaire of 2205 US primary care physicians, paediatricians and nurse practitioners. Responses in 14 states with high Lyme disease incidence (high LDI) were compared with responses from other states (low LDI). Overall, 56.4% of 1485 providers reported prescribing tick bite prophylaxis at least once in the previous year, including 73.9% of HCPs in high LDI and 48.2% in low LDI states. The reasons giv...


Friday 19 September 2014

Natural killer T cells: Lyme scaled back

Nature Reviews Immunology 14, 648 (2014). doi:10.1038/nri3748 Author: Yvonne Bordon Invariant natural killer T cells can directly limit bacterial dissemination into the joints. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)


Thursday 18 September 2014

Small, fast, and crowded: Mammal traits amplify tick-borne illness

In the U.S., some 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease annually. Thousands also suffer from babesiosis and anaplasmosis, tick-borne ailments that can occur alone or as co-infections with Lyme disease. In our struggle to manage the ever-growing list of tick-borne diseases, we need to understand which animals magnify human disease risk. New results suggest when generalist pathogens emerge, small mammals with large populations and a fast pace of life warrant careful monitoring. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

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Thursday 18 September 2014

Revisited: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany)

The overall B. burgdorferi sl infection rate of I. ricinus ticks in the city of Hanover, Germany, was 22.7% with B. afzelii as the most frequent genospecies. Significant seasonal fluctuations as well as local differences were observed. Comparing results with data from 2005, an increase of infected larvae was noted, whereas the other stages revealed no significant differences. Image: Adult female Ixodes ricinus. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 18 September 2014

Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID: 25239124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)


Thursday 18 September 2014

First Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Serum of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northern Portugal by Nested-PCR

In this study, Borrelia DNA was detected for the first time by nested-PCR in three different sera, suggesting that the wild boar may be a potential reservoir for this spirochete. Sequencing results show 100% similarity with Borrelia afzelii. Further studies are needed to evaluate the public health risks associated with boar hunting. (Source: EcoHealth)


Thursday 11 September 2014

Ticks that vector Lyme disease move west into North Dakota

Ixodes scapularis, also known as the blacklegged tick or deer tick -- is moving westward, and for the first time has been found to be established in North Dakota. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Tuesday 9 September 2014

Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012.

Authors: Vandenesch A, Turbelin C, Couturier E, Arena C, Jaulhac B, Ferquel E, Choumet V, Saugeon C, Coffinieres E, Blanchon T, Vaillant V, Hanslik T PMID: 25188613 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)


Tuesday 9 September 2014

Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: the neglected disease in our own backyard

A survey was developed to assess experience and opinions about Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) among faculties in public health. No previous surveys of public health faculties have been found in the literature. (Source: Public Health)


Tuesday 9 September 2014

Neuroborelliosis in south west england

Lyme disease is a zoonotic infection transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks infected with Borellia spp. Recorded incidence in the UK has increased threefold over the last decade (0.5 to 1.5 reports per 100,000)–due in part to improvement in and standardisation of serological testing but also likely with increased recognition of the wide spectrum of presentation. We assessed all Lyme serology requests between 2006 and 2011 from the Royal Devon and Exeter catchment area - one of the UK's hotspots for Lyme disease. Testing peaked in 2008 and has since fallen. Of 206 positives, 21 attended the hospital with their illness and of those: 50% were paediatric, 56% presented with facial nerve palsy and 17% had meningitis. 72% in total had a neurological manifestation. Compared to pu...


Friday 5 September 2014

Be Aware of Ticks and Lyme Disease

. To learn more, visit the MedlinePlus Lyme Disease health topic page. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick... (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)


Thursday 4 September 2014

American neuroborreliosis presenting as cranial polyneuritis and radiculoneuritis

We report a case of LNB with simultaneous involvement of the third, fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves in addition to cervical and thoracic radiculoneuritis. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)

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Thursday 4 September 2014

Exposure to ticks and seroprevalence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]among a healthy young population living in the area of southern Podlasie, Poland.

Conclusion. Evaluation of the actual infection with Borrelia spp. using serologic tests is difficult due to a certain non-specificity of the ELISA test, especially in IgM class antibodies, and difficulties with performance of a wide scope of specific Western blot tests. The variety of methods of tick removal declared by adolescents suggests that a wider education of society concerning appropriate methods of removing the tick should become an especially important element of prophylactic actions in the area of borreliosis. PMID: 25292120 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Wednesday 3 September 2014

A Novel Multivalent OspA Vaccine against Lyme Borreliosis is Safe and Immunogenic in an Adult Population Previously Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01504347.). PMID: 25185574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)


Wednesday 3 September 2014

Recognising and understanding Lyme disease.

Authors: Pearson S Abstract Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere and its incidence is rising, leading to increased public health concerns. It is important to understand the nature of the disease because this defines the limitations of current understanding and knowledge. Significant uncertainties in diagnostics and treatment remain. There is an important role for the nurse in raising awareness, giving advice on prevention and correct tick removal, and in recognising signs of Lyme disease to assist access to prompt medical attention. Increased awareness, further research, improved diagnostics and advances in therapeutics are urgently required. PMID: 25182921 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)


Monday 1 September 2014

Lyme arthritis of the pediatric ankle.

Authors: Aiyer A, Walrath J, Hennrikus W Abstract Lyme arthritis results from acute inflammation caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The number of cases per year has been rising since 2006, with a majority of patients being affected in the northeastern United States. Development of Lyme arthritis is of particular importance to the orthopedic surgeon because Lyme arthritis often presents as an acute episode of joint swelling and tenderness and may be confused with bacterial septic arthritis. Considering the vast difference in treatment management between these 2 pathologies, differentiating between them is of critical importance. Septic arthritis often needs to be addressed surgically, whereas Lyme arthritis can be treated with oral antibiotics alone. Laboratory testing f...


Monday 1 September 2014

Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China.

CONCLUSION: The MLVA protocol esytablished in this study is easy and can show strains' phylogenetic relationships to distinguish the strains of Borrelia species. It is useful for further phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses of Borrelia strains. PMID: 25256856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)

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Monday 1 September 2014

Detection of Invasive Borrelia burgdorferi Strains in North‐Eastern Piedmont, Italy

Summary Following reports of human cases of Lyme borreliosis from the Ossola Valley, a mountainous area of Piemonte, north‐western Italy, the abundance and altitudinal distribution of ticks, and infection of these vectors with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were evaluated. A total of 1662 host‐seeking Ixodes ricinus were collected by dragging from April to September 2011 at locations between 400 and 1450 m above sea level. Additional 104 I. ricinus were collected from 35 hunted wild animals (4 chamois, 8 roe deer, 23 red deer). Tick density, expressed as the number of ticks per 100 m2, resulted highly variable among different areas, ranging from 0 to 105 larvae and from 0 to 22 nymphs. A sample of 352 ticks (327 from dragging and 25 from wild animals) was screened by a PCR assay ta...


Monday 1 September 2014

Comparison of different diagnostic assays for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi‐specific antibodies in dogs

ConclusionsBoth IFAs had very low sensitivity and specificity and cannot be recommended for screening purposes. In contrast, KELA showed excellent sensitivity, but positive results always need to be confirmed by WB to differentiate the source of antibody formation. The SNAP4Dx had a high sensitivity and specificity, and thus can potentially replace the more labor‐intensive WB, at least in untreated dogs. (Source: Veterinary Clinical Pathology)


Friday 29 August 2014

Prioritizing dermatoses: rationally selecting guideline topics

ConclusionDermatological professional organizations worldwide succeeded in developing guidelines for all top 20 topics. Respondents mostly agree with (inter)national guideline programmes and literature concerning the criteria important to selecting guideline topics. (Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology)


Thursday 28 August 2014

Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012

(Source: Eurosurveillance latest news)


Wednesday 27 August 2014

Genotyping of Borrelia from formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded skin biopsies of cutaneous borreliosis and tick bite reactions by assays targeting the intergenic spacer region, ospA and ospC genes

ConclusionsGenotyping of Borrelia can be easily implemented in a routine dermatopathology setting, especially as a fast method to confirm early cutaneous borreliosis. Genotyping could also enable earlier treatment of patients infected with invasive strains. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)

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Tuesday 26 August 2014

Review: Unraveling Lyme Disease

(Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Tuesday 26 August 2014

Heart block and Lyme carditis

(Source: QJM)


Tuesday 26 August 2014

Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions

Lyme borreliosis is more prevalent in the northern than the southern U.S. Northern Ixodes scapularis ticks did not consistently survive longer than southern ticks in laboratory trials. Both northern and southern ticks survived longer under northern than under southern conditions. Image: Ixodes scapularis nymph (courtesy Graham J. Hickling) (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 25 August 2014

Case of tick‐associated rash illness caused by Amblyomma testudinarium

We report a case of tick‐associated rash illness (TARI), a new clinical entity of erythema migrans associated with a tick bite without infection of Lyme borreliosis agent. The patient, a 53‐year‐old man, went hiking in a mountainous area of Minoh City, Osaka Prefecture in October 2012. An erythematous macule with itching and a biting tick was found on his left thigh 2 days later, which gradually expanded. On the first visit to our department at the fifth day after hiking, an erythematous macule of 10 cm was recognized around the bite site. He had no systemic symptoms, and laboratory data were within normal limits. The tick was identified as a nymph of Amblyomma testudinarium. Histopathologically, perivascular infiltrates, mainly consisting of T lymphocytes, were seen in the dermis....


Sunday 24 August 2014

Risk of Lyme Disease Anytime in Northwest California

Researchers from CDPH and UC-Berkeley publish findings in peer-review journal, Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. (Source: Disabled World)

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Wednesday 20 August 2014

Lyme disease risk is year-round in Northwest California, according to new study

(DDC) Ticks that carry Lyme disease are active throughout the year in Northwest California, making the threat of Lyme disease year-round, according to new research conducted by researchers at California Department of Public Health Vector-borne Disease Section and University of California, Berkeley. Data will be published in an upcoming issue of the Elsevier peer review journal Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. More information about Lyme disease is available from Bay Area Lyme Foundation, www.bayarealyme.org. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Tuesday 19 August 2014

Scoop on Lyme disease and progress

(NaturalNews) On May 22 and May 23 members from the Lyme disease community held a protest at the headquarters of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in Arlington, Virginia. Members from the chronic Lyme community held a sign of 722 names of those who wished to have been... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Wednesday 13 August 2014

Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 7, Page 683-684, August 2014. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)


Wednesday 13 August 2014

UCSF Genomics Diagnostics Team Uses Next-Gen Sequencing as a ‘Laboratory-Developed Test’ to Reveal an Elusive Pathogen’s DNA and Save a Teen’s Life

It took UCSF physicians just 48 hours to identify the bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid that was causing fourteen-year-old Joshua Osborn’s hydrocephalus and status epilepticus There’s rich irony in the FDA’s  recent announcement that it would move forward with plans to regulate “laboratory-developed tests ” (LDTs) just weeks after the national media published stories about how innovative […] (Source: Dark Daily)


Wednesday 13 August 2014

Decorin binding proteins A and B in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease in North America.

Authors: Arnaboldi PM, Sambir M, Dattwyler RJ Abstract The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is based upon the detection of antibodies generated against B. burgdorferi using a two-tier assay, consisting, typically, of an ELISA followed by a western blot. This system, put into place to address nonspecificity associated with standalone first tier assays, is insensitive in the diagnosis of early infection, when most people seek care. The use of bacterial lysates or whole protein antigens as first tier assay targets contributes to nonspecificity due, in part, to the presence of 'cross-reactive' epitopes that are also found in other bacteria. This precludes their use as sensitive standalone assays. The use of peptides containing linear epitopes that are highly specific for B. burgdor...

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Saturday 9 August 2014

Repel ticks with this natural oil

(NaturalNews) With summer in full bloom and more and more cases of Lyme disease being reported, many are searching for ways to repel ticks without having to resort to harsh chemicals. Luckily, there is one sweet-smelling alternative that is proving to be quite powerful in the fight... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Thursday 7 August 2014

Interaction of BBK32 with Fibronectin [Protein Structure and Folding]

BBK32 is a fibronectin (FN)-binding protein expressed on the cell surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. There is conflicting information about where and how BBK32 interacts with FN. We have characterized interactions of a recombinant 86-mer polypeptide, “Bbk32,” comprising the unstructured FN-binding region of BBK32. Competitive enzyme-linked assays utilizing various FN fragments and epitope-mapped anti-FN monoclonal antibodies showed that Bbk32 binding involves both the fibrin-binding and the gelatin-binding domains of the 70-kDa N-terminal region (FN70K). Crystallographic and NMR analyses of smaller Bbk32 peptides complexed, respectively, with 2–3FNI and 8–9FNI, demonstrated that binding occurs by β-strand addition. Isothermal titration calorimetr...


Wednesday 6 August 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in New Jersey

Gaito A, Gjivoje V, Lutz S, Baxter B (Source: Infection and Drug Resistance)



Wednesday 30 July 2014

Seeks, Finds, threats Lyme disease!

Lyme borreliosis is a disease commonly found in humans. Here we report the case of a young, healthy girl presenting with symptomatic first- and second-degree atrioventricular blocks secondary to cardiac myocarditis. The disappearance of the conduction anomaly after antibiotic treatment confirmed Lyme disease before the results from the serology. Therefore, when a healthy, young person suddenly presents with an atrioventricular conduction block, physicians should consider a diagnosis of Lyme disease. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)

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Wednesday 30 July 2014

Seeks, finds, threats: Lyme disease!

Lyme borreliosis is a disease commonly found in humans. Here we report the case of a young, healthy girl presenting with symptomatic first- and second-degree atrioventricular blocks secondary to cardiac myocarditis. The disappearance of the conduction anomaly after antibiotic treatment confirmed Lyme disease before the results from the serology. Therefore, when a healthy, young person suddenly presents with an atrioventricular conduction block, physicians should consider a diagnosis of Lyme disease. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)


Monday 28 July 2014

Advice varies for suspected Lyme disease.

Authors: Eggertson L PMID: 25070984 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: cmaj)


Monday 28 July 2014

Antibodies to Endothelial Cell Growth Factor and Obliterative Microvascular Lesions in the Synovium of Patients With Antibiotic‐Refractory Lyme Arthritis

ConclusionThe correlations of ECGF autoantibody reactivity with obliterative microvascular lesions imply that these autoantibodies may be involved in the obliterative process, suggesting that anti‐ECGF antibodies have specific pathologic consequences in the synovial tissue of patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Monday 21 July 2014

Lyme Disease Risk Influences Human Settlement in the Wildland-Urban Interface: Evidence from a Longitudinal Analysis of Counties in the Northeastern United States.

This study provides some of the first evidence of human behavioral responses to Lyme disease risk via settlement decisions. PMID: 25048372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)


Friday 18 July 2014

Intermediate uveitis in children and young adults: differences in clinical course, associations and visual outcome

Conclusions IU with onset in childhood and early adulthood showed a similar visual course at intermediate follow-up. Associated diseases and complication patterns differed between children and young adults. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)


Friday 18 July 2014

Lyme disease in Haryana, India

Vijayeeta Jairath, Manu Sehrawat, Nidhi Jindal, VK Jain, Parul AggarwalIndian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 2014 80(4):320-323Lyme disease is a multiorgan animal-borne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. This case series highlights its presence in Haryana, a nonendemic zone. The first case was a 27-year-old housewife who presented with an annular erythematous patch with a central papule following an insect bite on the left upper arm. The second case was a 32-year-old farmer who gave a history of insect bite on the right arm followed by the development of an erythematous patch with a central blister. The third case, a 17-year-old boy presented with a history of tick bite over right thigh and a typical bull's eye lesion with central ulceration. ...

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Monday 14 July 2014

Culling Deer Herd Curbs Lyme Disease, Study Says

Title: Culling Deer Herd Curbs Lyme Disease, Study SaysCategory: Health NewsCreated: 7/11/2014 5:35:00 PMLast Editorial Review: 7/14/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)


Monday 7 July 2014

Resurrecting the 'yuppie vaccine'

Nature Medicine 20, 698 (2014). doi:10.1038/nm0714-698 Author: Cassandra Willyard The only vaccine ever approved to protect against Lyme disease was pulled off the market in 2002, and drugmakers have yet to offer an alternative. What's taking so long? Cassandra Willyard investigates. (Source: Nature Medicine)


Monday 7 July 2014

Babesiosis in Pregnancy.

CONCLUSION:: Diagnosis of babesiosis in pregnancy requires a high index of suspicion to ensure early treatment and optimal pregnancy outcomes. PMID: 25004307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology)

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Monday 7 July 2014

Veterinarian in Indiana Warns of Leptospirosis and Lyme Disease Dangers

(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))


Friday 4 July 2014

Properties of P13 Borrelia Porin [Microbiology]

P13 is one of the major outer membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Previous studies described P13 as a porin. In the present study some structure and function aspects of P13 were studied. P13 showed according to lipid bilayer studies a channel-forming activity of 0.6 nanosiemens in 1 m KCl. Single channel and selectivity measurements demonstrated that P13 had no preference for either cations or anions and showed no voltage-gating up to ±100 mV. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to isolate and characterize the P13 protein complex in its native state. The complex had a high molecular mass of about 300 kDa and was only composed of P13 monomers. The channel size was investigated using non-electrolytes revealing an apparent diameter of about 1.4 nm with a 400-Da mol...


Thursday 3 July 2014

One Tick Bite Can Equal Two Infections

In New York state study, 1 in 10 of the bugs carried both Lyme disease and babesiosis (Source: WebMD Health)


Thursday 3 July 2014

BorreliaBase: a phylogeny-centered browser of Borrelia genomes

Conclusions: With a genome phylogeny at its center, BorreliaBase allows online identification of hypervariable lipoprotein genes, potential regulatory elements, and recombination footprints by providing evolution-based expectations of sequence variability at each genomic locus. The phylo-centric design of BorreliaBase (http://borreliabase.org) is a novel model for interactive browsing and comparative analysis of bacterial genomes online. (Source: BMC Bioinformatics - Latest articles)

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Wednesday 2 July 2014

Lyme disease "doesn't kill you, but it squeezes every drop of life from you"

Summer is a high-risk season for Lyme disease, which is caused by a bacteria transmitted by ticks. Dr. Bernard Raxlen of Lyme Resource Medical in New York explains what to watch out for and how to treat it. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Tuesday 1 July 2014

Fewer Deer may Mean Less Lyme Disease

Annapolis, MD; July 1, 2014 – Since white-tailed deer serve as the primary host for the adult blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) — the vector for Lyme disease — scientists have wondered whether reducing the number of deer in a given area would also mean fewer cases of Lyme disease. Now, after a 13-year study was conducted, researchers in Connecticut have found that reduced deer populations can indeed lead to a reduction in Lyme disease cases. read more (Source: ESA News)


Tuesday 1 July 2014

Reducing deer populations may reduce risk of Lyme disease

(Entomological Society of America) After a 13-year study was conducted, researchers in Connecticut have found that reduced deer populations can lead to a reduction in Lyme disease cases. The results of their study are published in the Journal of Medical Entomology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Tuesday 1 July 2014

Antinuclear antibody seropositivity in men with cutaneous B-cell lymphoma of the scalp.

Authors: Rangwala S, Duvic M Abstract Patient 1: A 65-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 2-month history of large erythematous patches of the right temporal scalp. The patient was otherwise in good health and taking no medications. He denied a family history oflymphomas or autoimmune diseases. No hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy was appreciated. A complete blood cell count, serum protein electrophoresis, peripheral blood flow cytometric analysis, bone marrow biopsy, Helicobacter pylori titers, and Borrelia burgdorferi titers were within normal range. The antinuclear antibody titer was positive at 1:640 and showed a homogenous pattern. Rheumatoid factor, SSA (Ro), and SSB (La) antibody titers were negative. Computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were u...


Monday 30 June 2014

Update: Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is probably the most common tick-borne illness in the U.S., and the best understood. It's a regional disease, very common in some areas, vanishingly rare in others for reasons that aren't yet clear. There are about 35,000 cases reported yearly in the U.S., but this likely underestimates the true incidence as many people either don't seek help or are not properly diagnosed. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)

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Friday 27 June 2014

Inside a top school’s science program

Students in the science research program at Burnt Hills-Ballston Lake High School have reclassified stars, presented at the prestigious Intel Science Talent Search competition and other conferences and met with top scientists researching in their field of interest. “The program definitely changed my life and I’m 100 percent grateful for the opportunity,” says Katie Bashant, who is spending her summer in a research lab focused on Lyme disease at University of Utah. Bashant is a junior at the… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)


Friday 27 June 2014

UTSA and SwRI award $250,000 to advance clean emissions, explore antimicrobials

(University of Texas at San Antonio) Southwest Research Institute and The University of Texas at San Antonio today announced funding for two new joint research projects to advance clean emission technologies and study novel antimicrobials targeting Lyme disease. Funding through the organizations' Connecting through Research Partnerships program has been granted for $250,000 through August 2015 -- $125,000 for each project. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Friday 27 June 2014

BorrelIa InfectIon In Ixodes pararIcInus tIcks (acarI: Ixodidae) from northwestern argentina.

Authors: Nava S, Barbieri AM, Maya L, Colina R, Mangold AJ, Labruna MB, Venzal JM Abstract The aim of this work was to describe for the first time the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infecting ticks in Argentina. Unfed specimens of Ixodes pararicinus collected from vegetation in Jujuy Province were tested for Borrelia infection by PCR targeting the gene flagellin (fla), the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS) and the 16S rDNA (rrs ) gene. One male and one female of I. pararicinus collected in Jujuy were found to be positive to Borrelia infection with the three molecular markers tested. Phylogenetically, the Borrelia found in I. pararicinus from Jujuy belongs to the B. burgdorferi s.l complex, and it was similar to one of the genospecies detected in I. aragaoi from ...


Thursday 26 June 2014

Respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone in Lyme disease.

CONCLUSION: Respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone is impaired in Lyme disease, which suggests that Lyme disease may directly affect the vagus nerve or the brainstem. PMID: 24976922 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)

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Thursday 26 June 2014

Primary leptomeningeal CNS lymphoma presenting as bilateral facial nerve palsy

Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (BFNP) is an extremely rare condition that can occur in the central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases (Lyme disease, meningitis, syphilis), immuno-inflammatory disorders (Guillain–Barrè syndrome, neurosarcoidosis), or in potentially life-threatening diseases, such as hematologic malignancies . Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor, whose most common subtype is the diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is typically confined to the CNS at diagnosis, and represents 2.2% of all the CNS neoplasms . Patients usually present with encephalopatic or focal signs, or, more infrequently, with cranial nerve palsies, which tend to follow the leptomeningeal involvement . The isolated leptomeningeal PCNSL, without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence ...


Wednesday 25 June 2014

The effectiveness of permethrin-treated deer stations for control of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis on Cape Cod and the islands: a five-year experiment

When white-tailed deer visit corn-baited "4-poster" feeding stations, they come into contact with permethrin-treated rollers. In the 5-yr controlled experiment reported here, this host-targeted technology caused a reduction in tick abundance, but the effect was small compared to other studies. Image: White-tailed deer visiting a treated feeding station with inset image of a blacklegged tick. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 25 June 2014

Unraveling lyme disease

(Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 25 June 2014

New Insights Into Stages of Lyme Disease Symptoms From a Novel Hospital-Based Registry.

CONCLUSION: The difference between symptoms in the acutely infected patients and those experiencing persistent symptoms is not as large as initially thought. PMID: 24970880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Primary Care)


Wednesday 25 June 2014

Innate immunity networks during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Oosting M, Buffen K, van der Meer JW, Netea MG, Joosten LA Abstract Abstract The recognition of Borrelia species represents a complex process in which multiple components of the immune system are involved. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and Borrelia spp., from the recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to the induction of a complex network of proinflammatory mediators. Several PRR families are crucial for recognition of Borrelia spp., including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). TLR-2 is crucial for the recognition of outer surface protein (Osp)A from Borrelia spp. and together with TLR8 mediates phagocytosis of the microorganism and production of type I inter...

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Monday 23 June 2014

SwRI, UTSA to jointly pursue pair of novel research projects

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) have secured $250,000 in funding for a pair of joint research projects designed to advance clean emission technologies and to study novel antimicrobials targeting Lyme disease. Each project will receive $125,000 from the organizations’ Connecting through Research Partnerships program through August 2015. The Connect program, established in 2010 by SwRI and the UTSA Office of the Vice President for Research,… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)


Friday 20 June 2014

Single tick bite can pack double pathogen punch

People who get bitten by a blacklegged tick have a higher-than-expected chance of being exposed to more than one pathogen at the same time. "We found that ticks are almost twice as likely to be infected with two pathogens -- the bacterium that causes Lyme disease and the protozoan that causes babesiosis -- than we would have expected," said a professor of biology involved in a recent study. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Tuesday 17 June 2014

Treatments for Chronic Lyme Disease (PTLDS)

Learn how chronic Lyme disease is diagnosed and what treatments can help. (Source: WebMD Health)


Tuesday 17 June 2014

Baby Boom for Ticks, Lyme Disease Carriers in New EnglandBaby Boom for Ticks, Lyme Disease Carriers in New England

Large numbers of ticks, the parasites that carry Lyme disease, are expected to emerge in New England in the coming weeks, experts said on Friday. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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Tuesday 17 June 2014

Increased diversity of zoonotic pathogens and Borrelia burgdorferi strains in established versus incipient Ixodes scapularis populations across the Midwestern United States.

Authors: Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Walker ED, Tsao JI Abstract The center of origin theory predicts that genetic diversity will be greatest near a species' geographic origin because of the length of time for evolution. By corollary, diversity will decrease with distance from the origin; furthermore, invasion and colonization are frequently associated with founder effects that reduce genetic variation in incipient populations. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, harbors a suite of zoonotic pathogens, and the geographic range of the tick is expanding in the upper Midwestern United States. Therefore, we posited that diversity of I. scapularis-borne pathogens across its Midwestern range should correlate with the rate of the range expansion of this tick as well as subsequent disease e...



Sunday 15 June 2014

Indianapolis Veterinarians Warn of Uptick in Lyme Disease in Pets

(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))


Saturday 14 June 2014

Baby boom for ticks, Lyme disease carriers, seen in New England

LOWELL Mass. (Reuters) - Large numbers of ticks, the parasites that carry Lyme disease, are expected to emerge in New England in the coming weeks, experts said on Friday. (Source: Reuters: Health)


Friday 13 June 2014

Lyme disease mysteries and miseries persist

Summer is peak season for Lyme disease infections, and if it's not caught early it can lead to long-term health problems (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)

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Wednesday 11 June 2014

CXCL13 and neopterin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis and other diseases that cause neuroinflammation

Background: Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is partly based on the detection of intrathecal Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody production (increased antibody index (AI)). However, AI can be negative in patients with early LNB and, conversely, can remain elevated for months after antibiotic treatment. Recent studies suggested that the chemokine CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a biomarker for active LNB. Also, CSF neopterin-level determination has been used to assess the degree of neuroinflammation in a wide variety of diseases. Methods: CXCL13 concentrations were analyzed in CSF samples of 366 retrospectively identified individuals. The samples represented pretreatment LNB (38 patients), non-LNB comparison patients, tick-borne encephalitis, central nervous...


Wednesday 11 June 2014

Chronic coinfections in patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease: a systematic literature review

(Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Wednesday 11 June 2014

Chronic Coinfections in Patients Diagnosed with Chronic Lyme Disease: A Systematic Review

Often, the controversial diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. Many such patients also are treated for chronic coinfections with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Tuesday 10 June 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

Authors: Dunaj J, Zajkowska JM, Kondrusik M, Gern L, Rais O, Moniuszko A, Pancewicz S, Swierzbińska R Abstract Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA wa...

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Monday 9 June 2014

A study on the association between infectious burden and Alzheimer's disease

ConclusionsIB consisting of CMV, HSV‐1, B. burgdorferi, C. pneumoniae and H. pylori is associated with AD. This study supports the role of infection/inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of AD. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)


Monday 9 June 2014

Anterior spinal artery infarction causing man-in-the-barrel syndrome

A 54-year-old man with history of hypertension, smoking, and prior myocardial infarctions developed quadriplegia over 90 minutes. Leg strength normalized within hours. Neurologic examination months later revealed man-in-the-barrel syndrome characterized by bilateral arm weakness and atrophy but preserved leg strength (video at Neurology.org/cp). Cervical magnetic resonance T2-weighted sequences showed "pencil-like" lesions on sagittal (figure, A) and "snake-eye pattern" lesions on axial images (figure, B, arrow), characteristic of spinal cord infarction.1 Incidentally detected absence of left vertebral artery flow void (figure, B, arrowheads) led to magnetic resonance angiography, which confirmed occlusion (figure, C). β2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were detected...


Friday 6 June 2014

Lyme Disease

(Source: eMedicineHealth.com)


Friday 6 June 2014

Many Lyme Tests Unnecessary, Experts SayMany Lyme Tests Unnecessary, Experts Say

Most Lyme disease serologic tests were done according to diagnostic recommendations, but only 288,000 of the 2.4 million patients tested were infected; the estimated testing cost was $492 million. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)


Thursday 5 June 2014

Lyme Disease’s Possible Bacterial Predecessor Found in Ancient Tick

A juvenile tick trapped in a 15-million- to 20-million-year-old piece of amber contains a bacterium that could be the oldest documented ancestor of the microbe that causes Lyme disease -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)

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Wednesday 4 June 2014

Don't Get Bugged This Summer!

Don't get bugged this summer! Learn about insect bites and stings, Lyme disease, tick bites and West Nile virus. (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)


Wednesday 4 June 2014

Acetate supplementation modulates brain adenosine metabolizing enzymes and adenosine A2A receptor levels in rats subjected to neuroinflammation

Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that acetate supplementation can modulate brain CD73, AK and adenosine A2A receptor levels, and possibly influence purinergic signaling. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)


Wednesday 4 June 2014

Simple objective detection of human Lyme disease infection using immuno-PCR and a single recombinant hybrid antigen.

Authors: Halpern MD, Molins CR, Schriefer M, Jewett MW Abstract A serology-based, tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease but lacks sensitivity in early disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detection of B. burgdorferi antibodies in Lyme disease patient serum. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and the variability of the background of the assay across a healthy population (n=36) was analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of less than 3%. Using eight antigen-specific iPCR assays and positive call thresholds establi...


Sunday 1 June 2014

[Two cases of proliferation of monoclonal and monotypic lymphocytes and plasma cells corresponding to acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans.]

Authors: Bertolotti A, Pham-Ledard A, Petrot D, Coindre MC, Brecheteau P, Mendes I, Vergier B, Beylot-Barry M Abstract BACKGROUND: While a dermal proliferation of monotypic monoclonal lymphocytes and plasma cells suggests above all cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (CMZL) or plasmacytoma, it may also correspond to a Borrelia infection of which the clinic picture is evocative, as demonstrated in the cases presented herein. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The files of two patients were submitted for discussion at the regional multidisciplinary staff meeting on cutaneous lymphomas after review of the skin biopsies led to a diagnosis of plasmacytoma and CMZL on the basis of infiltrate containing abundant plasma cells. The infiltrates of both patients showed a kappa monotypic light chain and c...


Sunday 1 June 2014

A clinical, diagnostic, and ecologic perspective on human anaplasmosis in the Upper Midwest.

CONCLUSION: Continuing expansion of the range of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapuloris), the principal vector of the disease, into areas heavily populated or visited by humans in the region likely will result in this pathogen becoming an even greater burden on human health. Efforts are needed to better characterize the current geographic distribution of human Anaplasma and Ehrlichia cases to identify emerging foci and to better understand the enzootic cycles that maintain the pathogens in the region. Improved diagnostics may assist with such efforts. PMID: 25118439 [PubMed - in process] (Source: WMJ)

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Friday 30 May 2014

Summer Insect Safety

Source: HealthDay - Related MedlinePlus Pages: Lyme Disease, Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Friday 30 May 2014

Canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in the United States, 2010-2012

The geographic distribution of canine vector-borne disease agents in the United States appears to be expanding. Monitoring canine test results is an important tool for accurately mapping the geographic distribution of these agents. Image: United States distribution maps for heartworm, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Friday 30 May 2014

Ticks may have carried Lyme disease for more than 15 million years

A tiny tick trapped in a droplet of amber more than 15 million years ago appears to have been infected with a bacteria similar to the one that causes Lyme disease in humans, according to new research. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)


Thursday 29 May 2014

Amber discovery indicates Lyme disease is older than human race

Lyme disease is a stealthy, often misdiagnosed disease that was only recognized about 40 years ago, but new discoveries of ticks fossilized in amber show that the bacteria which cause it may have been lurking around for 15 million years -- long before any humans walked on Earth. The findings were made by researchers who studied 15-20 million-year-old amber from the Dominican Republic that offer the oldest fossil evidence ever found of Borrelia, a type of spirochete-like bacteria that to this day causes Lyme disease. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Thursday 29 May 2014

Population genetic structure of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis at an apparent spatial expansion front.

Authors: Kelly RR, Gaines D, Gilliam WF, Jory Brinkerhoff R Abstract Modeling and empirical evidence suggests that Lyme disease is undergoing geographic expansion from principal foci in the midwestern and northeastern United States. Virginia is at the southern edge of the current expansion zone and has seen dramatic rise in human Lyme disease cases since 2007, potentially owing to a recent increase in vector abundance. Ixodes scapularis is known throughout the eastern US but behavioral or physiological variation between northern and southern lineages might lead northern-variant ticks to more frequently parasitize humans. We hypothesized that recent spatial and numerical increase in Lyme disease cases is associated with demographic and/or spatial expansion of I. scapularis and that ...


Wednesday 28 May 2014

Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central new jersey oak/pine woodlands.

MINIMAL ROLE OF EASTERN FENCE LIZARDS IN BORRELIA BURGDORFERI TRANSMISSION IN CENTRAL NEW JERSEY OAK/PINE WOODLANDS. J Parasitol. 2014 May 28; Authors: Rulison EL, Kerr KT, Dyer MC, Han S, Burke RL, Tsao JI, Ginsberg HS Abstract Abstract The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence liza...


Thursday 22 May 2014

Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for B. burgdorferiConcerns Regarding a New Culture Method for B. burgdorferi

A novel, laboratory-developed test for Lyme disease has raised concerns about unacceptable numbers of false-positive results and is not approved by the FDA. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Tuesday 20 May 2014

Update on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-borne Diseases: An Alert for New Hampshire CliniciansUpdate on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-borne Diseases: An Alert for New Hampshire Clinicians

New Hampshire continues to have one of the highest rates of Lyme disease in the nation. The New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services provides recommendations for healthcare providers. State Health Alerts (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Tuesday 20 May 2014

Genetic characterization of the human relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and animal reservoirs of Lyme disease spirochetes in France

The genotype of the human pathogen B. miyamotoi circulates simultaneously with Lyme disease spirochetes in ticks and bank voles in France. Even though no human cases have been reported in France, surveillance of B. miyamotoi alone or in association with other spirochetes has to be improved. Image: Collection of ticks by flagging in Ardennes Forest, France. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Monday 19 May 2014

What Causes Leg Pain?

Discussion “Growing pains” of the legs are a common complaint in children. Heterogeneous studies from 1928-2004 have found prevalence rates of 2.6-49.4% in children ages 4-19. The studies are heterogeneous because of time, location, and especially definition of growing pains. A study of 1445, 4-6 year olds in 2004 using a validated tool showed a prevalence rate of 36.9%. The definition of growing pains used by Peterson in the 2004 study is chronic “…intermittent (nonarticular) pains in both legs that generally occur late in the day or at night…” with a normal physical examination and laboratory testing (if any is done). The pain is in the thigh or calf muscles. The pain can occur over weeks or months. Patients should not have a history of trauma but bec...


Monday 19 May 2014

Monday's Housecall

THIS WEEK'S TOP STORIES Lyme disease Grassy and heavily wooded areas can be home to ticks, which can carry Lyme disease. Get tips on prevention and how to spot the telltale signs. Tips for dining in or out safely when you have food allergies Preparing meals carefully is vital when you or a family member [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Thursday 15 May 2014

West Nile Virus and Lyme Disease Spread Across the U.S.

A new season of West Nile, Lyme and dengue has begun -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Thursday 15 May 2014

Tick-borne infections of animals and humans: a common ground.

Authors: Baneth G Abstract A wide variety of pathogens is transmitted from ticks to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths. of which most have a life cycle that requires passage through the vertebrate host. Tick-borne infections of humans, farm and companion animals are essentially associated with wildlife animal reservoirs. While some flying insect-borne diseases of humans such as malaria, filariasis and Kala Azar caused by Leishmania donovani target people as their main host, major tick-borne infections of humans, although potentially causing disease in large numbers of individuals, are typically an infringement of a circulation between wildlife animal reservoirs and tick vectors. While new tick-borne infectious agents are frequently recognised, emerging ...


Wednesday 14 May 2014

Study Finds Obesity Can Have Negative Effect On Young Breast Cancer Patients

BOSTON (CBS) — A new study says obesity can have a negative effect on young breast cancer patients. Karen Hackett has shed 30 pounds since being diagnosed with breast cancer two years ago. “I’ve made exercise become a priority,” she says. “It’s just part of my day. I try to go sometime around the lunchtime hour and if I don’t, I can go in the evening.” A new study finds obesity leads to poorer outcomes for women like Hackett who were pre- or peri-menopausal when they were diagnosed with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. “That’s the novel finding here, we used to think that this association was really seen primarily in older women, here it’s being seen in young women,” said Dr. Clifford Hudis of Memorial Sloan Kettering ...

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Wednesday 14 May 2014

Chronic lymphomonocytic meningoencephalitis, oligoarthritis and erythema nodosum: report of Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome of long and relapsing evolution

We describe the case of a young female who, over one year, progressively presented with oligoarthritis, cognitive impairment, menigoencephalitis and erythema nodosum. Diagnosis was established by means of the clinical history and a positive serology to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictu. The patient received Ceftriaxone 2 g IV/day during 30 days, followed by 2 months of doxicycline 100 mg bid. Symptoms remitted and the Borrelia serology tests returned to normality. BYS is a new disease described only in Brazil, which has a raising frequency and deserves the attention from the country´s medical board because of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory differences from LD. Despite the fact that it is a hard-to-diagnose zoonosis, it is important to pursuit an early diagnosis because the symp...


Tuesday 13 May 2014

Potentially conflicting selective forces that shape the vls antigenic variation system in Borrelia burgdorferi.

This study provides empirical evidence that conflicting selection pressures on antigenic variation systems can limit the potential antigenic divergence in order to maintain proper molecular function. PMID: 24837669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)


Monday 12 May 2014

It's Spring – Time to Prevent Lyme Disease

(Source: eMedicineHealth.com)


Sunday 11 May 2014

Harsh Winter Does Little To Ease Lyme Disease Woes

PORTLAND, Maine (AP) — The harsh winter did nothing to cull the nationwide tick population, and health officials are primed for a warm season that could see the number of Lyme disease cases rise. In northern New England, the increase in cases of Lyme correlates with a growing population of deer ticks, which transmit the disease, state epidemiologist Stephen Sears said. In Maine and elsewhere, heavy snow acted as an insulating blanket that protected ticks from winter’s cold, state entomologist Charlene Donahue said. Nationwide, the number of cases of Lyme disease has held relatively steady over the past few years, and advocacy groups and federal agencies say they expect this spring, summer and fall to be active seasons for ticks and Lyme. “Everybody’s picking them off th...


Saturday 10 May 2014

Doctors: More Young People Developing Osteoporosis

BOSTON (CBS) – Physicians often refer to osteoporosis as a “Silent Problem” because many patients don’t know they even have it until after they break or fracture a bone. Now an increasing number of young people are developing this bone loss disease. Dr. Nathanial Clark, an endocrinologist at Beth Israel Deaconess in Plymouth, said, “Far more commonly what we are referring to are people generally say in the 40-60 year range, that are being looked at more carefully than previously, whereas before we looked mainly at people who were over the age of 65-70.” Faye Lakeman found out her bones were slowly deteriorating when she was in her early 50s. On a lark, she took part in a free bone screening at a grocery store. Faye’s husband Dan is also suffering from bone loss. “You ar...

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Saturday 10 May 2014

NIH News in Health

Shedding Light on Health Research Helps People and Pets Veterinarians and scientists study diseases that affect both pets and people to improve medical care for humans and our 4-legged friends. Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease Tick-borne diseases are found in many areas across the country, and they’re on the rise. Do what […] (Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog)


Friday 9 May 2014

Local lyme disease company gets $1 million in federal funding

Immuno Technologies Inc., a Memphis-based medical research and development company has been awarded $1 million in federal funding to further develop technology that can help doctors rapidly diagnose Lyme disease. The funding comes through the National Institutes of Health’s Small Business Innovation Research grant program. Immuno Technologies does translational research for infectious diseases, with a focus on Lyme disease. This grant will fund the development of rapid diagnosis methods of Lyme… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)


Thursday 8 May 2014

Yale Researchers: New Tick-Borne Illness Common In Southern New England

NEW HAVEN, Connecticut (CBS) – A new study by Yale researchers suggests that a tick-borne infection similar to Lyme disease has become common in southern New England. Using a new antibody test, researchers found evidence that about 4-percent of people they checked showed evidence of previous Borrelia miyamotoi infection. The prevalence of Lyme disease is about 10 percent. “We expect this to be found wherever Lyme disease is found. It’s likely that that will be the case,” said Peter Krause, M.D., senior research scientist at the Yale School of Public Health and lead author of the study. “The full health impact of this disease is really uncertain at this point. We just have to do more research to determine what the full spectrum of the disease will be.” Borrelia miyamotoi is ...


Wednesday 7 May 2014

Tufts Study: Shock Wave Therapy Could Be Answer For Rotator Cuff Injuries

BOSTON (CBS) — Shoulder pain is one of the most common reasons people go to the doctor and rotator cuff injuries are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. While most cases are treated with rest, pain killers and physical therapy, a new study out of Tufts Medical Center shows shock wave therapy could be the answer for some. The therapy involves administering sound wave pulses on the outside of the body. It has been used for years to break up “kidney stones” and now doctors in Europe are using it to treat rotator cuff tendonitis. “We found that high energy shock wave therapy is very useful for patients with specifically calcific tendonitis of the shoulder,” said Dr. Raveendhara Bannuru of Tufts Medical. Bannuru looked at 28 studies using shock wave the...


Tuesday 6 May 2014

Harvard Study: Mass. Health Reform Law Lowered Death Rates

BOSTON (CBS) — Harvard researchers estimate that Massachusetts health reform law has prevented some 320 deaths per year or, one life saved for each 830 people gaining coverage. WBZ NewsRadio 1030′s Diane Sterns reports  WBZ NewsRadio 1030WBZ NewsRadio 1030playpausejQuery(document).ready(function($) { cbs_audio_player_v2("audio-player-1"); });   A new study that now appears in the Annals of Internal Medicine says in the first four years after Massachusetts instituted health care reform in 2006, the mortality rate decreased by 2.9-percent. That percentage is compared to similar populations in states that didn’t expand health coverage. The state’s health care reform law has served as a model for the national Affordable Care Act. Benjamin Sommers, assistant profe...

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Tuesday 6 May 2014

Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis.

Authors: Barbour AG Abstract The discovery of Borrelia species that were related to the agents of relapsing fever but were transmitted by hard ticks rather than soft ticks challenged previous taxonomies based largely on microbe-host specificities and geographic considerations. One of these newly-identified organisms is the Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato strain LB-2001 from North America and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. This or related strains have been identified as the cause of human disease, but comparatively little is known about their biology or genetics. Using recently acquired chromosome sequence of LB-2001 together with database sequences and additional sequences determined here, I carried out comparisons of the several species of Borrelia, including those in the two maj...


Tuesday 6 May 2014

It's Spring - Time to Prevent Lyme Disease

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Related MedlinePlus Page: Lyme Disease (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Thursday 1 May 2014

May 2014

Shedding Light on Health: Research Helps People and Pets...Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease...Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last...Paralyzed Men Regain Movement...Featured Web Site: Mental Health Topics (Source: NIH News in Health)


Thursday 1 May 2014

[Public health pests : Arthropods and rodents as causative disease agents as well as reservoirs and vectors of pathogens].

Authors: Faulde M, Freise J Abstract Globally, infectious diseases pose the most important cause of death. Among known human pathogenic diseases, approximately 50 % are zoonoses. When considering emerging infectious diseases separately 73 % currently belong to the group of zoonoses. In Central Europe, hard ticks show by far the biggest potential as vectors of agents of human disease. Lyme borreliosis, showing an estimated annual incidence between 60,000 and 214,000 cases is by far the most frequent tick-borne disease in Germany. Continually, formerly unknown disease agents could be discovered in endemic vector species. Additionally, introduction of new arthropod vectors and/or agents of disease occur constantly. Recently, five mosquito species of the genus Aedes have been newly...


Thursday 1 May 2014

The lymphocyte transformation test for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis could fill a gap in the difficult diagnostics of borreliosis.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)

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Thursday 1 May 2014

Dityrosine Network Influences Borrelial Persistence in Ticks [Microbiology]

Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit a wide array of human and animal pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi; however, how tick immune components influence the persistence of invading pathogens remains unknown. As originally demonstrated in Caenorhabditis elegans and later in Anopheles gambiae, we show here that an acellular gut barrier, resulting from the tyrosine cross-linking of the extracellular matrix, also exists in I. scapularis ticks. This dityrosine network (DTN) is dependent upon a dual oxidase (Duox), which is a member of the NADPH oxidase family. The Ixodes genome encodes for a single Duox and at least 16 potential peroxidase proteins, one of which, annotated as ISCW017368, together with Duox has been found to be indispensible for DTN formation. This barrier influences pathogen s...

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Thursday 1 May 2014

[Threat of transmission of infectious pathogens by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Germany].

Authors: Dobler G, Fingerle V, Hagedorn P, Pfeffer M, Silaghi C, Tomaso H, Henning K, Niedrig M Abstract Tick-transmitted diseases are of great importance for the general health of the German population. Several viruses, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Uukuniemi virus, Tribec virus, Eyach virus or bacteria, such as Borrelia, Rickettsiae, Francisella tularensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) and Coxiella burnetii were detected in the most prominent tick in Germany, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. While infections, such as TBE and Lyme disease are well known, other infections are hardly known even among experts. Although there have been a few descriptions of isolated cases in Germany, a systematic investigation regarding the distribut...


Thursday 1 May 2014

Experiences of patients identifying with chronic Lyme disease in the healthcare system: a qualitative study

Conclusions: Participants reported a significant decline in health status associated with chronic Lyme disease and were often unsatisfied with care in conventional settings. Negative experiences were associated with reports of dismissive, patronizing, and condescending attitudes. Positive experiences were associated with providers who were reported to be attentive, optimistic, and supportive. Consultations with CAM practitioners and use of CAM therapies were common. Actively engaged and sympathetic clinical encounters may foster greater satisfaction in healthcare settings. (Source: BMC Family Practice)


Thursday 1 May 2014

A Tale of Two Syndromes: Lyme Disease Preceding Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

We report a short series of two women who present with persistent symptoms of orthostatic intolerance consistent with POTS after treated Lyme disease. (Source: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology)


Thursday 1 May 2014

[Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany : Epidemiological aspects].

Authors: Frank C, Faber M, Hellenbrand W, Wilking H, Stark K Abstract Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infecti...


Wednesday 30 April 2014

Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 370, Issue 18, Page 1724-1731, May 2014. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)


Monday 28 April 2014

Lyme disease risk not amplified in a species-poor vertebrate community: Similar Borrelia burgdorferi tick infection prevalence and OspC genotype frequencies.

Authors: States SL, Brinkerhoff RJ, Carpi G, Steeves TK, Folsom-O'Keefe C, Deveaux M, Diuk-Wasser MA Abstract The effect of biodiversity declines on human health are currently debated, but empirical assessments are lacking. Lyme disease provides a model system to assess relationships between biodiversity and human disease because the etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted in the United States by the generalist black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) among a wide range of mammalian and avian hosts. The 'dilution effect' hypothesis predicts that species-poor host communities dominated by white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) will pose the greatest human risk because P. leucopus infects the largest numbers of ticks, resulting in higher human exposure to infected I. scap...


Saturday 26 April 2014

Avoiding tick-borne illnesses for people and pets

Paul Mead, M.D., and Liz Murphy, DVM, talk about tick-borne illnesses in humans and dogs. Tick-borne illnesses like Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever are spread by the black-legged tick, or deer tick. Dr. Murphy and Dr.Mead join "Sound Medicine" to discuss how humans and dogs contract tick-borne illnesses disease and how people can reduce their risk for these diseases..... (Source: Sound Medicine)


Saturday 26 April 2014

Needham Couple Pushes To Ban Morcellation For Fibroids

BOSTON (CBS) – Uterine fibroids are one of the most common health problems women face. The treatment options have usually been considered pretty routine. Now there are new concerns about a widely used procedure for fibroids known as morcellation. The fear is it can spread cancer. Amy Reed of Needham is now going through chemotherapy because she has stage 4 leimyosocarcoma. “It was very hard initially,” she said. “The level of anxiety is horrible.” It is not the outcome she expected to face after going into Brigham and Women’s Hospital last October to have fibroids removed. Instead of full abdominal surgery, Amy’s doctor used a morcellator, which is a minimally invasive approach. The tumors are shredded into pieces and extracted thru a small tube. As Amy went into the hosp...


Friday 25 April 2014

Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region

Model for the current predicted distribution of I. scapularis in the transboundary region, was generated based on the collection of this tick species in different locations in both Texas and north-eastern Mexico. The presence of the bacterial pathogen B. burgdorferi, as well as the reservoir host Peromyscus leucopus, have also been described in this region. Image: Ixodes scapularis distribution in the Texas-Mexico transbounday region. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Friday 25 April 2014

Acute and chronic pain associated with Lyme borreliosis: Clinical characteristics and pathophysiologic mechanisms

Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by several related borrelial subspecies referred to generally as Borrelia burgdorferi . It is transmitted by infected Ixodes ticks, and is the most common vector-borne infection occurring in endemic geographic areas in the temperate Northern hemisphere . In the United States, where reporting is mandatory, documented infection occurred in 50,000 persons between 1982 (when the etiologic agent was first identified) and 1994 . Since 1994, more than 500,000 new cases have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, averaging 20,000 to 30,000 cases per year . Many more cases are never reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , suggesting that millions of United States inhabitants have had symptomatic Lyme infect...


Thursday 24 April 2014

FDA Proposes First Regulations For E-Cigarettes

WASHINGTON (AP) — The federal government wants to ban sales of electronic cigarettes to minors and require approval for new products and health warning labels. While the proposal being issued Thursday by the Food and Drug Administration won’t immediately mean changes for the popular devices, the move is aimed at eventually taming the fast-growing e-cigarette industry. The agency said the proposal sets a foundation for regulating the products but the rules don’t immediately ban the wide array of flavors of e-cigarettes, curb marketing on places like TV or set product standards. Any further rules “will have to be grounded in our growing body of knowledge and understanding about the use of e-cigarettes and their potential health risks or public health benefits,” FDA ...


Tuesday 22 April 2014

Electrochemotherapy as a novel treatment for primary cutaneous marginal zone B‐cell lymphomas

Abstract In the present study, we describe the use of electrochemotherapy as alternative therapy for primary cutaneous marginal zone B‐cell lymphomas in patients unsuitable for surgery or radiotherapy. Our experience refers to three patients with primary cutaneous marginal zone B‐cell lymphomas related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection, treated with specific antimicrobial therapy and electrochemotherapy. (Source: Dermatologic Therapy)


Tuesday 22 April 2014

Choosing Wisely: The American College of Rheumatology's Top 5 for Pediatric Rheumatology

ConclusionThe ACR pediatric rheumatology Top 5 is one of the first pediatric subspecialty–specific Choosing Wisely Top 5 lists and provides an opportunity for patients and providers to discuss appropriate use of health care in pediatric rheumatology. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)


Monday 21 April 2014

RheumShorts: Methotrexate, Basiliximab, and Norwegian Lyme (CME/CE)

(MedPage Today) -- Subcutaneous methotrexate can be given at higher doses than in the oral route, while maintaining bioavailability, which could make for better tolerance and better adherence to treatment guidelines, a new study suggested. (Source: MedPage Today Geriatrics)

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Monday 21 April 2014

The challenge of diagnosing Lyme disease

(Source: NaturalNews.com)


Monday 21 April 2014

Lyme Disease: A Review of Its Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Treatment

Lyme disease, a tick-borne illness transmitted to humans, has become increasingly recognized. (Source: Psychosomatics)


Friday 18 April 2014

New CDC/FDA Warning Against Unapproved Lyme Culture TestNew CDC/FDA Warning Against Unapproved Lyme Culture Test

Investigators from the CDC and FDA have issued a new warning about the use of unvalidated Lyme disease tests, sparked by inquiries to the CDC about a test marketed by Advanced Laboratory Services. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)


Friday 18 April 2014

Avoid New Lyme Culture Test, Say CDC and FDA

(MedPage Today) -- CDC and the FDA have again cautioned the public about the use of an unapproved test for diagnosing Lyme disease. (Source: MedPage Today Geriatrics)


Friday 18 April 2014

A phylogenomic and molecular marker based proposal for the division of the genus Borrelia into two genera: the emended genus Borrelia containing only the members of the relapsing fever Borrelia, and the genus Borreliella gen. nov. containing the members of the Lyme disease Borrelia (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex).

Authors: Adeolu M, Gupta RS Abstract The genus Borrelia contains two groups of organisms: the causative agents of Lyme disease and their relatives and the causative agents of relapsing fever and their relatives. These two groups are morphologically indistinguishable and are difficult to distinguish biochemically. In this work, we have carried out detailed comparative genomic analyses on protein sequences from 38 Borrelia genomes to identify molecular markers in the forms of conserved signature inserts/deletions (CSIs) that are specifically found in the Borrelia homologues, and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) which are uniquely present in Borrelia species. Our analyses have identified 31 CSIs and 82 CSPs that are uniquely shared by all sequenced Borrelia species, providing molec...


Friday 18 April 2014

Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for Borrelia burgdorferi Not Approved for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease.

Authors: Nelson C, Hojvat S, Johnson B, Petersen J, Schriefer M, Beard CB, Petersen L, Mead P, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC Abstract In 2005, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning regarding the use of Lyme disease tests whose accuracy and clinical usefulness have not been adequately established. Often these are laboratory-developed tests (also known as "home brew" tests) that are manufactured and used within a single laboratory and have not been cleared or approved by FDA. Recently, CDC has received inquiries regarding a laboratory-developed test that uses a novel culture method to identify Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. Patient specimens reportedly are...


Friday 18 April 2014

CDC Warns Against Use of Unapproved Lyme Disease Test (FREE)

By Cara Adler An unapproved test that uses a new culture method for Borrelia burgdorferi could misdiagnose Lyme disease, CDC and FDA researchers warn in MMWR.The test … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

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Thursday 17 April 2014

Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for Borrelia burgdorferi Not Approved for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)


Thursday 17 April 2014

Defensin from the ornate sheep tick Dermacentor marginatus and its effect on Lyme borreliosis spirochetes.

Authors: Chrudimská T, Ceřovský V, Slaninová J, Rego RO, Grubhoffer L Abstract Expression of the previously reported defensin of the tick Dermacentor marginatus (defDM) was analysed in different organs by RT-PCR. mRNA of the defDM gene was detected in the hemolymph, midgut and salivary glands. Moreover defDM was isolated from the tick hemolymph using RP-HPLC and its sequence was determined by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Synthetic peptide was used for determining biological activities. The results showed an anti-Gram-positive bacterial role for the defensin. As D. marginatus ticks appear not to be vectors of the Lyme disease agent of the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, we tested the influence of defDM on Borrelia afzelii. There is a very clear borrelicidal ...


Wednesday 16 April 2014

Harvard Researchers: Feminine Girls, Masculine Boys Have Higher Cancer Risk

BOSTON (CBS) — Researchers at Harvard School of Public Health have found that very feminine girls and strongly masculine boys are more likely to engage in behaviors that pose cancer risks than their gender non-conforming peers. WBZ NewsRadio1030′s Diane Stern reports Feminine Girls, Masculine Boys And Cancer Risk BehaviorsWBZ NewsRadio 1030playpausejQuery(document).ready(function($) { cbs_audio_player_v2("audio-player-3"); }); Scientists analyzed data from over 9,000 adolescents. The study compared cancer risk behaviors to the participants’ gender expressions. The study found that the most feminine girls were more likely to use tanning beds and be physically inactive. The most masculine boys were more likely to use chewing tobacco and smoke cigars. “Our findings indica...

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Wednesday 16 April 2014

Local Company Instrumental In First Regenerated Esophagus

BOSTON (CBS) —- A local company is part of a second breakthrough in regeneration of human body parts. A research team led by Paolo Macchiarin at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has successfully transplanted a regenerated esophagus into a rat. The results were published in Nature Communications on Tuesday. WBZ NewsRadio 1030′s Diane Stern reports  WBZ NewsRadio 1030WBZ NewsRadio 1030playpausejQuery(document).ready(function($) { cbs_audio_player_v2("audio-player-4"); });   Harvard Apparatus Regenerative Technology developed the bio-reactor that was essential in creating the esophagus. Last year, the same company regenerated a human trachea and transplanted it into a human. HART CEO David Green says the study is promising as it represents advancements toward the translation of ...


Wednesday 16 April 2014

Immune System Research May Help Doctors Predict Who Gets Long-Term Complications From Lyme Disease - 4/16/14

A team of scientists led by Johns Hopkins and Stanford University researchers has laid the groundwork for understanding how variations in immune responses to Lyme disease can contribute to the many different outcomes of this bacterial infection seen in individual patients. (Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine News)


Monday 14 April 2014

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects

In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. (Source: APMIS)


Monday 14 April 2014

Adverse moisture events predict seasonal abundance of Lyme disease vector ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

Seasonal incidence of tick adverse moisture events can explain inter-annual variability seen in vector blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) abundance, offering the possibility to more accurately predict human Lyme borreliosis incidence. Image: Nymphal blacklegged tick feeding (Courtesy Dr. Thomas Mather - Center for Vector-Borne Disease) . (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Sunday 13 April 2014

Prevent Tick Bites While Enjoying the Outdoors

With no vaccines for Lyme and other tick-borne diseases, expert explains how to avoid infection Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)

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Saturday 12 April 2014

The British bug that could paralyse you

Literary agent Ed Victor (pictured) who represents Nigella Lawson contracted Lyme disease after a crimson 'bull's eye mark' appeared on his leg. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Thursday 10 April 2014

Boston Reports Recent Spike In Flu Cases

BOSTON (CBS) – Flu season may appear to be over, but flu cases are on the rise again in Boston, city health officials said on Thursday. The Boston Public Health Commission reports that there were 116 newly reported cases of flu in Boston between March 30 and April 5. That brings this season’s total number of reported cases in the city to 1,237. More than 25 percent of these cases have resulted in hospitalization, and there have been 11 flu-related deaths. MORE HEALTH NEWS FROM CBS BOSTON Health Officials: MERS Patient Traveled Through BostonHarsh Winter Does Little To Ease Lyme Disease WoesDoctors: More Young People Developing OsteoporosisYale Researchers: New Tick-Borne Illness Common In Southern New England (Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports...


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Beth Israel Doctors Using Google Glass In ER

BOSTON (CBS) — Doctors at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center are the first in the country to be using Google Glass technology to save valuable seconds. Google introduced the Glass technology in 2013 and only a limited number of people have been able to try it. Beth Israel Deaconess is the first hospital in the world to use the high-tech classes for direct patient care. Dr. Steven Horng is an emergency room physician who spearheaded a program to bring the technology to the ER. What they do is project an image of the patient’s screens so information about the patient is obtained right away. Information like the patient’s name, their past medical history, even X-rays can all come up with Google Glass and could be life-saving, especially if a patient can’t communicat...


Wednesday 9 April 2014

When the Typical Becomes Atypical: Anti-Ri Antibody Associated Paraneoplastic Syndrome WITHOUT Opsoclonus-Myoclonus (P7.024)

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate a case of anti-Ri-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome without its "classic" opsoclonus-myoclonus.BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes cause significant morbidity and mortality. Its heterogeneous clinical presentations are underrecognized, delaying diagnosis and treatment.DESIGN/METHODS: A 64-year-old man noted fatigue, diplopia and left eyelid ptosis. Three months later he developed generalized weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory failure. He had smoked cigarettes for 40 years. Examination demonstrated lethargy, tongue myoclonus, bilateral horizontal gaze palsy and ptosis. He had neck and proximal muscle weakness, significant left leg paresis and hyporreflexia, hyperactive reflexes elsewhere and bilateral Babinski sign. Sensory exami...

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Wednesday 9 April 2014

Hyperacusis as the Initial Presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (P5.233)

CONCLUSIONS: We describe the first case of hyperacusis as the initial presenting complaint of CJD. This case highlights the wide spectrum of initial symptoms in patients with spongiform encephalopathy.Disclosure: Dr. Merkler has nothing to disclose. Dr. Safdieh has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Diagnostic Dilemma Of Encephalomyelitis Due To Lyme Neuroborreliosis (P2.313)

CONCLUSIONS:Although reported in the literature, encephalomyelitis from lyme neuroborreliosis is rare. Identification of this disease can be difficult but early recognition and treatment with antibiotics leads to marked improvement, as demonstrated in our case.Study Supported by:n/aDisclosure: Dr. Stroup has nothing to disclose. Dr. Daudi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Patel has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 9 April 2014

Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration with Castleman Disease: A Case Report (P1.027)

CONCLUSIONS: Although a specific autoantibody was not identified, the rarity of both Castleman disease and cerebellar degeneration, in conjunction with the well-described neoplastic and paraneoplastic associations of both, strongly suggests a relationship not previously described.Disclosure: Dr. Lee has nothing to disclose. Dr. Le has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Widespread Leptomeningeal Involvement in Borreliosis (P2.317)

CONCLUSIONS: We describe an atypical case of B. burgdorferi causing multiple cranial neuropathies associated with polyradiculitis. This case highlights the spectrum of neurological disease in Lyme disease.Study Supported by: N/ADisclosure: Dr. Maciel has nothing to disclose. Dr. Wang has nothing to disclose. Dr. Shirvalkar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Merkler has nothing to disclose. Dr. Safdieh has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

A Case of Primary Meningeal Melanoma (P7.255)

CONCLUSIONS:Primary meningeal melanoma is a neoplasm of leptomeningeal melanocytes embryonically originating from the neural crest. Initial presentation can vary from nerve palsies, focal weakness, seizure and personality changes. This patient presented with seizure and abnormal brain imaging. Diagnosis was established on the basis of CSF analysis, brain biopsy and immunohistological studies.Study Supported by:Disclosure: Dr. Roy has nothing to disclose. Dr. Al Zahmi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Danialan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mandavilli has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Monoclonal B Cell Population in a Patient With Neurosarcoidosis (P5.175)

We present a case of transverse myelitis as the sole manifestation of sarcoidosis with a concomitant monoclonal B cell population identified in the CSF.A 48 year old male with past medical history of pulmonary embolism, insulin dependent Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia presented with six months of gait ataxia, difficulty urinating, and lower extremity paresthesias. Spinal MRI showed abnormal signal and enhancement throughout the cervical and thoracic cord. He was diagnosed with transverse myelitis and underwent extensive workup to identify the underlying etiology. No demyelinating lesions were seen on brain MRI. Lumbar puncture had normal cell counts and opening pressure with elevated protein and glucose (77mg/dL and 159mg/dL respectively). Hemoglobin A1C was 9.1%. Serum ...


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Con-focal Microscopy Documents Significant Epidermal Nerve Demyelization in Patients With Clinical Neuropathy But Normal Neurophysiologic Studies (P7.107)

Discussion: Inflammatory neuropathies of small fibers are difficult to document . The ability to see demyelization of small myelinated fibers of the skin through con-focal microscopy will enable the proper diagnosis and treatment.Disclosure: Dr. Katz has received personal compensation for activities with Forest Laboratories, Inc. as a speaker. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

An Unusual Case Of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Presenting With Simultaneous IIIrd, VIth and V11th Nerve Palsies (P6.305)

CONCLUSIONS: CN palsies other than VIth nerve are an atypical presentation of IIH and are only described in case reports. Infectious (especially Lyme's), inflammatory (especially Sarcoid), rheumatologic and other auto immune causes must be ruled out. Treatment should be initiated promptly and offending agents should be discontinued to prevent permanent visual loss.Study Supported by: NoneDisclosure: Dr. Katyayan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Parachuri has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sallowm has nothing to disclose. Dr. Walsh has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Tuesday 8 April 2014

Intermediate uveitis in children and young adults: differences in clinical course, associations and visual outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: IU with onset in childhood and early adulthood showed a similar visual course at intermediate follow-up. Associated diseases and complication patterns differed between children and young adults. PMID: 24713505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology)


Monday 7 April 2014

Africa: World Health Day - Stop Disease-Carrying Pests

[State Department]Washington -Mosquitoes, flies, ticks, water snails and other pests can carry diseases that sicken more than 1 billion people each year with malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, yellow fever and other dangerous conditions. Half the world -- 3.6 billion people -- live in areas where they risk exposure to what are known as vector-borne diseases. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)


Monday 7 April 2014

World Health Day 2014

It's World Health Day and the focus this year is on vector-borne diseases, or diseases that can be transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and water snails. Unfortunately, while the CDC states that "vector-borne diseases account for 17% of the estimated global burden of all infectious diseases," it is important to remember that there are no vaccines to help prevent most of them. These diseases include dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Chagas disease, and malaria, which remains "one of the most severe public health problems worldwide."...Read Full Post (Source: About.com Pediatrics)

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Sunday 6 April 2014

Structural characterization of CspZ, a complement regulator factor H and FHL‐1 binding protein from Borrelia burgdorferi

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Journal)


Saturday 5 April 2014

Lyme arthritis in Southern Norway - an endemic area for Lyme Borreliosis

Conclusions: Our data shows that LA in Southern Norway is a benign disease which successfully can be treated with antibiotics even in patients treated with GC prior to antibiotics. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)


Friday 4 April 2014

Seasonal Prevalence of Lyme Disease Spirochetes in a Heterothermic Mammal, the Edible Dormouse (Glis glis).

Authors: Fietz J, Tomiuk J, Matuschka FR, Richter D Abstract In Europe, dormice serve as competent reservoir hosts for particular genospecies of the tick-borne agent of Lyme disease (LD) and seem to support them more efficiently than do mice or voles. The longevity of edible dormice (Glis glis) and their attractiveness for ticks may result in a predominance of LD spirochetes in ticks questing in dormouse habitats. To investigate the role of edible dormice in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we sampled skin tissue from the ear pinnae of dormice inhabiting five different study sites in south western Germany. Of 501 edible dormice, 12.6% harbored DNA of LD spirochetes. Edible dormice were infected most frequently with the pathogenic LD spirochete Borrelia afzelii. DNA of B. g...


Thursday 3 April 2014

The paradox of the binomial Ixodes ricinus activity and the observed unimodal Lyme borreliosis season in Hungary

(Source: International Journal of Environmental Health Research)


Thursday 3 April 2014

Evolutionary Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: Findings, Hypotheses, and the Rise of Hybrids.

Authors: Qiu WG, Martin CL Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.), the group of bacterial species represented by Lyme Disease pathogens, has one of the most complex and variable genomic architectures among prokaryotes. Showing frequent recombination within and limited gene flow among geographic populations, the B. burgdorferi s.l. genomes provides an excellent window into the processes of bacterial evolution at both within- and between-population levels. Comparative analyses of B. burgdorferi s.l. genomes revealed a highly dynamic plasmid composition but a conservative gene repertoire. Gene duplication and loss as well as sequence variations at loci encoding surface-localized lipoproteins (e.g., the PF54 genes) are strongly associated with adaptive differenc...

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Wednesday 2 April 2014

Harvard Study Raises Questions About Mammograms

BOSTON (CBS) –A recent study out of Harvard suggests that deciding when and how often to have a mammogram is not a black or white issue. Researchers looked at 50 years worth of data on the effectiveness of mammograms and concluded that the benefits of screening are often overstated and that the harms are often downplayed. They found mammograms decreased the risk of dying from breast cancer by only about 19-percent. The survival benefit was even less for women in their 40′s, but more for women in their 60′s, who are much more likely to get breast cancer. That said, among women in their 40′s and 50′s who get mammograms every year for 10 years, more than half of them will receive a false positive result. Mammograms involve small concentrated doses of radiation an...


Wednesday 2 April 2014

Strain-specific Lyme disease immunity lasts for years

Lyme disease, if not treated promptly with antibiotics, can become a lingering problem for those infected. But a new study led by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania has some brighter news: Once infected with a particular strain of the disease-causing bacteria, humans appear to develop immunity against that strain that can last six to nine years. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Wednesday 2 April 2014

World Health Day 2014: Preventing vector-borne diseases

2 April 2014 -- More than half the world’s population is at risk from diseases such as malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, schistosomiasis, and yellow fever, carried by mosquitoes, flies, ticks, water snails and other vectors. Every year, more than 1 billion people are infected and more than 1 million die from vector-borne diseases. This World Health Day – 7 April – WHO is highlighting the serious and increasing threat of vector-borne diseases, with the slogan “Small bite, big threat”. (Source: WHO news)


Wednesday 2 April 2014

Strain-specific Lyme disease immunity lasts for years, Penn research finds

(University of Pennsylvania) A new study led by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania shows that humans appear to develop immunity against specific strains of the Lyme disease that can last six to nine years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Wednesday 2 April 2014

Diversity of antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally-infected beagle dogs.

Authors: Baum E, Grosenbaugh DA, Barbour AG Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted whole cell-based preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity in those responses between individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult, colony-bred beagle dogs that were experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those on a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinan...

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Tuesday 1 April 2014

Exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and Other Tick-Borne Pathogens in Gettysburg National Military Park, South-Central Pennsylvania, 2009

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Monday 31 March 2014

A Better Way To Test Blood Pressure

BOSTON (CBS) – Have you ever had your blood pressure checked in both arms at your doctor’s office? Researchers at Mass General Hospital say you probably should. A small difference between the two arms is normal. But a larger one could mean you’re at risk for heart disease. Dr. Ido Weinberg, a vascular medicine specialist, and colleagues at MGH, looked at data on nearly 3,400 local residents over the age of 40 enrolled in the Framingham heart study. “Patients who have that difference between arms could end up developing heart and blood vessel disease,” Dr. Weinberg said. Researchers found that people with a systolic blood pressure difference of 10 points or more between their arms were 38% more likely to develop a blood vessel disorder like a heart attack, stro...


Monday 31 March 2014

[Lyme disease acrodermitis chronica atrophicans: Misleading vascular signs.]

We present a patient who exhibited an atypical clinical presentation of Lyme disease acrodermatitis chronic atrophicans. The clinical outcome was quite favorable with treatment, confirming the diagnosis. Such treatments, which are well tolerated and highly effective, are essential since an untreated disease can lead to potentially severe neurological involvement. PMID: 24698204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires)


Sunday 30 March 2014

[CXCL13: a biomarker for acute Lyme neuroborreliosis : Investigation of the predictive value in the clinical routine.]

CONCLUSIONS: The biomarker CXCL13 has a higher sensitivity (100 % vs. 87 %) with a specificity (99 %) comparable with the established diagnostic markers for LNB, e.g. CSF pleocytosis and Borrelia-AI in the investigated patient population. The negative predictive value of CXCL13 is 100 %. Therefore, a normal CXCL13 level virtually excludes LNB. In the clinical routine CXCL13 is a valuable and practical diagnostic marker for LNB and can even detect an acute LNB in patients without CSF pleocytosis. PMID: 24682168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Nervenarzt)


Saturday 29 March 2014

Oral doxycycline for Lyme neuroborreliosis with symptoms of encephalitis, myelitis, vasculitis or intracranial hypertension

ConclusionTreatment with oral doxycycline resulted in a similar decrease in CSF mononuclear cell counts in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis with CNS symptoms compared with patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis with PNS symptoms. The results indicate that oral doxycycline is an effective treatment for Lyme neuroborreliosis irrespective of the severity of symptoms. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)

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Thursday 27 March 2014

A82: Lyme Arthritis: an Emerging Clinical Problem in Nova Scotia, Canada

Conclusion:Increasing numbers of children with Lyme arthritis are being seen in the pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. LD was not considered as a diagnosis in the majority of cases by the referring physician. A quarter of patients also had a history of unrecognized neurologic manifestations of LD. In keeping with published North American reports, most patients had an excellent outcome however a proportion continued to have arthritis and disability following antibiotic therapy. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 26 March 2014

FDA Allows NH Girl To Try Controversial Brain Tumor Drug

MANCHESTER, N.H. (CBS) — McKenzie Lowe is looking great and feeling well. “Sometimes I have little headaches but they’re really little. They don’t bother me that much,” she says. And now comes news that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted her wish to allow her to try a controversial drug her family believes could help cure her inoperable brain tumor. “Oh I started crying,” says the girl’s grandfather Frank LaFountain. But the good news was quickly tempered because there’s a new fight for the family. They have to find a doctor willing to administer the unapproved drug and so far, no luck. “We need a doctor is what we basically need right now,” said LaFountain. “Anywhere in the country doesn’t matter where. We’re going to ...


Wednesday 26 March 2014

Mice are reservoirs for tick-borne pathogens, amplify risk of Lyme disease and other tick-borne ailments

People living in northern and central parts of the U.S. are more likely to contract Lyme disease and other tick-borne ailments when white-footed mice are abundant. Mice are effective at transferring disease-causing pathogens to feeding ticks. And, according to an in-press paper in the journal Ecology, these "super hosts" appear indifferent to larval tick infestations. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Wednesday 26 March 2014

Comparison of serological and molecular panels for diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs

Conclusions: We conclude that serological and PCR assays should be used in parallel to maximize CVBD diagnosis (Source: BioMed Central)


Tuesday 25 March 2014

‘Diabetes Day’ Stresses Importance Of Prevention

BOSTON (CBS) — The American Diabetes Association is encouraging all Americans to find out if they’re at risk for developing Type Two diabetes. Tuesday is national “Diabetes Day.” Dr. Jorge Plutzky, Director of the Vascular Prevention Program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, says simple changes that make a world of difference when it comes to diabetes. WBZ NewsRadio 1030′s Diane Stern reports play pause Diabetes Day Stresses Importance Of Prevention Diane Stern Although there is evidence that childhood obesity is going down, Plutzky sa...

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Tuesday 25 March 2014

Tips and tricks to stay safe from ticks

Jolyon Medlock, Medical Entomologist at Public Health England, explains why ticks are a health concern and outlines prevention tips for the public Related items from OnMedicaMosquitoes win battle of repellentEaster farm visit infection warningPublic warned to avoid tick bites and Lyme disease (Source: OnMedica Views)



Monday 24 March 2014

Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

Infections with Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were molecularly detected in domestic and stray cats from sourthern Portugal. Image: Male domestic cat from the region of Lisbon. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 17 March 2014

People, Pets, and Parasites: One Health Surveillance in Southeastern Saskatchewan.

Authors: Schurer JM, Ndao M, Quewezance H, Elmore SA, Jenkins EJ Abstract Residents of remote and Indigenous communities might experience higher exposure to some zoonotic parasites than the general North American population. Human sero-surveillance conducted in two Saulteaux communities found 113 volunteers exposed as follows: Trichinella (2.7%), Toxocara canis (4.4%), Echinococcus (4.4%), and Toxoplasma gondii (1.8%). In dogs, 41% of 51 fecal samples were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, 3% of 77 were sero-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, and 21% of 78 for T. gondii. Echinococcus exposure was more likely to occur in non-dog owners (odds ratio [OR]: 11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-107, P = 0.03); although T. canis was more likely to occur in children (ages 4...


Saturday 15 March 2014

Identifying erythema migrans rash in patients with lyme disease.

Authors: Dardick K PMID: 24695559 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Family Physician)

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Wednesday 12 March 2014

Antibodies to endothelial cell growth factor and obliterative microvascular lesions in synovia of patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis

Conclusions. The correlations of ECGF autoantibody reactivity with obliterative microvascular lesions imply that these autoantibodies may be involved in the obliterative process, suggesting that anti‐ECGF antibodies have specific pathologic consequences in synovial tissue in patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 12 March 2014

Identification of OppA2 linear epitopes as serodiagnostic markers for Lyme disease.

Authors: Signorino G, Arnaboldi PM, Petzke MM, Dattwyler RJ Abstract Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on the serological detection of antibodies against the etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. Current diagnostics are insensitive at detecting early infection, when treatment is most effective. This deficiency results from the limited number of B. burgdorferi antigens expressed in early infection, and the use of an insensitive two-tier paradigm, put in place to deal with insufficient specificity associated with the use of whole protein antigens and/or bacterial lysates as serodiagnostic targets. Whole protein antigens contain epitopes that are unique to B. burgdorferi as well as 'cross-reactive' epitopes found in other bacteria. One method for overcoming the limitation...


Friday 7 March 2014

Lost first world war training battlefield discovered in Hampshire

Elaborate trench network was identified from old aerial photographs on land that is still owned by Ministry of DefenceA few suspiciously straight lines in a corner of a 1951 aerial photograph showing acres of featureless scrubby heath have led archaeologists to a lost first world war landscape.The mock battlefield, used for training soldiers before they were shipped across the Channel to confront the real thing, is complete with zig-zags of frontline, communication and reserve trenches, the enemy's front line, terrifyingly visible less than 200 yards away – and, a little further on, a holiday camp in Gosport, Hampshire.Browndown is still owned by the Ministry of Defence, but well used by local dog walkers, who knew there were humps, bumps and hollows into which a dog could annoyingly van...


Friday 7 March 2014

Identification of a core sequence for the binding of BosR to the rpoS promoter region in Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Ouyang Z, Zhou J, Brautigam CA, Deka RK, Norgard MV Abstract The alternative sigma factor RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi plays a central role in modulating host adaptive responses when spirochetes cycle between ticks and mammals. The transcriptional activation of σ54-dependent rpoS requires a Fur homologue designated as BosR. Previously, we found that BosR directly activates rpoS transcription by binding to the rpoS promoter. However, many other DNA-binding features of BosR have remained obscure. In particular, the precise DNA sequence targeted by BosR has not yet been completely elucidated. The prediction of a putative Per box within the rpoS promoter region has further confounded the identification of the BosR binding sequence. Herein, by using electrophoretic mobility sh...


Thursday 6 March 2014

The lymphocyte transformation test for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis has currently not been shown to be clinically useful

(Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)

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Thursday 6 March 2014

Letter From the Editor: The Great Mimickers in Radiology

Many diseases have been referred to as “great imitator” or “great mimicker.” For the sake of accuracy, I looked up the definition in The Dictionary of Modern Medicine (JC. Segen, CRC Press; 1992): “The great imitator is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases. Most great imitators are systemic in nature.” The list of diseases referenced is pretty long and includes approximately 15 entities, among which are quite a few that we, radiologists, rarely encounter as the diseases do not exhibit abnormal imaging findings (e.g., Lyme disease or fibromyalgia). The list of “great imitators” for radiologists is quite different, as it is based on imaging findings and not on signs and symptoms. This issue ...


Wednesday 5 March 2014

Mouse vaccine could protect humans from Lyme disease

The only vaccine against tick-borne Lyme disease was pulled from the market because of side effects in humans. But could it still be useful?     (Source: New Scientist - Health)


Wednesday 5 March 2014

Why are there several species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in dogs and humans?

Authors: Skotarczak B Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochete bacteria species some of which cause borreliosis in humans and dogs. Humans and dogs are susceptible to illness from many of the same tick-borne pathogens, including B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bbsl). Little is known about the pathogenic role of the species of Bbsl in canines. The molecular methods which detect and amplify the DNA of borreliae and allow the differentiation of borreliae species or strains have not been used in canine diagnostics yet. Until now, it has been believed that in European dogs, like in humans, at least three pathogenic species occur but the most frequently described symptoms may be associated with the infection caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto species. A dog as well as a...


Monday 3 March 2014

Tick Test for Persistent Lyme Disease Tried in HumansTick Test for Persistent Lyme Disease Tried in Humans

A small experiment to see whether uninfected ticks could "diagnose" a lingering Lyme infection in people produced modest results, researchers say. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Saturday 1 March 2014

Borreliosis and synovial lesions

Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by the spirohete Borrelia burgdorferi. In the northeastern United States where the disease is endemic, the main vectors are the hard ticks Ixodes scapularis and lxodes pacificus. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)

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Friday 28 February 2014

Tick test for persistent Lyme disease tried in humans

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A small experiment to see whether uninfected ticks could "diagnose" a lingering Lyme infection in people produced modest results, researchers say. (Source: Reuters: Health)


Tuesday 25 February 2014

Geographic and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the United States.

This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA. PMID: 24568883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)


Friday 21 February 2014

Outer Surface Proteins of Borrelia: Peerless Immune Evasion Tools.

Authors: Pulzova L, Bhide M Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB), caused by Borrelia burgdorferi(B.b.), is the most frequently diagnosed tick-borne zoonosis in temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. Borreliais unique among bacteria in its ability to express a wide variety of lipoproteins on its surface, which play an essential role in pathogenesis. Surface proteins of spirochetes are important virulence determinants, immune evasion molecules and adaptation factors in the transmission and interaction with host tissues. Vast diversity in the expressed surface proteome of Borreliain different niches and multifunctionality of proteins are the major strategies of Borreliato avoid the destructive effect of immune system. In this review we provide deep insight into the protein:protein inte...


Tuesday 18 February 2014

Ticks may cause double trouble, Stanford scientists find

(Stanford University) Stanford study finds ticks infected with Lyme disease and newly identified human pathogen are widespread in San Francisco Bay Area. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Friday 14 February 2014

To Stop Lyme, Vaccinate...the Mice?To Stop Lyme, Vaccinate...the Mice?

A new oral vaccine to prevent Lyme disease in mice decreased infection rates in ticks and might help break the cycle of transmission to humans. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)

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Friday 14 February 2014

Lymphocyte transformation test for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is currently not documented to be clinically useful

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)


Friday 14 February 2014

Lack of IgG antibody seropositivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Parry–Romberg syndrome and linear morphea en coup de sabre in Mexico

ConclusionIn Mexico there are no previous studies on Borrelia infection and its relationship between PRS or LMCS. Our result showed a lack of association of either clinical entities with anti‐Borrelia‐antibodies. Former reports of this association may suggest coincidental findings without causal relationship. (Source: International Journal of Dermatology)


Wednesday 12 February 2014

Test for persistent Lyme infection using live ticks shown safe in clinical study

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) In a first-of-its-kind study for Lyme disease, researchers have used live, disease-free ticks to see if Lyme disease bacteria can be detected in people who continue to experience symptoms such as fatigue or arthritis after completing antibiotic therapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Saturday 8 February 2014

Cannabis kicks Lyme disease to the curb

(Source: NaturalNews.com)


Thursday 6 February 2014

Mathematical Model Developed by UA Physicists Could Help Treat Lyme Disease

(Source: The University of Arizona: Health)

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Wednesday 5 February 2014

Evaluation of the Borrelia burgdorferi BBA64 protein as a protective immunogen in mice.

Authors: Brandt KS, Patton TG, Allard AS, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Gilmore RD Abstract The Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product is a surface localized lipoprotein synthesized within mammalian and tick hosts and is involved in vector transmission. These properties suggest that BBA64 may be a vaccine candidate against Lyme borreliosis. Protective immunity against B. burgdorferi challenge was assessed in mice immunized with BBA64 protein. Mice developed a high-titered antibody response following immunization with soluble recombinant BBA64, but were not protected when challenged by needle inoculation of culture-grown spirochetes. Likewise, mice passively immunized with an anti-BBA64 monoclonal antibody were not protected against needle-inoculated organisms. BBA64-immunized mice were s...


Tuesday 4 February 2014

Spatiotemporal evolution of erythema migrans, the hallmark rash of lyme disease.

Authors: Vig DK, Wolgemuth CW Abstract To elucidate pathogen-host interactions during early Lyme disease, we developed a mathematical model that explains the spatiotemporal dynamics of the characteristic first sign of the disease, a large (≥5-cm diameter) rash, known as an erythema migrans. The model predicts that the bacterial replication and dissemination rates are the primary factors controlling the speed that the rash spreads, whereas the rate that active macrophages are cleared from the dermis is the principle determinant of rash morphology. In addition, the model supports the clinical observations that antibiotic treatment quickly clears spirochetes from the dermis and that the rash appearance is not indicative of the efficacy of the treatment. The quantitative agreement be...


Saturday 1 February 2014

Common questions about bell palsy.

Authors: Albers JR, Tamang S Abstract Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the pr...


Tuesday 28 January 2014

Genotyping of borrelia from formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded skin biopsies of cutaneous borreliosis and tick bite reactions by assays targeting the IGS‐region, ospA, and OspC genes

ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that genotyping of borrelia can be easily implemented in a routine dermatopathology setting, especially useful as a fast method to confirm early cutaneous borreliosis. Genotyping could also enable earlier treatment of patients infected with invasive strains.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)


Tuesday 28 January 2014

Genotyping of borrelia from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin biopsies of cutaneous borreliosis and tick bite reactions by assays targeting the IGS-region, ospA, and OspC genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that genotyping of borrelia can be easily implemented in a routine dermatopathology setting, especially useful as a fast method to confirm early cutaneous borreliosis. Genotyping could also enable earlier treatment of patients infected with invasive strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 24471582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Dermatology)

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Monday 27 January 2014

Meteorological Influences on the Seasonality of Lyme Disease in the United States.

Authors: Moore SM, Eisen RJ, Monaghan A, Mead P Abstract Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi infection) is the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. The majority of human Lyme disease (LD) cases occur in the summer months, but the timing of the peak occurrence varies geographically and from year to year. We calculated the beginning, peak, end, and duration of the main LD season in 12 highly endemic states from 1992 to 2007 and then examined the association between the timing of these seasonal variables and several meteorological variables. An earlier beginning to the LD season was positively associated with higher cumulative growing degree days through Week 20, lower cumulative precipitation, a lower saturation deficit, and proximity to the Atlantic coast. The...


Saturday 25 January 2014

PCR Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks in Mongolia.

Authors: Masuzawa T, Masuda S, Fukui T, Okamoto Y, Bataa J, Oikawa Y, Ishiguro F, Takada N Abstract A molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to identify the tick-borne disease agents Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Selenge Province, Mongolia. The survey was in response to a suspected A. phagocytophilum infection in a patient. In 2012, a total of 129 questing Ixodes persulcatus adult ticks were sampled by flagging vegetation. A. phagocytophilum and Borrelia spp. were detected by PCR, targeting the 16S rDNA (rrs) and 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, respectively. Infection rates for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi sensu lato spp. were 6.2% and 55.0%, respectively. Six of the 129 ticks (4.9%) were coinfected with A. phagocytophilum and B....


Thursday 23 January 2014

Ongoing Discussion About the US Clinical Lyme Trials

Although we agree with Klempner et al that results from post hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials need to be viewed with caution, we are concerned that important results from planned analyses of primary hypotheses are being disregarded. The key point is that the study by Krupp et al demonstrated efficacy of ceftriaxone with respect to placebo on the only primary outcome measure that could reasonably be considered valid. That 69% of patients benefited with improvement in fatigue from intravenous ceftriaxone at 6 months compared with 23% of patients given intravenous placebo is a clear demonstration of antibiotic efficacy (P  (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Thursday 23 January 2014

Potential Benefits of Retreatment Highlight the Need for Additional Lyme Disease Research

We are responding to Klempner et al regarding our statistical review of the National Institutes of Health–sponsored antibiotic retreatment trials for Lyme disease. Our primary finding is that the trials did not prove retreatment is ineffective. A basic concept in statistical science regarding randomized controlled trials is that one can only conclude treatment is ineffective when the treatment effect and confidence interval exclude and are below the minimum clinically important difference. None of the trials showed this. Two trials actually demonstrated evidence of improvement in patients with severe symptoms at baseline. The trials without significant findings did not incorporate interactions between treatment and baseline severity in their statistical analysis. The only valid conclu...


Thursday 23 January 2014

The Reply

The communications from DeLong et al and Fallon et al express concerns about the findings, implications, and methods used in the 4 published treatment trials for persistent symptoms in patients previously treated for Lyme disease. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)

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Wednesday 22 January 2014

BORRELIA REMEDY (Borrelia Burgdorferi,) Liquid [Apotheca Company]

Updated Date: Jan 22, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Monday 20 January 2014

Lyme Borreliosis Caused by Diverse Genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in northeastern China

ConclusionIn northeastern China, three genospecies of LB patients were detected. The B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in this study was predominantly B. garinii. A case infected with B. valaisiana‐related genospecies was first reported.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)


Wednesday 15 January 2014

Gut Microbiota of the Tick Vector Ixodes scapularis Modulate Colonization of the Lyme Disease Spirochete.

Authors: Narasimhan S, Rajeevan N, Liu L, Zhao YO, Heisig J, Pan J, Eppler-Epstein R, Deponte K, Fish D, Fikrig E Abstract Arthopods such as Ixodes scapularis ticks serve as vectors for many human pathogens. The arthropod gut presents a pivotal microbial entry point and determines pathogen colonization and survival. We show that the gut microbiota of I. scapularis, a major vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, influence spirochete colonization of ticks. Perturbing the gut microbiota of larval ticks reduced Borrelia colonization, and dysbiosed larvae displayed decreased expression of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Diminished STAT expression corresponded to lower expression of peritrophin, a key glycoprotein sc...


Tuesday 14 January 2014

Insights into the Biology of Borrelia burgdorferi Gained Through the Application of Molecular Genetics.

Authors: Groshong AM, Blevins JS Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi, the vector-borne bacterium that causes Lyme disease, was first identified in 1982. It is known that much of the pathology associated with Lyme borreliosis is due to the spirochete's ability to infect, colonize, disseminate, and survive within the vertebrate host. Early studies aimed at defining the biological contributions of individual genes during infection and transmission were hindered by the lack of adequate tools and techniques for molecular genetic analysis of the spirochete. The development of genetic manipulation techniques, paired with elucidation and annotation of the B. burgdorferi genome sequence, has led to major advancements in our understanding of the virulence factors and the molecular events associate...


Monday 13 January 2014

Recognizing Lyme CarditisRecognizing Lyme Carditis

Three recent cases of sudden cardiac death from Lyme carditis point to the importance of recognizing and promptly treating this complication of Lyme disease. CDC Expert Commentary (Source: Medscape Pediatrics Headlines)

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Saturday 11 January 2014

Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Rheumatic Fever.

Authors: Burke RJ, Chang C Abstract Acute rheumatic fever is an inflammatory sequelae of Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis that affects multiple organ systems. The incidence of acute rheumatic fever has been declining even before the use of antibiotics became widespread, however the disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children, particularly in developing countries and has been estimated to affect 19 per 100,000 children worldwide. Acute rheumatic fever is a clinical diagnosis, and therefore subject to the judgment of the clinician. Because of the variable presentation, the Jones criteria were first developed in 1944 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. The Jones criteria have been modified throughout the years, most recently in ...


Thursday 2 January 2014

Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds support the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Image: Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. (Source: BioMed Central)


Monday 30 December 2013

A mathematical perspective of seasonal variations in Lyme disease transmission

Lyme disease is a common tick-borne illness caused by a bacterium, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The transmission dynamics of Lyme disease is dependent on a variety of factors, including the length of the tick's life cycle, availability of hosts, climatic conditions and seasonal influences, which are important to understand for control strategies. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Monday 30 December 2013

Ménage à trois: Borrelia, dendritic cells, and tick saliva interactions.

Authors: Mason LM, Veerman CC, Geijtenbeek TB, Hovius JW Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is inoculated into the skin during an Ixodes tick bite where it is recognised and captured by dendritic cells (DCs). However, considering the propensity of Borrelia to disseminate, it would appear that DCs fall short in mounting a robust immune response against it. Many aspects of the DC-driven immune response to Borrelia have been examined. Recently, components of tick saliva have been identified that sabotage DC responses and aid Borrelia infection. In this review, we summarise what is currently known about the immune response of DCs to Borrelia and explore the mechanisms by which Borrelia manages to circumvent this immune response, with or w...


Sunday 29 December 2013

Occurrence and transmission efficiencies of Borrelia burgdorferi ospC types in avian and mammalian wildlife.

Authors: Vuong HB, Canham CD, Fonseca DM, Brisson D, Morin PJ, Smouse PE, Ostfeld RS Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in North America, circulates among a suite of vertebrate hosts and their tick vector. The bacterium can be differentiated at the outer surface protein C (ospC) locus into 25 genotypes. Wildlife hosts can be infected with a suite of ospC types but knowledge on the transmission efficiencies of these naturally infected hosts to ticks is still lacking. To evaluate the occupancy and detection of ospC types in wildlife hosts, we adapted a likelihood-based species patch occupancy model to test for the occurrence probabilities (ψ - "occupancy") and transmission efficiencies (ε - "detection") of each ospC type. We detected differen...

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Saturday 28 December 2013

On the Curious Motions of Syphilis and Lyme Disease Bacteria

The bacteria that cause syphilis and Lyme Disease have something extraordinary in common: they manage to propel themselves through their environment in spite of the fact their tails are located inside their bodies.For bacteria, they’re also unusually shaped and active. In this movie, you can see the bacteria that cause Lyme Disease moving like living, squirming cavatappi . [More] (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 23 December 2013

Lyme borreliosis

Abstract: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-transmitted spirochaetal disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. It is acquired in forested and heathland areas of the temperate northern hemisphere. The most common presentation is an erythematous rash spreading slowly from the site of a tick bite. Clinical manifestations of disseminated infection include facial palsy, viral-like meningitis, radiculopathy, meningoencephalitis and arthritis. Lyme borreliosis responds to antibiotic treatment at all stages, with excellent results for patients with early disease. Patients with long-standing infection causing significant tissue damage can have slow or incomplete recovery. A small minority of treated patients can have persistent non-specific symptoms, similar to those seen following some other inf...


Saturday 21 December 2013

Dietary composition and spatial patterns of polar bear foraging on land in western Hudson Bay

Conclusions: Our results suggest that polar bears are foraging opportunistically in a manner consistent with maximizing intake while minimizing energy expenditure associated with movement. The frequent mixing of plant-based carbohydrate and animal-based protein could suggest use of a strategy that other Ursids employ to maximize weight gain. Further, consuming high rates of certain vegetation and land-based animals that may yield immediate energetic gains could, instead, provide other benefits such as fulfilling vitamin/mineral requirements, diluting toxins and assessing new foods for potential switching. (Source: BMC Ecology - Latest articles)


Friday 20 December 2013

Assessment of the potential contribution of the highly conserved C‐terminal motif (C10) of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) in transmission and infectivity

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology)


Friday 20 December 2013

Sensitive multiplex PCR assay to differentiate Lyme spirochetes and emerging pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti

Conclusion: Real-time quantitative PCR using specific primers and molecular beacon probes for the selected amplicon described in this study can detect three tick-borne pathogens simultaneously in an accurate manner. (Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles)

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Thursday 19 December 2013

A mathematical perspective of seasonal variations in Lyme disease transmission

(Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) Lyme disease is a common tick-borne illness caused by a bacterium, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. In a paper published last month in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, authors Yuxiang Zhang and Xiao-Qiang Zhao propose a reaction-diffusion model to study transmission dynamics of Lyme disease while taking into account seasonality. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Thursday 19 December 2013

Essential factor for Lyme disease transmission identified

(Public Library of Science) Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, hitchhikes in ticks for dissemination to mammalian hosts--including humans. An article in the 19 Dec. issue of PLOS Pathogens identifies HrpA, an RNA helicase, as a crucial player in the transmission from ticks to mammals. George Chaconas and colleagues analyze the molecular function of the HrpA protein and further explore its role in the bacterium's complicated life cycle, in particular for transmission of the pathogen. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 19 December 2013

Occupational exposure to zoonotic agents among agricultural workers in Lombardy Region, northern Italy.

Conclusions: The higher frequency of the presence of serum antibodies to zoonotic agents (e.g. Leptospira spp. and Coxiella burnetii) in animal breeders suggests that they are more exposed to biological agents than workers not involved in animal breeding activities. The risk of contact with HEV deserves further studies because the adoption of different assays can result in significantly different results. The promotion of immunization of agricultural workers might be a priority, in particular for migrants. PMID: 24364433 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Tuesday 17 December 2013

Lysosomal β-glucuronidase regulates Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis severity

Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most prevalent arthropod-borne illness in the United States and remains a clinical and social challenge. The spectrum of disease severity among infected patients suggests that host genetics contribute to pathogenic outcomes, particularly in patients who develop arthritis. Using a forward genetics approach, we identified the lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUSB), a member of a large family of coregulated lysosomal enzymes, as a key regulator of Lyme-associated arthritis severity. Severely arthritic C3H mice possessed a naturally occurring hypomorphic allele, Gusbh. C57BL/6 mice congenic for the C3H Gusb allele were prone to increased Lyme-associated arthritis severity. Radiation chimera experiments revealed that resident...


Tuesday 17 December 2013

[Correspondence] Lyme disease vaccination: safety first

In the Article by Nina Wressnigg and colleagues and the related Comment by Paul Lantos describing a novel Lyme vaccine, the authors attempt to avoid discussion of the side-effects of the previous Lyme vaccine, LYMErix (SmithKline Beecham, Pittsburgh, USA). This approach to safety issues bodes ill for the new Lyme vaccine candidate. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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Tuesday 17 December 2013

[Correspondence] Lyme disease vaccination: safety first – Authors' reply

We refute the assertion by Raphael Stricker and Lorraine Johnson that we avoided discussion of the side-effects of the previously licensed Lyme vaccine, LYMErix, in our report of a novel multivalent candidate vaccine against Lyme borreliosis. In our introduction, we provide a full and balanced description of the hypothesised safety concerns associated with the monovalent outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine LYMErix, and we present and discuss in detail the safety data generated in our phase 1/2 trial of the new multivalent vaccine. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 17 December 2013

[Correspondence] Lyme disease vaccination: safety first – Author's reply

I wholly concur with Raphael Stricker and Lorraine Johnson that attention to safety must be central to the development of any novel therapeutic agent. Comparative safety has certainly been an open topic of discussion with several second generation vaccines, such as those for acellular pertussis, rotavirus, and Japanese encephalitis, which were developed mainly because of safety concerns with their predecessors. This should no doubt be the case for novel Lyme disease vaccines, whether based on Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) or other antigens. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)


Sunday 15 December 2013

Are Your Fibromyalgia Symptoms Due to Lyme Disease?

Lyme disease is the number one vector borne spreading epidemic worldwide, and mimics common diseases such as Fibromyalgia (FM), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis), autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and MS, as well as psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety.read more (Source: Psychology Today Depression Center)


Sunday 15 December 2013

Arthropod bites.

Authors: Juckett G Abstract The phylum Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. Although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. The two medically important spiders in the United States are widow spiders (Latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense muscle spasms, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles), which may cause skin necrosis. Widow bites usually respond to narcotics, benzodiazepines, or, when necessary, antivenom. Most recluse bites resolve uneventfully without aggressive therapy and require only wound care and minor debridement. Tick bites can transmit diseases only after prolonged attachment to the host. Treatment of clothing with permethrin and proper tick removal greatly reduce the risk of infection. Ticks of medi...


Friday 13 December 2013

Three Sudden Cardiac Deaths Associated with Lyme Carditis — United States, November 2012–July 2013

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)

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Friday 13 December 2013

Three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - United States, november 2012-july 2013.

Authors: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Abstract Lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of Ixodes ticks. Approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of Lyme disease were reported in the United States in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the Northeast (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont) and upper Midwest (Minnesota and Wisconsin). Common manifestations include cutaneous, neurologic, and rheumatologic signs and symptoms. Symptomatic infection of the heart is rare in recognized Lyme disease cases and usually resolves promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Nonetheless, card...


Friday 13 December 2013

Three Cases of Sudden Cardiac Death Linked to Lyme Carditis (FREE)

By Cara Adler Three cases of sudden cardiac death associated with Lyme carditis were reported in 2012 and 2013 and are described in MMWR … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Thursday 12 December 2013

Sudden Cardiac Death in Untreated Lyme CarditisSudden Cardiac Death in Untreated Lyme Carditis

Three sudden cardiac deaths associated with undiagnosed and untreated Lyme carditis highlighted the need to check cardiac status in patients with Lyme disease and Lyme exposure in some heart patients. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Wednesday 11 December 2013

Lyme disease in the United Kingdom

Lyme disease, while still an uncommon disease in the UK, is on the increase. Case numbers have increased by 3.6-fold since 2001, with over 950 cases reported by the Health Protection Agency (HPA) in 2011, compared with less than 500 cases annually pre-2004. HPA indications of the true incidence are suggested to be closer to 3000 cases/year, of which around 82% of cases are indigenously acquired. Three genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelli and Borrelia garinii, represent the predominant pathogenic variants in the UK. Erythema migrans is the commonest manifestation, occurring in 60%–91% of cases. In the UK, neuroborelliosis is the most common complication, while myocarditis is unusual, and death from either conduction disease or carditis is extremely rare. T...


Tuesday 10 December 2013

Co-infection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia species in ticks and in an erythema migrans patient

The co-infection rates with Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks and in patients with early Lyme borreliosis were determined. Image: Ixodes ricinus can carry Borrelia and Rickettsia simultaneously. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Monday 9 December 2013

Determinants and protective behaviours regarding tick bites among school children in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

Conclusions: Most children have a good knowledge of ticks and the potential consequences of tick bites. Knowing persons who personally got ill after tick-bite is associated with a good knowledge score and leads to higher susceptibility and better appreciation of the need for body checks. Perceived severity is associated with a good knowledge score and with knowing persons who got ill after tick-bite. Is seems to be useful to additionally address children in health education regarding ticks and tick-borne diseases. The relationship between health education programs for children (and their parents) about ticks and their possible consequences and prevention of these deserves further study. (Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles)


Friday 6 December 2013

Crystal structure of PfbA, a surface adhesin of Streptococcus pneumoniae, provides hints into its interaction with fibronectin.

Authors: Beulin DS, Yamaguchi M, Kawabata S, Ponnuraj K Abstract PfbA is a surface adhesin and invasin of Streptococcus pneumoniae that binds to human fibronectin and plasminogen of the host extracellular matrix. It is a virulence factor for its pathogenesis. The crystal structure of recombinant PfbA150-607 from S. pneumoniae strain R6, was determined using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method and refined to 1.90Å resolution. The structure of rPfbA150-607 revealed that residues Thr150 to Lys570 form a rigid parallel beta helix, followed by a short disordered region (571 to 607) that consists of beta hairpins. The structural organization of the beta helix resembles that of polysaccharide-modifying enzymes. The structural and sequence features essential for fibronectin...


Thursday 5 December 2013

The telomere resolvase of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, promotes DNA single-strand annealing and strand exchange

We report here that ResT also possesses single-strand annealing activity and a limited ability to promote DNA strand exchange reactions on partial duplex substrates. This combination of activities suggests ResT is a nexus between the seemingly distinct processes of telomere resolution and homologous recombination. Implications for hairpin telomere replication and linear plasmid recombination, including antigenic variation, are discussed. (Source: Nucleic Acids Research)


Wednesday 4 December 2013

Sensitivity of a point of care tick-test for the development of Lyme borreliosis

We evaluated whether a self-test for ticks predicts development of early Lyme borreliosis. We used www.tekenradar.nl for collection of ticks removed from humans, and subsequent follow-up. The self-test appeared to be not suitable for the prediction of early Lyme borreliosis. Image: Adult and nymphal Ixodes ricinus together with the logo of the website. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Sunday 1 December 2013

Global infectious diseases—The new norm for the United States?

From 1900 to the end of the 20th century, and into the present, there has been a significant shift in the top ten causes of death in the United States (). Where once infectious diseases were leading health care concerns, these have been largely replaced by cardiovascular disease and cancer. Unfortunately for a large proportion of the planet, infectious diseases remain the leading causes of death, disability, in some cases preventable blindness, and other serious sequelae. Because of our location, significant public health and medical infrastructure, and widespread immunizations against a wide array of pathogens, the US has been fortunately isolated from many infectious diseases, with the notable exception of tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS, Lyme, West Nile, pneumonia, and influenza-related ill...

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Saturday 30 November 2013

Are My Anxiety and Depression Due to Lyme Disease?

Lyme disease is known as “the great imitator” and is spreading worldwide in epidemic proportions, mimicking every known medical condition seen in a doctor’s office. read more (Source: Psychology Today Anxiety Center)


Saturday 30 November 2013

Potential Role of Deer Tick Virus in Powassan Encephalitis Cases in Lyme Disease-endemic Areas of New York, USA.

We report 14 cases of Powassan encephalitis from New York during 2004-2012. Ten (72%) of the patients were residents of the Lower Hudson Valley, a Lyme disease-endemic area in which I. scapularis ticks account for most human tick bites. This finding suggests that many of these cases were caused by DTV rather than POWV. In 2 patients, DTV infection was confirmed by genetic sequencing. As molecular testing becomes increasingly available, more cases of Powassan encephalitis may be determined to be attributable to the DTV lineage. PMID: 24274334 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)


Wednesday 27 November 2013

Etiology, diagnosis, and management of facial palsy: 2000 patients at a facial nerve center

Conclusion: Bell's palsy remains the most common facial palsy; females present more often for evaluation. Comprehensive diagnostic investigation is mandatory in atypical cases, and thorough management must be multi‐disciplinary. The algorithms presented herein outline a single center's approach to the facial palsy patient, providing a framework which clinicians caring for these patients may adapt to their specific settings. (Source: The Laryngoscope)


Friday 22 November 2013

Automated cerebrospinal fluid cell count - New reference ranges and evaluation of its clinical use in central nervous system infections.

CONCLUSIONS: We suggest new CSF cell count reference ranges of <4cells/μL for lymphocytes, <3cells/μL for monocytes and <3cells/μL for granulocytes. The separation of mononuclear cells into lymphocytes and monocytes did not facilitate the discrimination between Lyme neuroborreliosis and viral CNS infection. PMID: 24275252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Biochemistry)


Tuesday 19 November 2013

Lyme neuroborreliosis presenting with alexithymia and suicide attempts - Banerjee R, Liu JJ, Minhas HM.

[Abstract unavailable] Language: Eng... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))

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Tuesday 19 November 2013

New findings could help target the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and syphilis

(Cell Press) The bacterial pathogens that cause Lyme disease and syphilis are highly invasive. These pathogens, or spirochetes, can invade the central nervous system and, in the case of syphilis, enter the placenta, causing disease in the unborn child. In the Biophysical Journal, a Cell Press publication, researchers provide new insights into how these spirochetes penetrate tissue barriers. The findings might be used to develop new treatment strategies to help affected patients or even prevent infections. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Tuesday 19 November 2013

Viscous dynamics of lyme disease and syphilis spirochetes reveal flagellar torque and drag.

Authors: Harman M, Vig DK, Radolf JD, Wolgemuth CW Abstract The spirochetes that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and syphilis (Treponema pallidum) swim through viscous fluids, such as blood and interstitial fluid, by undulating their bodies as traveling, planar waves. These undulations are driven by rotation of the flagella within the periplasmic space, the narrow (∼20-40 nm in width) compartment between the inner and outer membranes. We show here that the swimming speeds of B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum decrease with increases in viscosity of the external aqueous milieu, even though the flagella are entirely intracellular. We then use mathematical modeling to show that the measured changes in speed are consistent with the exertion of constant torque by the spiroche...


Wednesday 13 November 2013

Rituximab for tumefactive demyelination refractory to corticosteroids and plasma exchange

Case history A 38-year-old woman with no significant past medical history presented with a generalised tonic–clonic seizure. The patient was afebrile and general physical and neurological examinations were normal. MRI of the brain revealed an irregular mass in the right temporal lobe with T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensity and heterogeneous enhancement after the administration of gadolinium (figure 1A–D). Laboratory investigations included normal blood count, liver enzymes, serum creatinine, angiotensin converting enzyme and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Serum serologies for lyme, syphilis, viral hepatitis, brucella and HIV were negative. Tests for antinuclear antibodies, extractable nuclear antigens, rheumatoid factor and ...


Thursday 7 November 2013

Natural killer cells and natural killer T Cells in Lyme arthritis

IntroductionNatural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells provide a first line of defense against infection. However, these cells have not yet been examined in patients with Lyme arthritis, a late disease manifestation. Lyme arthritis usually resolves with antibiotic treatment. However, some patients have persistent arthritis after spirochetal killing, which may result from excessive inflammation, immune dysregulation and infection-induced autoimmunity. Methods: We determined the frequencies and phenotypes of NK cells and invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in paired peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) samples from 8 patients with antibiotic-responsive arthritis and 15 patients with antibiotic-refractory arthritis using flow cytometry and cytokine analyses. Results: In antibiotic-r...


Friday 1 November 2013

Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland proteins in the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex.

Authors: Cotté V, Sabatier L, Schnell G, Carmi-Leroy A, Rousselle JC, Arsène-Ploetze F, Malandrin L, Sertour N, Namane A, Ferquel E, Choumet V Abstract In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Their salivary glands play a critical role in the biological success of ticks. To better understand the cross-talk between Borrelia burgdorferi and tick salivary glands, we analyzed protein expression in the salivary glands of Ixodes ricinus adult ticks that were infected by various strains of the B. burgdorferi sl complex. iTRAQ allowed the identification of more than 120 proteins, providing the first proteomic data pertaining to Ixodes ricinus salivary glands. Among these proteins, only 12 were modulated in the presence of various Borrelia strains. Most of them ar...

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Friday 1 November 2013

Comparison of isolation rate of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two different culture media, MKP and BSK‐H

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)


Wednesday 30 October 2013

Purification of a serine protease and evidence for a protein C activator from the saliva of the tick, Ixodes scapularis.

In this study, we have purified an enzyme with trypsin-like activity from the saliva of the tick vector of Lyme Disease, Ixodes scapularis. This enzyme, named as IXOSP (Ixodes scapularis salivary serine protease), is a 29.9 kDa molecule with N-terminus FPxMVxLRIKxR. A BLAST search identified IXOSP as a secreted serine protease (AAY66740) with a conserved catalytic triad His, Asp, and Ser. In vitro studies demonstrated that IXOSP cleaves chromogenic substrates with arginine in the P1 position, by a mechanism inhibited by PMSF or aprotinin. Gene expression studies revealed that IXOSP is expressed at different tick developmental stages, including eggs, and unfed or fed adult tick salivary glands, but not in nymphs or in the midgut. While the physiological substrate for IXOSP remains to be ide...


Sunday 27 October 2013

Researchers Seek Scapegoat for Lyme Disease s Startling Prevalence

The fear of ticks, and of the Lyme disease these bloodsuckers carry, is well founded: roughly 30,000 cases of Lyme are reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention every year. Because most cases go unreported, the true toll is more like 300,000, the CDC estimated in August. The new figure “confirms that Lyme disease is a tremendous public health problem,” Paul Mead, the CDC's chief of Lyme epidemiology and surveillance, said at the time. [More] (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 21 October 2013

Recurrent Lyme Disease: Old or New Infection?Recurrent Lyme Disease: Old or New Infection?

A teen presents with a second bull's-eye rash. What is going on? Medscape Pediatrics (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Sunday 13 October 2013

Climate change: a survivors' guide

As warnings of global climate change grow ever more dire, John Vidal offers 10 tips on how to prepare for an apocalyptic future1 Stay cool, dryBritain is expected to get more extremes of heat and rainfall, so prepare for more severe floods, longer droughts and more powerful storms. No one knows quite what the effect over time will be of a slowing Gulf stream, or the melting of arctic sea ice, but climate scientists confidently expect temperatures to rise up to 4C by 2100. That could mean big shifts in rainfall patterns and a more unpredictable climate. So clear your drains, fix your roof and move to Wales – or at least to somewhere with good water supply. The worst that could happen? Your grandchildren will inherit inexorably rising temperatures that render much of the Earth uninhab...

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Thursday 10 October 2013

Inter- and intra-specific pan-genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: genome stability and adaptive radiation

Conclusions: Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. (Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles)


Thursday 3 October 2013

A Germ Cell Tumor Masquerading as Bell Palsy

A 2-month-old girl with a germ cell tumor presented with right peripheral facial nerve palsy. Her vital signs and examination were normal except for right peripheral facial nerve palsy. Laboratory analyses revealed normal blood leukocyte count (6740/mm3), serum C-reactive protein (3 mg/L), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (20 mm/h). Viral serology, Lyme titer, and peripheral blood smear were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and internal acoustic canal revealed no mass lesion (). She was diagnosed with Bell's palsy and was administered steroid treatment. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)


Monday 30 September 2013

Multi-criteria decision analysis as an innovative approach to managing zoonoses: results from a study on Lyme disease in Canada

Conclusions: MCDA was used to structure key decision criteria and capture the complexity of Lyme disease management. This facilitated the identification of gaps in the scientific literature and enabled a clear identification of complementary interventions that could be used to improve the relevance and acceptability of proposed prevention and control strategy. Overall, MCDA presents itself as an interesting systematic approach for public health planning and zoonoses management with a "One Health" perspective. (Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles)


Friday 20 September 2013

Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: A one health paradigm.

Authors: Monath TP Abstract This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animal, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern ar...


Thursday 19 September 2013

Stephen E. Malawista, Lyme Disease Researcher, Dies at 79

Dr. Malawista and his team were credited with defining an ailment that was causing distress in Connecticut.     (Source: NYT Health)

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Thursday 19 September 2013

Op-Ed Contributor: Bring Back the Lyme Vaccine

How a marketing fiasco derailed an important medical development.     (Source: NYT Health)


Wednesday 18 September 2013

Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov.: A widely distributed member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex in North America.

Authors: Margos G, Piesman J, Lane RS, Ogden NH, Sing A, Straubinger RK, Fingerle V Abstract Lyme borreliosis group spirochetes are parasitic bacteria transmitted by vector ticks of the genus Ixodes and distributed mainly between 40° and 60° northern latitude. Since Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (hereinafter, B. burgdorferi) was described in the northeastern USA during the early 1980s, an increasing diversity has been noted within the species complex. Here, we validate a new genospecies, Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov., that prevails in transmission cycles among vector ticks and reservoir hosts in North America. Confirmation of the presence of this species in Europe awaits further investigation. PMID: 24048870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Jou...


Wednesday 18 September 2013

Bring Back the Lyme Vaccine [OPINION]

Each year there are more than 30,000 cases of Lyme disease reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But last month, the C.D.C. announced that the real number of annual infections was closer to 300,000. Shouldn’t there be a vaccine for such a prevalent and dangerous disease? (Source: RWJF News Digest - Public Health)


Monday 16 September 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi BbHtrA degrades host ECM proteins and stimulates release of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

Summary The Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes damage to diverse host tissues and induces inflammation but the mechanisms of injury are poorly understood. We recently reported that a surface‐exposed B. burgdorferi protease, which is expressed during human disease and is conserved within the major Lyme disease spirochaete species, degrades the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, aggrecan. Here we demonstrate that BbHtrA also degrades fibronectin and numerous proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues. BbHtrA degradation of fibronectin released known pro‐inflammatory fibronectin fragments FnIII13–14 and Fnf‐29, which may amplify the inflammatory processes triggered by the presence of the bacteria. When this hypothesis was tested directly by exposing c...


Monday 16 September 2013

Molecular detection and genetic identification of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii from patients presenting with a rare skin manifestation of prurigo pigmentosa in Taiwan

Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence of B. garinii and B. afzelii isolated and identified in patients with PP. Whether this unusual skin lesion is a new manifestation of Lyme disease needs to be studied further. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Monday 9 September 2013

Juice feasting can heal Lyme disease naturally

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in North America and Europe. Deer ticks, which feed on the blood of animals and humans, can harbor the bacteria - Borrelia burgdorferi - and spread it when feeding. You're more likely to get Lyme disease if you live... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Monday 9 September 2013

[Lyme arthritis in children: A diagnostic trap.]

We report the case of an 8-year old girl with knee arthritis treated as septic arthritis in a region where Lyme disease is rare. Six days later, clinical and biological worsening suggested that the diagnosis had to be reconsidered. Lyme arthritis was confirmed by serology. Treatment was adapted and the progression was positive. This case reminds us that, in children, Lyme arthritis may look alike septic arthritis or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and must be considered as a possible diagnosis, even in low-incidence areas. PMID: 24028811 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives de Pediatrie)


Friday 6 September 2013

Distinctive Immunoglobulin VH Gene Features of Cutaneous Marginal Zone Lymphomas in Asian Cases

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)


Friday 6 September 2013

B. burgdorferi PUR Domain Protein [Gene Regulation]

The PUR domain is a nucleic acid-binding motif found in critical regulatory proteins of higher eukaryotes and in certain species of bacteria. During investigations into mechanisms by which the Lyme disease spirochete controls synthesis of its Erp surface proteins, it was discovered that the borrelial PUR domain protein, Bpur, binds with high affinity to double-stranded DNA adjacent to the erp transcriptional promoter. Bpur was found to enhance the effects of the erp repressor protein, BpaB. Bpur also bound single-stranded DNA and RNA, with relative affinities RNA > double-stranded DNA > single-stranded DNA. Rational site-directed mutagenesis of Bpur identified amino acid residues and domains critical for interactions with nucleic acids, and it revealed that the PUR domain has a distinct me...


Tuesday 3 September 2013

Don’t Get Ticked Off Over Chronic Lyme Disease

An empathic health care provider will need to explain the problems with the theory of chronic Lyme disease, and do what should be done whenever a patient comes in for the evaluation of chronic pain and fatigue: provide support, embark on a thorough medical evaluation, and gently advise them that the proffering of cures when there are none can be dangerous.read more (Source: Psychology Today Depression Center)

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Tuesday 3 September 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi HtrA May Promotes Dissemination and Irritation

(Source: Molecular Microbiology)


Tuesday 3 September 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi HtrA May Promote Dissemination and Irritation

(Source: Molecular Microbiology)


Friday 30 August 2013

Two years of hell with Lyme

For most people it starts with a telltale, bulls-eye rash and flu-like symptoms. But what if you never get the rash? What if you blow off your symptoms as a bad case of the flu? (Source: CNN.com - Health)


Friday 30 August 2013

BBA70 Is a Potent Plasminogen-binding Protein [Microbiology]

The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi lacks endogenous, surface-exposed proteases. In order to efficiently disseminate throughout the host and penetrate tissue barriers, borreliae rely on recruitment of host proteases, such as plasmin(ogen). Here we report the identification of a novel plasminogen-binding protein, BBA70. Binding of plasminogen is dose-dependent and is affected by ionic strength. The BBA70-plasminogen interaction is mediated by lysine residues, primarily located in a putative C-terminal α-helix of BBA70. These lysine residues appear to interact with the lysine-binding sites in plasminogen kringle domain 4 because a deletion mutant of plasminogen lacking that domain was unable to bind to BBA70. Bound to BBA70, plasminogen activated by urokinase-type plasminogen a...


Friday 30 August 2013

Prevalence of borreliosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs and vectors in Voronezh Reserve (Russia).

Authors: Volgina NS, Romashov BV, Romashova NB, Shtannikov AV Abstract Most of the dogs studied for the prevalence of CVBD have previously received acaricidal and insecticidal treatments. In the present work, a very specific population of dogs (Group 1) that had never been treated against ticks and mosquitoes was studied. Moreover, the territory occupied by this population has also never been treated, because it is a protected area - Voronezh Natural Reserve. Canine patients from veterinary clinics (Group 2) that had been treated against VBD vectors were studied for comparison. Eighty-two dogs (Group 1) were enrolled in June, 2008. Blood samples were tested using the IDEXX SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test. A specific heartworm antigen was detected in 12.2% samples. The seroprevalence for Anap...

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Thursday 29 August 2013

Untreated Lyme disease: 2 years of hell

For most people it starts with a telltale, bulls-eye rash and flu-like symptoms. But what if you never get the rash? What if you blow off your symptoms as a bad case of the flu? (Source: CNN.com - Health)


Thursday 29 August 2013

Differential Diagnosis and the Suspension of Judgment.

Authors: Kennedy AG Abstract In this paper I argue that ethics and evidence are intricately intertwined within the clinical practice of differential diagnosis. Too often, when a disease is difficult to diagnose, a physician will dismiss it as being "not real" or "all in the patient's head." This is both an ethical and an evidential problem. In the paper my aim is two-fold. First, via the examination of two case studies (late-stage Lyme disease and Addison's disease), I try to elucidate why this kind of dismissal takes place. Then, I propose a potential solution to the problem. I argue that instead of dismissing a patient's illness as "not real," physicians ought to exercise a compassionate suspension of judgment when a diagnosis cannot be immediately made. I argue that suspending j...


Wednesday 28 August 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi BbHtrA degrades host ECM proteins and stimulates release of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

Summary The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes damage to diverse host tissues and induces inflammation but the mechanisms of injury are poorly understood. We recently reported that a surface‐exposed B. burgdorferi protease, which is expressed during human disease and is conserved within the major Lyme disease spirochete species, degrades the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, aggrecan. Here we demonstrate that BbHtrA also degrades fibronectin and numerous proteoglycans found in skin, joints and neural tissues. BbHtrA degradation of fibronectin released known pro‐inflammatory fibronectin fragments FnIII13‐14 and Fnf‐29 which may amplify the inflammatory processes triggered by the presence of the bacteria. When this hypothesis was tested directly by exposing chondr...


Tuesday 27 August 2013

Rise in Diagnoses of Lyme Disease

New preliminary reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that around 300,000 Americans are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year—an estimate ten times higher than the yearly reported number of 30,000. These estimates are based on results from three ongoing studies by the CDC that use various methods to define the average number of people diagnosed with Lyme disease. From the CDC brief: The first project analyzes medical claims information for approximately 22 million insured people annually for six years, the second project is based on a survey of clinical laboratories and the third project analyzes self-reported Lyme disease cases from a survey of the general public. The high number of Americans diagnosed with this disease highlights the need for awaren...


Tuesday 27 August 2013

Americans Diagnosed With Lyme Disease Annually

CDC Estimates Americans Diagnosed With Lyme Disease Annually (Source: eMedicineHealth.com)

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Tuesday 27 August 2013

Tomography captures flagellar assembly in cells [Microbiology]

In this study, we genetically trapped intermediates in flagellar assembly and determined the 3D structures of the intermediates to 4-nm resolution by cryoelectron tomography. We provide structural evidence that secretion... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Monday 26 August 2013

Imugen develops deer tick-borne blood test to detect infection

Norwood-based Imugen Inc., a clinical laboratory specializing in specimen testing of tick-borne disease, has launched a new blood test designed to detect the presence of the deer tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia miyamotoi. Miyamotoi is recognized as the fourth deer tick-borne infection along side Lyme disease, Babesia and Anaplasma. In an interview with Mass High Tech, Imugen’s medical director and rheumatologist at Jordan Hospital, Dr. Philip J. Molloy said Borrelia miyamotoi, a spirochete bacteria… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)


Monday 26 August 2013

Lyme Disease Skyrockets

Public Health: Some 300,000 cases of tick-borne illness occur each year in the U.S., 10 times previous estimates (Source: Chemical and Engineering News)


Friday 23 August 2013

Lyme Disease is in the News

. To learn more, visit the MedlinePlus Lyme Disease health topic page. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick... (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)


Wednesday 21 August 2013

Lyme disease common in U.S.

The blacklegged ticks are out, and they're infecting hundreds of thousands of Americans each year with a bacterial illness. (Source: CNN.com - Health)

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Wednesday 21 August 2013

CDC: Lyme disease more common than we thought

The blacklegged ticks are out, and they're infecting hundreds of thousands of Americans with a bacterial illness -- more often than experts previously thought. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)


Wednesday 21 August 2013

Lyme disease in the US is '10-times underreported'

The number of Lyme disease cases diagnosed in the US every year is around 300,000, according to new figures released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This number is about 10 times higher than the number officially reported. CDC officials presented their new preliminary estimates in Boston on Sunday at the 2013 International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis and Other Tick-Borne Diseases. Lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borne illness in the US, where every year the CDC receives reports on 30,000 cases... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Tuesday 20 August 2013

CDC: Lyme disease more common than we thought

The blacklegged ticks are out, and they're infecting hundreds of thousands of Americans each year with a bacterial illness. (Source: CNN.com - Health)


Tuesday 20 August 2013

CDC: Why Is Lyme Disease Activity So Much Higher Than Predicted?

Upwards of 300,000 people may be affected by Lyme disease each year – 10 times more than previously estimated. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)


Tuesday 20 August 2013

U.S. Lyme Disease Cases Vastly Underreported: CDC

Title: U.S. Lyme Disease Cases Vastly Underreported: CDCCategory: Health NewsCreated: 8/19/2013 12:35:00 PMLast Editorial Review: 8/20/2013 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)

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Tuesday 20 August 2013

New Tick-Borne Illness Being Diagnosed In Mass.

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Tuesday 20 August 2013

An Estimated 300,000 Americans Diagnosed with Lyme Disease Each Year (FREE)

By the Editors Over 30,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported to the CDC each year, but the actual number of annual cases is roughly … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Tuesday 20 August 2013

Actual U.S. Lyme disease about 300,000 cases a year

ATLANTA, Aug. 19 (UPI) -- Each year, more than 30,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported to federal health officials, but U.S. researchers say the actual number is closer to 300,000. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)


Monday 19 August 2013

Video: Sequester cutting 57k kids out of Head Start

The CBS News Roundup: The White House says it continues to 'evaluate' the situation in Egypt, refusing once again to call the military takeover there a "coup"; Lyme disease is ten times more common than previously thought; Sequestration budget cuts will force more than 57,000 children out of Head Start -- all this and more. Nick Dietz reports on the news you need to know. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Monday 19 August 2013

Lyme Disease Far More Common Than Previously Known

Fewer than 30,000 cases of the tick-borne illness are reported each year. But the CDC says surveys of labs that test for the disease, six years of insurance claims and other surveillance methods suggest that the number of infections is actually ten times higher.» E-Mail This     » Add to Del.icio.us (Source: NPR Health and Science)

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Monday 19 August 2013

New Lyme Culture Test Failed CDC AnalysisNew Lyme Culture Test Failed CDC Analysis

Most 'positive' patient samples reported were contaminated by laboratory strains used to develop the test method and were likely false-positives. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Monday 19 August 2013

Video: CDC: Lyme disease rates 10 times higher than previously reported

New Lyme disease numbers from gov't health officials show about 300,000 Americans are diagnosed with the tick-borne illness each year. Jericka Duncan reports. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Monday 19 August 2013

CDC: Lyme disease rates 10 times higher than previously reported

Typically up to 30,000 Lyme disease cases reported to CDC each year, but new report finds number closer to 300,000 infected (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Monday 19 August 2013

Lyme Disease Cases 10 Times Higher Than Previously Reported

ATLANTA (AP) — Lyme disease is about 10 times more common than previously reported, health officials said Monday. As many as 300,000 Americans are actually diagnosed with Lyme disease each year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced. Read: CDC report Usually, only 20,000 to 30,000 illnesses are reported each year. For many years, CDC officials have known that many doctors don’t report every case and that the true count was probably much higher. The new figure is the CDC’s most comprehensive attempt at a better estimate. The number comes from a survey of seven national laboratories, a national patient survey and a review of insurance information. “It’s giving us a fuller picture and it’s not a pleasing one,” said Dr. Paul Mead, who o...


Monday 19 August 2013

CDC Provides Estimate of Americans Diagnosed with Lyme Disease Each Year

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Related MedlinePlus Page: Lyme Disease (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)

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Monday 19 August 2013

Lyme Disease Far More Common than Previously Known

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says 300,000 Americans are getting Lyme disease every year, and the toll is growing. (Source: RWJF News Digest - Public Health)


Friday 16 August 2013

Ixodes ricinus abundance and its infection with the tick-borne pathogens in urban and suburban areas of Eastern Slovakia

We investigated the occurrence and seasonal activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks in correlation with microclimatic factors. The risk of infection with the tick-borne bacterial agents (Borrelia, Anaplasma and Neoehrlichia was confronted with the reported Lyme borreliosis cases in the studied areas of Slovakia. Image: Questing Ixodes ricinus female. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 14 August 2013

Diagnostic value of cytokines and chemokines in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

Authors: Cerar T, Ogrinc K, Lotric-Furlan S, Kobal J, Levicnik-Stezinar S, Strle F, Ruzic-Sabljic E Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess concentrations of different cytokines and chemokines in serum and CSF of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis, and to identify possible marker(s) that would enable distinction between clinically evident and suspected Lyme neuroborreliosis as well as between Lyme neuroborreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Our additional interest was to evaluate relationship between cytokine/chemokine concentrations and B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolation from CSF as well as intrathecal synthesis of specific borrelial antibodies.We found that higher concentrations of CXCL 13 and lower concentrations of IL-10 in sera were associated with higher...


Wednesday 14 August 2013

Evaluation of Recombinant Protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for Serodiagnosis of Syphilis.

Authors: Jiang C, Zhao F, Xiao J, Zeng T, Yu J, Ma X, Wu H, Wu Y Abstract Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and the diagnosis of syphilis with sensitive and specific methods is challenging and important for the prevention and treatment of syphilis. In present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting probed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with T.pallidum Nichols strain and T.pallidum clinical isolates, but was not detected probed with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant pr...


Saturday 10 August 2013

Assessment of Transcriptional Activity of Borrelia burgdorferi and Host Cytokine Genes During Early and Late Infection in a Mouse Model

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)

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Thursday 1 August 2013

Phthriasis palpebrarum can resemble tick larva infestation in an eyelid

We present a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 4-year-old boy. (Source: Journal of AAPOS)


Tuesday 30 July 2013

Delayed diagnosis of lyme neuroborreliosis presenting with abducens neuropathy without intrathecal synthesis of borrelia antibodies.

We report a case of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis presenting with sixth cranial nerve neuropathy at the onset of the disease further developing into typical meningoradiculitis and multiple mononeuropathy. Surprisingly, Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID: 23888345 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medicina (Kaunas))


Tuesday 30 July 2013

Lyme Disease DebateLyme Disease Debate

This new article gives an overview of how Lyme disease was discovered, and describes how it has become one of the most common vectorborne infections in North America and how it affects humans.  Environmental Health Perspectives (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Monday 29 July 2013

Potential Misdiagnoses of Bell's Palsy in the Emergency Department

Conclusion: Emergency providers have a very low rate of misdiagnosing Bell's palsy. The association between imaging use and misdiagnosis is likely confounded by patient acuity. Increasing age and diabetes are modest risk factors for misdiagnosis. (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)

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Friday 26 July 2013

Chronic Lyme Disease: Liberation from Lyme Denialism

The Review article by Halperin et al concerning Lyme disease “misconceptions” is the latest in a series of Lyme denialist attacks by members and supporters of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). This series of copycat opinion pieces is disturbing from both a scientific and political perspective because the articles frame the complex debate over chronic Lyme disease in terms of “evidence-based medicine” on the one hand, versus “antiscience” on the other. Furthermore, the latest Lyme denialist attacks appear to be a concerted effort to offset recent political action aimed at helping the scores of untreated, undertreated, and mistreated Lyme disease patients around the globe. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Friday 26 July 2013

Alternative Considerations for “Common Misconceptions About Lyme Disease”

Alternative considerations are presented for the article “Common Misconceptions About Lyme Disease.” Are serology tests for Lyme disease reliable? Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays may provide false-negative results not only because of the time delay for the patient's immune system to produce the antibodies but also because the various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are intrinsically unreliable. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Friday 26 July 2013

The Reply

Miller's letter further illustrates the misconceptions about Lyme disease. The assertion that Lyme “ELISA [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay] tests are intrinsically unreliable” is inaccurate. In the majority of patients with very early Borrelia burgdorferi infection, typically an erythema migrans, antibody is undetectable; such patients should be treated without testing. Serologic testing also may be negative in occasional patients with other early manifestations, such as facial nerve palsy. Here a convalescent titer will almost always be positive, just as in other diseases. With these few specific exceptions, related to the normal temporal evolution of the immune response, false negatives are extremely rare. In fact, false positives are a greater problem, particularly with ELISAs, i...


Friday 26 July 2013

[Articles] Safety and immunogenicity of a novel multivalent OspA vaccine against Lyme borreliosis in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomised, dose-escalation phase 1/2 trial

The novel multivalent OspA vaccine could be an effective intervention for prevention of Lyme borreliosis in Europe and the USA, and possibly worldwide. Larger confirmatory formulation studies will need to be done that include individuals seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato before placebo-controlled phase 3 efficacy studies can begin. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)


Friday 26 July 2013

[Comment] Lyme disease vaccination: are we ready to try again?

Borrelia burgdorferi—the spirochete that causes Lyme disease—was first identified in 1981. By 1983, it was known that most patients with Lyme disease have antibodies to a 31 kD protein that would come to be known as outer surface protein A (OspA). Antibodies against OspA were shown to protect laboratory animals against experimental infection with B burgdorferi. Research in the 1990s According to several models, the vaccine was cost effective for individuals at high risk of infection. However, in early 2002, LYMErix was voluntarily withdrawn from the market, merely 38 months after its approval. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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Monday 22 July 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi Oxidative Stress Regulator BosR Directly Represses Lipoproteins Primarily Expressed in the Tick during Mammalian Infection

Summary Differential gene expression is a key strategy adopted by the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, for adaptation and survival in the mammalian host and the tick vector. Many B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins fall into two distinct groups according to their expression patterns: one group primarily expressed in the tick and the other group primarily expressed in the mammal. Here, we show that the Fur homologue in this bacterium, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), is required for repression of outer surface protein A (OspA) and OspD in the mammal. Furthermore, BosR binds directly to sequences upstream of the ospAB operon and the ospD gene through recognition of palindromic motifs similar to those recognized by other Fur homologues but with a 1‐bp...


Friday 19 July 2013

Illuminating the roles of the Borrelia burgdorferi adhesins.

Authors: Coburn J, Leong J, Chaconas G Abstract The Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), must cause persistent, disseminated infection to be maintained in the natural enzootic cycle. In human Lyme disease, spirochetes spread from the site of a tick bite to colonize multiple tissue sites, causing multisystem clinical manifestations. The Lyme spirochetes produce many adhesive surface proteins that collectively recognize diverse host substrates and cell types and are likely to promote dissemination and chronic infection in a variety of tissues. Recent application of state-of-the-art in vivo imaging technologies is illuminating mechanisms of interaction of B. burgdorferi with the host and the importance of multiple adhesins during mammalian infection. PMID: ...


Thursday 18 July 2013

How Do Tick-Borne Diseases Evade The Tick's Immune System?

Ticks, blood-sucking arthropods that occur across the world, can transmit viruses, bacteria, and protozoa that threaten the health of their vertebrate hosts. Dangerous diseases transmitted by ticks include Lyme disease, which attacks humans in Europe and the USA and is caused by Borrellia bacteria; babesiosis, caused by the protozoan Babesia (a relative of the malaria parasite) that infects pets, cattle, and sometimes humans; and anaplasmosis, caused by the Anaplasma bacterium, which can have serious effects on cattle... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Thursday 18 July 2013

Cyclosporiasis Outbreaks

It's summertime. We are supposed to get a break from getting sick this time of year, right? While that is mostly true, as we don't usually have any big outbreaks like we do during cold and flu season, it does seem like there is always something going around during the summer. This includes diseases  like Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (tick-borne diseases), West Nile virus infections (from mosquitoes), and many viral infections that are more common during the summer months....Read Full Post (Source: About.com Pediatrics)


Thursday 18 July 2013

The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi induces inflammation and apoptosis in cells from dorsal root ganglia

Conclusion: In this model, B. burgdorferi induced an inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis of DRG. These pathophysiological processes could contribute to peripheral neuropathy in LNB. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)

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Thursday 18 July 2013

How to stay safe during bug season

Welcome to bug season, when mosquitoes, ticks and other creepy crawlers make even the bravest mom hesitant to let her kids go outside. Not only are insects annoying, they can carry diseases such as West Nile virus and Lyme disease. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)


Wednesday 17 July 2013

Startle Myoclonus Induced by Lyme NeuroborreliosisStartle Myoclonus Induced by Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Lyme neuroborreliosis can present in many unusual ways, but this patient may be the first to present with an exaggerated startle reflex. Journal of Medical Case Reports (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Wednesday 17 July 2013

Encephalitis In New York State And Black-Legged Ticks Linked

The number of tick-borne illnesses reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is on the rise. Lyme disease leads the pack, with some 35,000 cases reported annually. In the Northeast, the black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) that spread Lyme disease also infect people with other maladies, among them anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and - as a new paper in the journal Parasites and Vectors reports - Powassan encephalitis. Powassan encephalitis is caused by Powassan virus and its variant, deer tick virus... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Tuesday 16 July 2013

Selection of Neighborhood Controls for a Population-Based Lyme Disease Case-Control Study by Using a Commercial Marketing Database

This report describes the utility of the InfoUSA.com (InfoGroup, Papillion, Nebraska) commercial marketing database for neighborhood control recruitment in a Lyme disease case-control study in Connecticut during 2005–2007. (Source: American Journal of Epidemiology)


Monday 15 July 2013

Letters: Pets and Lyme Disease (1 Letter)

A letter to the Editor.     (Source: NYT Health)

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Monday 15 July 2013

Black-legged ticks linked to encephalitis in New York state

(Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies) Ostfeld concludes: "When patients present with encephalitis symptoms in areas with high levels of Lyme disease, especially during the summer, physicians need to consider Powassan encephalitis. While rare, it's associated with significant complications. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral therapy, the best strategy remains prevention." (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Friday 12 July 2013

The Disease That Looks Like Lyme--But Isn't

A newly identified disease spread by deer ticks may be among one of the new summer illnesses to be on the lookout for if you spend time outside in the Northeast and upper Midwest. The disease is referred to as Borriela miyamotoi. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)


Thursday 11 July 2013

Lyme disease or a complication of delusional parasitosis?

Authors: Brakoulias V PMID: 23847121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry)


Wednesday 10 July 2013

Structure of an atypical periplasmic adaptor from a multidrug efflux pump of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

Highlights: Abstract: Periplasmic adaptor proteins are essential components of bacterial tripartite multidrug efflux pumps. Here we report the 2.35Å resolution crystal structure of the BesA adaptor from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi solved using selenomethionine derivatized protein. BesA shows the archetypal linear, flexible, multi-domain architecture evident among proteobacteria and retains the lipoyl, β-barrel and membrane-proximal domains that interact with the periplasmic domains of the inner membrane transporter. However, it lacks the α-hairpin domain shown to establish extensive coiled-coil interactions with the periplasmic entrance helices of the outer membrane-anchored TolC exit duct. This has implications for the modelling of assembled tripartite efflux pumps. (Source: FE...


Tuesday 9 July 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in tick populations in Estonia

This study is the first survey of the presence, the prevalence and the genetic characteristics of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks in Estonia. Image: Lyme Borreliosis incidence rate per 100 000 population in Estonia 2000 ? 2012. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Tuesday 9 July 2013

Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. is widely distributed in Europe and Asia.

Authors: Margos G, Wilske B, Sing A, Hizo-Teufel C, Cao WC, Chu C, Scholz H, Straubinger RK, Fingerle V Abstract Since the original description of Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. in 2009, additional samples available from humans and ticks from Europe and Mongolia, respectively, have been used to further characterize Borrelia strains belonging to this group of spirochetes that utilize rodents as reservoir hosts. These investigations suggested the presence of related strains in Europe and Asia and confirmed their status as a distinct species. Furthermore, samples that were investigated by researchers from China and Japan confirm the ecological relationship of members of this proposed species with rodents and suggest that it has a wide distribution in Eurasia. Here, we use phylogenetic ...


Monday 8 July 2013

Well: When Lyme Disease Lasts and Lasts

Often misdiagnosed and mistreated, chronic Lyme disease leaves thousands of people physically and mentally debilitated and without a medically established recourse.     (Source: NYT Health)


Monday 8 July 2013

Personal Health: When Lyme Disease Lasts and Lasts

Often misdiagnosed and mistreated, chronic Lyme disease leaves thousands of people physically and mentally debilitated and without a medically established recourse.     (Source: NYT Health)


Friday 5 July 2013

Keeping Bugs Away: 5 Things You Need To Know

The other day, as dusk fell on an afternoon outdoor party, my kids started swatting and itching. Oh, that’s right, I thought: it’s mosquito season. I remembered hearing about West Nile virus being found in some mosquitoes and kicked myself for not bringing bug spray. At the same party, a friend showed me a rash on her son’s leg. By the next day, it had turned into a classic Lyme disease rash. Definitely bug season. If you haven’t done so already, it’s time to get smart about preventing mosquito and tick bites. Here’s what you need to know: 1. The best protection against both mosquitoes and ticks is DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). This stuff really works (the smell of it keeps the bugs away). The higher the percentage of DEET, the longer it works: 10 percent works for a coup...


Tuesday 2 July 2013

Spillover Of Infectious Diseases Among Wildlife, Domestic Animals And People; Links Found Between Environment And Human Health

West Nile virus, Lyme disease and hantavirus. All are infectious diseases spreading in animals and in people. Is human interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increase in these diseases? The ecology and evolution of infectious diseases will be highlighted at two symposia at the Ecological Society of America's annual meeting, held from Aug. 5-9 in Minneapolis, Minn. One symposium will address human influences on viral and bacterial diseases through alteration of landscapes and ecological processes... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)

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Tuesday 2 July 2013

Borrelia miyamotoi Infection Presenting as Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis: A Case Report.

CONCLUSION: The presence of B. miyamotoi DNA in the peripheral blood and the patients' eventual therapeutic response to doxycycline are consistent with the hypothesis that their illness was due to this newly recognized spirochete. Samples from tick-exposed patients acutely presenting with signs of HGA but who have a delayed response to doxycycline therapy or negative confirmatory test results for HGA should be analyzed carefully for evidence of B. miyamotoi infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health and the Evelyn Lilly Lutz Foundation. PMID: 23817701 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Internal Medicine)


Monday 1 July 2013

Ten hyped highs, the poison squad, and Lyme disease: Weekly Web Review in Toxicology

Thefix.com interviews medical toxicologist Dr. Jeff Lapoint for a “Straight look at 10 Hyped Highs.” Topics include salvia, methoxetamine (“Mexxy”), Benzo Fury (6-APB), kratom, and Bromo Dragonfly. Worth reading. At Esquire, Bruce Watson writes about “The Poison Squad: An Incredible HIstory.” This piece tells the story of a project, run by Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley in the very early years of the twentieth century, to investigate the potential health hazards of various food additives. Officially called the “hygienic table trials”, the were quickly— and more accurately — dubbed the “poison squad”. Volunteers were fed increasings amounts of additives such as borax, sulfuric acid, saltpeter, formaldehyde, and copper sulfate. Wi...


Monday 1 July 2013

Does high biodiversity reduce the risk of Lyme disease invasion?

In a zone of Lyme disease emergence, host biodiversity did not inhibit Ixodes scapularis tick invasion by the 'dilution effect', but there was evidence for wider community biodiversity to be inhibiting tick invasion. Image: Ixodes scapularis larvae feeding on the ear of a Peromyscus leucopus mouse. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 1 July 2013

Optimization of Pulse-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Borrelia burgdorferi Subtyping.

CONCLUSION: PFGE can be used as a valuable test for routine genospecies identification of B. burgdorferi. PMID: 23895704 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)

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Monday 1 July 2013

Atypical Location of Lymphocytoma Cutis in a Child

Abstract Lyme borreliosis is a common infectious disease that can affect myocardial muscle or the central nervous system if not treated at an early stage. Here we report a unique case of an atypical location of lymphocytoma cutis in a 3‐year‐old boy. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis revealed the correct diagnosis. (Source: Pediatric Dermatology)


Saturday 29 June 2013

Tick Safety Tips for Kids at Summer Camp

Experts describe steps to prevent Lyme disease, other illnesses Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Children's Health, Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Friday 28 June 2013

Interplay of ecology, infectious disease, wildlife and human health featured at annual conference

(National Science Foundation) West Nile virus, Lyme disease and hantavirus. All are infectious diseases spreading in animals and in people. Is human interaction with the environment somehow responsible for the increase in these diseases? (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Friday 28 June 2013

Molecular Basis of Borrelia Immune Evasion [Protein Structure and Folding]

Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that cause Lyme borreliosis survive for a long time in human serum because they successfully evade the complement system, an important arm of innate immunity. The outer surface protein E (OspE) of B. burgdorferi is needed for this because it recruits complement regulator factor H (FH) onto the bacterial surface to evade complement-mediated cell lysis. To understand this process at the molecular level, we used a structural approach. First, we solved the solution structure of OspE by NMR, revealing a fold that has not been seen before in proteins involved in complement regulation. Next, we solved the x-ray structure of the complex between OspE and the FH C-terminal domains 19 and 20 (FH19-20) at 2.83 Å resolution. The structure shows that OspE binds FH19-20 ...


Thursday 27 June 2013

Dynamic interplay of ecology, infectious disease, and human life

(Ecological Society of America) Two symposia focusing on the ecological dynamics of infectious diseases such as avian influenza, Yellow Fever, and Lyme will take place during the Ecological Society of America's 98th Annual Meeting, held this year in Minneapolis, Minnesota. One will look at human influences on viral and bacterial diseases through our alteration of landscapes and ecological processes, while the other will focus on the emerging field of eco-epidemiology that seeks to integrate biomedical and ecological research approaches to address human health threats. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Wednesday 26 June 2013

'The Lyme Wars' That Tiny Ticks Have Wrought

Since Lyme disease was first identified in the late 1970s, it has become the most commonly reported tick-borne illness in the country. Journalist Michael Specter talks about his New Yorker article on the disease and its controversial history.» E-Mail This     » Add to Del.icio.us (Source: NPR Health and Science)

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Wednesday 26 June 2013

Protect Yourself against Tick-Borne Disease

Source: Food and Drug Administration Related MedlinePlus Pages: Lyme Disease, Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Wednesday 26 June 2013

Protect Yourself Against Tick-Borne Disease

The best known tick-borne diseases in the U.S. are Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain fever, but scientists at the Food and Drug Administration found an increasing number of cases of babesiosis, a serious disease caused by a parasite carried by the same ticks that carry Lyme disease. Learn about these diseases and how to avoid them. (Source: FDA Consumer Updates)


Monday 24 June 2013

Dynamics of connective-tissue localization during chronic Borrelia burgdorferi infection

Authors: Denise M Imai, Sunlian Feng, Emir Hodzic & Stephen W Barthold (Source: Laboratory Investigation AOP)


Thursday 20 June 2013

Spatial and seasonal variation in the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in Norway

Prevalence of LBS was higher in adult female ticks (21.6%) compared to adult male ticks (11.5%) and nymphs (10.9%), while prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was 8.8%. Prevalence of both bacteria was much higher in May compared to August. Image: Adult female Ixodes ricinus. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 19 June 2013

A call to order at the spirochaetal host–pathogen interface

Summary As the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi shuttles back and forth between arthropod vector and vertebrate host, it encounters vastly different and hostile environments. Major mechanisms contributing to the success of this pathogen throughout this complex transmission cycle are phase and antigenic variation of abundant and serotype‐defining surface lipoproteins. These peripherally membrane‐anchored virulence factors mediate niche‐specific interactions with vector/host factors and protect the spirochaete from the perils of the mammalian immune response. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Tilly, Bestor and Rosa redefine the roles of two lipoproteins, OspC and VlsE, during mammalian infection. Using a variety of promoter fusions in combination with a sensitive in...

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Monday 17 June 2013

Mother diagnosed with MS and facing life in a wheelchair is cured - after she discovered her symptoms were due to a TICK BITE

After years of expensive drug therapy and injections for MS, a simple course of antibiotics has cleared Julia Marshall-Wessendorf, 37, from Bath, of all her symptoms. She believes she was suffering from Lyme disease. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Sunday 16 June 2013

Durham Veterinarian Warns of Summer Flea and Tick Season for Pets

DURHAM, N.C., June 16, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- New Hope Animal Hospital in Durham, NC is reminding pet owners about the dangers of summer flea and tick season. According to veterinarian Dr. Soren Windram, pets need medicated protection to prevent health problems including worms, flea dermatitis, and tick-borne diseases, including Lyme Disease, ehrlichia and babesia. The vet clinic is also reminding pet owners to regularly check their pets for fleas and ticks. Dr. Windram says that regular spot checks and medication are the best way to keep pets free from fleas and ticks this summer. (Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))


Thursday 13 June 2013

Nanotube sensor detects Lyme disease

Transistor-based device could rival traditional immunoassays (Source: PhysicsWeb News)


Thursday 13 June 2013

Nanotube transistors detect Lyme disease

Technique could rival traditional ELISA and Western blot immunoassays. (Source: Nanotechweb.org News)


Thursday 13 June 2013

Summer's Mystery Malady

Inside the Lyme epidemic. By Pamela Weintraub (Source: Psychology Today)

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Wednesday 12 June 2013

Influence of MKP medium stored for prolonged periods on growth and morphology of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

Modified Kelly‐Pettenkofer (MKP) medium is one of the several media used for isolation and cultivation of Borrelia. The aim of the study was to assess whether particular Borrelia species (B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) have the ability to grow in MKP medium stored at +4 °C for periods for 1 month up to 1 year, and how prolonged storage may influences Borrelia growth and morphology. The growth of Borrelia was evaluated after 5 days of incubation at 33 °C: cell count per mL, morphology, and motility were assessed. The results of this study showed that the duration of storage of MKP medium had statistically significant influence on growth of B. afzelii (p = 0.021) and B. garinii (p = 0.004), but not on growth of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (p = 0.204...


Tuesday 11 June 2013

Treatment Trials for Post-Lyme Disease Symptoms Revisited

Abstract: The authors of 4 National Institutes of Health–sponsored antibiotic treatment trials of patients with persistent unexplained symptoms despite previous antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease determined that retreatment provides little if any benefit and carries significant risk. Two groups recently provided an independent reassessment of these trials and concluded that prolonged courses of antibiotics are likely to be helpful. We have carefully considered the points raised by these groups, along with our own critical review of the treatment trials. On the basis of this analysis, the conclusion that there is a meaningful clinical benefit to be gained from retreatment of such patients with parenteral antibiotic therapy cannot be justified. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Monday 10 June 2013

Lyme disease spirochaetes possess an aggrecan‐binding protease with aggrecanase activity

Summary Connective tissues are the most common area of colonization for the Lyme disease spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. Colonization is aided by the interaction between numerous bacterial adhesins with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe a novel interaction between B. burgdorferi and the major ECM proteoglycan found in joints, aggrecan. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry we identify two borrelial aggrecan‐binding proteins: the known ECM ligand Bgp (BB0588) and an uncharacterized protease BbHtrA (BB0104). Proteinase K studies demonstrate that BbHtrA is surface exposed. Immunoblots using sera from patients with both early and late Lyme disease establish that BbHtrA is expressed during human disease, immunogenic, and conserved in the three ma...


Monday 10 June 2013

A Call to Order at the Spirochetal Host‐Pathogen Interface

Summary As the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi shuttles back and forth between arthropod vector and vertebrate host, it encounters vastly different and hostile environments. Major mechanisms contributing to the success of this pathogen throughout this complex transmission cycle are phase and antigenic variation of abundant and serotype‐defining surface lipoproteins. These peripherally membrane‐anchored virulence factors mediate niche‐specific interactions with vector/host factors and protect the spirochete from the perils of the mammalian immune response. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Tilly, Bestor and Rosa redefine the roles of two lipoproteins, OspC and VlsE, during mammalian infection. Using a variety of promoter fusions in combination with a sensitive in v...


Sunday 9 June 2013

Epidemiology of Lyme disease among workers of forest inspectorates in Poland.

Conclusions. LB occurs more frequently among foresters older in age and with longer service (45%); in the younger group - 30%. Despite knowledge on preventive methods, there is no effective preventive method for this disease. PMID: 23772586 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)

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Sunday 9 June 2013

Association between incidence of Lyme disease and spring-early summer season temperature changes in Hungary - 1998-2010.

Authors: Trájer A, Bobvos J, Páldy A, Krisztalovics K Abstract The increase of Lyme borreliosis (LB) can be expected due to climate change, while the distribution of the disease and annual activity of the vector and host animals depend on several factors of the environment. The presented study aimed to assess expressly the spring season temperature dependence on the incidence of LB in Hungary. The weekly LB data were obtained from the National Epidemiologic and Surveillance System for a period of 13 years - 1998-2010. Daily temperature data were derived from the European Climate Assessment and Dataset. The association was studied at national level, descriptive statistics and linear regression models were applied. A significant increasing trend was observed in the mean temperature...


Friday 7 June 2013

Straw men don't get Lyme disease: response to Wood and Lafferty.

Authors: Ostfeld RS, Keesing F PMID: 23747005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Ecology and Evolution)


Tuesday 4 June 2013

The Dos and Don'ts of Summer Fun

The school year may be almost over, but that doesn’t mean you should adopt a school’s-out attitude when it comes to your health. Regardless of your plans, heed these simple dos and don’ts to ensure you get a passing grade. At the Park DO outsmart the bugs. Wear light-colored, breathable clothing—you’ll be less attractive to bees, which like bright colors. Light colors also make it easier to spot ticks. If you’re planning to be outside for an extended time, spray your clothes, not your skin, with a bug repellent that contains DEET. If you are stung or plagued with insect bites, ice the swollen area, says Meredith Barbour, MD, a family physician at Duke Primary Care Brier Creek. An over-the-counter antihistamine will help reduce the swelling and the itching. DON’T ignore your...


Monday 3 June 2013

An insect bite on holiday put Sarah in a wheelchair. Africa? India? No, right here in Britain...

On a walking holiday in the UK, Sarah Bignell caught Lyme disease, an illness that caused her so much pain she was bedridden for weeks. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Saturday 1 June 2013

Lyme Disease: From Early Localized Disease to Post-Lyme Disease Syndrome

This article provides nurse practitioners with the necessary information to diagnose and treat patients with Lyme disease, from early infection to post-Lyme disease syndrome. (Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners)

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Saturday 1 June 2013

[In Process Citation].

We report a case of an 88-year old male patient with known chronic lower back pain who presented in late August with progressive pain in his right knee and lower leg as well as paraesthesias. Diagnostic work-up revealed an acute Lyme-Borreliosis. PMID: 23735767 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Praxis)


Friday 31 May 2013

Lyme Chondritis Presenting as Painless Ear Erythema

Erythema of the ear lobe in the context of Lyme disease is caused by either borrelial lymphocytoma or localized erythema migrans. Here we present a case of chondritis limited to the ear cartilage caused by Lyme disease. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone with complete resolution of symptoms. (Source: PEDIATRICS)


Friday 31 May 2013

What's contributing to the spread of valley fever?

Valley fever, caused by soil fungus in Calif. and Ariz., has become a bigger threat than West Nile virus and Lyme disease (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Thursday 30 May 2013

Lyme Disease Update for Maine Healthcare Providers Lyme Disease Update for Maine Healthcare Providers

As the temperature increases, so does the number of reported Lyme disease cases in Maine. State Health Alerts (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Thursday 30 May 2013

Dysregulation of CD4+CD25high T Cells in the Synovial Fluid of Patients With Antibiotic‐Refractory Lyme Arthritis

ConclusionPatients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis often have lower frequencies of Treg cells, higher expression of activation coreceptors, and less effective inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. This suggests that immune responses in these patients are excessively amplified, leading to immune dysregulation and antibiotic‐refractory arthritis. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)

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Monday 27 May 2013

Lyme disease spirochetes possess an aggrecan‐binding protease with aggrecanase activity

Summary Connective tissues are the most common area of colonization for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Colonization is aided by the interaction between numerous bacterial adhesins with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe a novel interaction between B. burgdorferi and the major ECM proteoglycan found in joints, aggrecan. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry we identify two borrelial aggrecan‐binding proteins: the known ECM ligand Bgp (BB0588) and an uncharacterized protease BbHtrA (BB0104). Proteinase K studies demonstrate that BbHtrA is surface exposed. Immunoblots using sera from patients with both early and late Lyme disease establish that BbHtrA is expressed during human disease, immunogenic, and conserved in the three major...


Sunday 26 May 2013

Heart stopping tick.

Authors: Karmacharya P, Aryal MR Abstract Although Lyme carditis is relatively rare within 4-6 wk of exposure, it can uncommonly present as the first sign of disseminated Lyme disease. Here we present 17 year old boy who presented to the emergency department with chest discomfort and was later found to have complete atrioventricular block due to lyme carditis. He had uneventful recovery after empiric treatment with ceftriaxone. Our case highlights the importance of considering reversible causes of complete AV block since appropriate therapy can avoid the need for permanent pacemaker insertion. PMID: 23710302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)


Friday 24 May 2013

Video: Lyme disease: What you need to know about ticks

The number of Lyme disease cases have tripled in the past 20 years. Dr. Holly Phillips discusses why the number of cases has skyrocketed, how the disease is transmitted via ticks, and what myths and realities persist about the insects and the disease. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Friday 24 May 2013

Red fingers syndrome in a patient with pseudolymphoma

To the Editor: A 31-year-old woman presented with a 10-year history of erythematous plaques on the face consistent with cutaneous pseudolymphoma. She incidentally was noted to also have dusky discoloration of her distal fingers and hypothenar eminences bilaterally (), but not toes, and without associated pain, numbness, or accentuation in the cold. Onycholysis was noted on several fingernails, but clubbing or periungual telangiectasias were not present. The patient related that the redness was not present at birth and appeared during her adult years before her pseudolymphoma lesions. She also noted that the redness appeared on the fingers and palms simultaneously and did not wax and wane. She was not using any prescribed or over-the-counter medications at the time of onset or at presentati...


Thursday 23 May 2013

ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and su...

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Thursday 23 May 2013

Further structural insights into the binding of complement factor H by complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (CspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi

Borrelia burgdorferi has evolved many mechanisms of evading the different immune systems across its range of reservoir hosts, including the capture and presentation of host complement regulators factor H and factor H-like protein-1 (FHL-1). Acquisition is mediated by a family of complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), of which the atomic structure of CspA (BbCRASP-1) is known and shows the formation of a homodimeric species which is required for binding. Mutagenesis studies have mapped a putative factor H binding site to a cleft between the two subunits. Presented here is a new atomic structure of CspA which shows a degree of flexibility between the subunits which may be critical for factor H scavenging by increasing access to the binding interface and allows the possibil...


Wednesday 22 May 2013

Assessment of the frequency of different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in patients with Lyme borreliosis from north-east Poland by studying preferential serologic response and DNA isolates.

CONCLUSIONS: Both methods gave consistent results, indicating B.afzelii as the main agent of all the clinical forms of the Lyme borreliosis in the study area. PMID: 23540208 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Monday 20 May 2013

Equine Lyme Disease

Abstract: Borrelia burgdorferi infection in horses is common in some areas of North America, but the incidence of clinical disease has not been determined, which makes Lyme disease controversial in the horse. Progress is being made case by case in defining the several clinical presentations of Lyme disease in adult horses. Current serologic tests are very sensitive and specific for detecting either infection (previous or concurrent) or exposure but may not distinguish between them. Treatment protocols are available for Lyme disease in horses; however, the ability of those protocols to eliminate the organism remains questionable. Currently, minocycline is being attempted in some presumed Lyme cases as an improved alternative to doxycycline and oxytetracycline. Vaccination, like many aspects...


Thursday 16 May 2013

Experience of Lyme disease and preferences for precautions: a cross-sectional survey of UK patients

Conclusions: The results suggest that the risk of LD is set in the context of the restorative benefits of countryside practices, and that it may be counterproductive to overemphasize pre- or during-visit precautions. Simultaneously, having experienced LD is not associated with any withdrawal from countryside. (Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles)


Thursday 16 May 2013

Tick-Borne Diseases—Lyme Disease, Anaplasmosis, Piroplasmosis

Exposure to ticks is becoming ever increasingly more frequent as our equine populations are living in closer proximity to wildlife, wildlife populations are changing, and winters are trending less cold . In addition, clients are increasingly well informed with information from the internet, meaning practitioners need to be equipped with the most recent information on tick-borne diseases. (Source: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science)

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Wednesday 15 May 2013

Subject Index

Acute cerebellar ataxia in a pediatric case of Lyme disease and a review of literature, 407 Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii infection, 236 (Source: Pediatric Neurology)


Wednesday 15 May 2013

Structure of an outer surface lipoprotein BBA64 from the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi which is critical to ensure infection after a tick bite

In this study, the crystal structure of BBA64 was also compared with that of the paralogous protein CspA (also referred to as BbCRASP-1, CRASP-1 or BBA68). CspA is the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein-1 of B. burgdorferi; its structure is known, but its function apparently differs from that of BBA64. It is demonstrated that unlike the homologous CspA, BBA64 does not form a homodimer. Their differences in function could be explained by divergence in their amino-acid sequences, electrostatic surface potentials and overall tertiary structures. The C-terminal part of BBA64 has a different conformation to that of CspA; the conformation of this region is essential for the proper function of CspA. (Source: Acta Crystallographica Section D)


Tuesday 14 May 2013

Potential Lyme Disease Vaccine Shows Promise

A vaccine for Lyme disease may be on its way, following a promising phase 1/2 clinical trial from investigators at the Stony Brook University School of Medicine and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The finding was published online in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, and revealed that the vaccine resulted in significant antibodies against all targeted species of Borrelia - the agent that causes Lyme disease in the United States and Europe... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Sunday 12 May 2013

Lyme disease ignorance 'costs lives'

'My long-term Lyme disease pain' (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)


Thursday 9 May 2013

Wisconsin Prepares for Another Active Season of Tickbourne Disease

Wisconsin’s warm spring weather will mean more blacklegged tick activity, and state officials are urging people to take precautions against tick bites when spending time outdoors. Infected blacklegged ticks (also known as deer ticks) carry pathogens that cause Lyme disease and other tickborne diseases. (Source: Wisconsin DHFS Press Releases)

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Wednesday 8 May 2013

It's Spring--Time to Prevent Lyme Disease

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Related MedlinePlus Page: Lyme Disease (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Tuesday 7 May 2013

The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease - Wiznia DH, Christos PJ, LaBonte AM.

The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))


Tuesday 7 May 2013

Influence of arthritis-related protein (BBF01) on infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi B31

Conclusion: These results indicated that deletion of BBF01/arp did not abrogate, but diminished infectivity and limited spirochete burdens in tissues of both immunocompetent and immunodeficient hosts, and attenuated, but did not abolish the ability of ticks to acquire or transmit infection. (Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles)


Thursday 2 May 2013

No link found between autism and Lyme disease

NEW YORK, May 1 (UPI) -- U.S. researchers say they found no link between autism spectrum disorders and biomarkers for Lyme disease. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)


Wednesday 1 May 2013

Lyme Disease Alert for Maine Healthcare ProvidersLyme Disease Alert for Maine Healthcare Providers

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in Maine. Ticks are already out and we expect the number of Lyme disease cases to increase as the weather continues to get warmer. State Health Alerts (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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Wednesday 1 May 2013

Lipoprotein succession in Borrelia burgdorferi: Similar but distinct roles for OspC and VlsE at different stages of mammalian infection

In this study, we assessed whether vlsE and ospA could restore infectivity to an ospC mutant, and found that neither gene product effectively compensated for the absence of OspC during early infection. In contrast, we determined that OspC production was required by B. burgdorferi throughout SCID mouse infection if the vlsE gene were absent. Together, these results indicate that OspC can substitute for VlsE when antigenic variation is unnecessary, but that these two abundant lipoproteins are optimized for their related but specific roles during early and persistent mammalian infection by B. burgdorferi. (Source: Molecular Microbiology)


Tuesday 30 April 2013

Study Debunks Lyme Disease-Autism Link

Children with autism no likelier than others to have signs of tick-borne infection (Source: WebMD Health)


Tuesday 30 April 2013

Lyme Disease, Autism Link Debunked

(MedPage Today) -- A new study has found no evidence of an association between Lyme disease and autism. (Source: MedPage Today Pediatrics)


Friday 26 April 2013

[Acute transverse myelitis and Lyme borreliosis: A case report.]

We present here the case of a 16-year-old teenager with acute myelitis and meningeal involvement due to Lyme disease, who presented with atypical symptoms (massive and rapid weight loss, vomiting). MRI showed localized marrow edema as well as leptomeningeal and root enhancement. Lumbar puncture showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Lyme serology was positive both in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Even if acute myelitis remains exceptional among neuroborreliosis manifestations, this diagnosis has to be thought of when a child presents with unexplained neurological symptoms. PMID: 23628118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives de Pediatrie)

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Tuesday 23 April 2013

Orchestration of Inflammation and Adaptive Immunity in Borrelia burgdorferi–Induced Arthritis by Neutrophil‐Activating Protein A

ConclusionWe provide evidence that NapA functions as one of the main bacterial products involved in the pathogenesis of LA. Accordingly, we show that, at very early stages of LA, NapA accumulates and, in turn, orchestrates the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the joint cavity. Thereafter, with the contribution of recruited cells, NapA promotes the infiltration of T cells producing IL‐17 and/or IFNγ. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Monday 22 April 2013

Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain: a multicentre study

This study determines seropositivity rates in Spain for agents causing the following five CVBD using two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits: leishmaniosis, heartworm, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis and Lyme disease. Image: CVBD prevalences recorded for seven Spanish geographical regions. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Saturday 20 April 2013

Lyme borreliosis and skin

Biju Vasudevan, Manas ChatterjeeIndian Journal of Dermatology 2013 58(3):167-174Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many othe...


Friday 19 April 2013

Lyme Disease Rates Are Rising In Northern U.S.

The number of Lyme disease cases in northern U.S. states is rising, while southern states are experiencing a significant decrease in cases, according to a new study. The research was conducted by a team at the University of Toronto who used data on Lyme disease rates between 1992 and 2007 taken from the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and was published in the journal CMAJ Open. The incidence of this tick-borne disease has risen by about 80% in the U.S., according to the experts, however, rates differ between states... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Friday 19 April 2013

Climate change linked to US Lyme disease spread

Researchers have found that over the past 20 years, the incidence of Lyme disease has increased in the northern-most states of the USA, while declining in more southerly states. (Source: MedWire News - Infectious Diseases)

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Thursday 18 April 2013

Acute Cerebellar Ataxia in a Pediatric Case of Lyme Disease and a Review of Literature

We report the case of a 5-year-old girl seropositive for antibodies against the causative Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi presenting with severe acute cerebellar ataxia from the in southern coast of Anatolia (Mediterranean region). (Source: Pediatric Neurology)


Thursday 18 April 2013

Lyme Disease Rate Increasing in the Northern United StatesLyme Disease Rate Increasing in the Northern United States

Lyme disease incidence increased in the northern-most states in the United States, perhaps because of a climate-change-associated movement of ticks from warmer areas into more northern latitudes. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Monday 15 April 2013

Hierarchical and Spatially Explicit Clustering of DNA Sequences with BAPS Software

Phylogeographical analyses have become commonplace for a myriad of organisms with the advent of cheap DNA sequencing technologies. Bayesian model-based clustering is a powerful tool for detecting important patterns in such data and can be used to decipher even quite subtle signals of systematic differences in molecular variation. Here, we introduce two upgrades to the Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure (BAPS) software, which enable 1) spatially explicit modeling of variation in DNA sequences and 2) hierarchical clustering of DNA sequence data to reveal nested genetic population structures. We provide a direct interface to map the results from spatial clustering with Google Maps using the portal http://www.spatialepidemiology.net/ and illustrate this approach using sequence data from...


Monday 15 April 2013

Ecological factors that determine Ixodes ricinus tick burdens in the great tit (Parus major), an avian reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

We present a risk model that explains the levels of infestation of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., during the breeding season of the great tit (Parus major), one of Europe's most abundant avian reservoir hosts of B. burgdorferi s.l. Tit tick burden were modelled as a function of variables summarising vegetation, climate, proxies for mammal abundance and characteristics of individual birds and their nests. Tick loads were positively associated with the relative humidity prior to capture of the bird and the cover of bracken inside its territory. The number of cold winter days prior to the bird's breeding season showed a negative association with tick loads. None of the proxies for mammal abundance correlated with tick loads. Tick loads decreased with age in fema...

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Monday 15 April 2013

Enteroviral Testing and Length of Hospital Stay for Children Evaluated for Lyme Meningitis

Conclusions: Rapid EV PCR testing could assist clinical decision making by Emergency Physicians, avoiding potentially unnecessary hospitalization and parenteral antibiotics for children at low risk of Lyme meningitis. (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)


Saturday 13 April 2013

Waxing and Waning Lymphadenopathy

A previously healthy, 48-year-old white man presented with episodes of waxing and waning lymphadenopathy involving the neck, axillae, and groin of 3 years' duration. Each episode occurred on an average every 6 months, lasted approximately 2 weeks, and resolved spontaneously. The patient had malaise associated with these episodes but denied fevers, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Multiple mobile, nontender, firm, 1- to 2-cm lymph nodes were palpable during each of these episodes. He had normal blood counts and had undergone extensive infectious workup in the past for these symptoms. Human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, and fungal serologies were negative. Chest x-ray was normal, and tuberculin test result was negative. Epstein-Barr virus antibody panel was positive ...


Friday 12 April 2013

[Unclassified cardiomyopathy or Lyme carditis? A three year follow-up].

We present the case of a 41 year-old Caucasian woman referred to our hospital with symptoms of fatigue, progressive exertional dyspnoea, supraventricular cardiac arrhythmia, and an enlarged heart revealed on chest radiography. Following an untypical result of transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance was performed. This showed structural cardiac changes and focus of late gadolinium enhancement in the midwall of the apex region. Further diagnostic processes, including endomyocardial biopsy and serology tests, made it possible to diagnose Lyme carditis. Clinical observation was followed-up for three years. PMID: 23575786 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Polish Heart Journal)


Friday 12 April 2013

[Complete atrio-ventricular block as a first symptom of borreliosis: antibiotic treatment instead of pacemaker implantation].

We present a 46-year-old male patient with complete atrio-ventricular block. A inflammatory etiology was suspected and finally lyme carditis was diagnosed. The conduction abnormalities disappeared with antibiotic treatment and a pacemaker implantation was not needed. Further follow-up of two years was uneventful. PMID: 23575720 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Polish Heart Journal)


Tuesday 9 April 2013

The HtrA protease of Borrelia burgdorferi degrades outer membrane protein BmpD and chemotaxis phosphatase CheX

Summary Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochaetal agent of Lyme disease, codes for a single HtrA protein, HtrABb (BB0104) that is homologous to DegP of Escherichia coli (41% amino acid identity). HtrABb shows physical and biochemical similarities to DegP in that it has the trimer as its fundamental unit and can degrade casein via its catalytic serine. Recombinant HtrABb exhibits proteolytic activity in vitro, while a mutant (HtrABbS198A) does not. However, HtrABb and DegP have some important differences as well. Native HtrABb occurs in both membrane‐bound and soluble forms. Despite its homology to DegP, HtrABb could not complement an E. coli DegP deletion mutant. Late stage Lyme disease patients, as well as infected mice and rabbits developed a robust antibody response to HtrABb, indica...

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Monday 8 April 2013

Natural Protection Against Lyme borreliosis Found In Wild Mice

Springtime spells tick-time. Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in Switzerland: around 10,000 people a year become infected with the pathogen. The actual hosts for Borrelia, however, are wild mice. Like in humans, the pathogen is also transmitted by ticks in mice. Interestingly, not all mice are equally susceptible to the bacterium and individual animals are immune to the pathogen. Scientists from the universities of Zurich and Lund headed by evolutionary biologist Barbara Tschirren reveal that the difference in vulnerability among the animals is genetic in origin... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Monday 8 April 2013

Tick Bites and Lyme Disease: The Need for Timely Treatment

In the United States, 30,158 people were reported as having contracted Lyme disease during 2010; 96% of the cases in 2011 were reported from 13 northeast and north-central states. Time of tick attachment is a critical factor. Prolonged attachment allows time for a bacterium to move from tick to human. Patient history and meticulous skin inspection are the most important elements used in diagnosis of Lyme disease. The most common drug for treatment is doxycycline. Ticks find their hosts by several senses: odor, moisture, heat, and vibration. Avoidance of tick-infested areas, such as wooded areas and leaf piles, is paramount in preventing Lyme disease. (Source: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America)


Friday 5 April 2013

Role of LBP and CD14 in Lipopeptide Delivery to TLRs 1 and 2 [Lipids]

Bacterial lipoproteins are the most potent microbial agonists for the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) subfamily, and this pattern recognition event induces cellular activation, leading to host immune responses. Triacylated bacterial lipoproteins coordinately bind TLR1 and TLR2, resulting in a stable ternary complex that drives intracellular signaling. The sensitivity of TLR-expressing cells to lipoproteins is greatly enhanced by two lipid-binding serum proteins known as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14); however, the physical mechanism that underlies this increased sensitivity is not known. To address this, we measured the ability of LBP and sCD14 to drive ternary complex formation between soluble extracellular domains of TLR1 and TLR2 and a synthetic triacylate...


Monday 1 April 2013

Pediatric sudden sensorineural hearing loss: Diagnosed causes and response to intervention

Conclusions: The incidence of SSNHL in pediatric patients is unknown. Etiologies of SSNHL include viral, EVA, ototoxicity, noise, and non-organic. Most studies were non-diagnostic although 2/22 CT/MRI provided an etiology. Identification of other causes required careful history review. The incidence of SSNHL in the pediatric population needs to be studied, and the timing, dosage, route and efficacy of steroids further evaluated. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)


Monday 1 April 2013

[Articles] Global economic burden of Chagas disease: a computational simulation model

The economic burden of Chagas disease is similar to or exceeds those of other prominent diseases globally (eg, rotavirus $2·0 billion, cervical cancer $4·7 billion) even in the USA (Lyme disease $2·5 billion), where Chagas disease has not been traditionally endemic, suggesting an economic argument for more attention and efforts towards control of Chagas disease. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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Monday 1 April 2013

Acute Transverse Myelitis in a Child With Lyme Disease and a Review of Literature

We describe here the sixth child with borreliosis-related transverse myelitis. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)


Monday 1 April 2013

Protein-losing nephropathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi seropositivity in a soft-coated wheaten terrier: Response to therapy.

Authors: Horney BS, Stojanovic V Abstract A soft-coated wheaten terrier was examined for lameness with subsequent identification of protein-losing nephropathy, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, and seroconversion to Borrelia burgdorferi. Following doxycycline therapy, the urine protein loss decreased significantly and serum albumin concentration remained close to or within the reference interval for over 3 years, contrary to the reported poor prognosis for renal disease associated with B. burgdorferi or protein-losing nephropathy of soft-coated wheaten terriers. PMID: 24082169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Canadian Veterinary Journal)


Saturday 30 March 2013

Are you breathing?

Recently I have been learning about breathing. I know, it sounds crazy. I do already know how to breathe, and so do all of my clients. But one workshop with Dr. Richard Brown offers "breathing techniques to relieve stress and improve mood, mental focus, and cardiorespiratory health." I'd like to share this with my clients, but I'm a little hesitant.read more (Source: Psychology Today Depression Center)


Saturday 30 March 2013

Lyme Disease Antibodies Attached To Nanotubes, Paving Way For Diagnostic Device

Early diagnosis is critical in treating Lyme disease. However, nearly one quarter of Lyme disease patients are initially misdiagnosed because currently available serological tests have poor sensitivity and specificity during the early stages of infection. Misdiagnosed patients may go untreated and thus progress to late-stage Lyme disease, where they face longer and more invasive treatments, as well as persistent symptoms. Existing tests assess the presence of antibodies against bacterial proteins, which take weeks to form after the initial infection and persist after the infection is gone... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Thursday 28 March 2013

Federal Register: Establishing the Performance Characteristics of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability

The FDA is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled "Establishing the Performance Characteristics of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi.' FDA is issuing this guidance to provide industry and... (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)

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Wednesday 27 March 2013

Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Establishing the Performance Characteristics of In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the Detection of Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi

FDA is issuing this guidance to provide industry and agency staff with recommendations for studies to establish the analytical and clinical performance of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVDs) intended for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)


Tuesday 26 March 2013

Penn Researchers attach Lyme disease antibodies to nanotubes, paving way for diagnostic device

(University of Pennsylvania) Existing Lyme disease tests assess the presence of antibodies, which take weeks to form after the initial infection and persist after the infection is gone. Now, a nanotechnology-inspired technique developed by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania may lead to diagnostics that can detect the organism itself. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Tuesday 26 March 2013

Proteolysis of BB0323 results in two polypeptides that impact physiologic and infectious phenotypes in Borrelia burgdorferi

Summary Borrelia burgdorferi gene product BB0323 is required for cell fission and pathogen persistence in vivo. Here, we show that BB0323, which is conserved among globally prevalent infectious strains, supports normal spirochaete growth and morphology even at early phases of cell division. We demonstrate that native BB0323 undergoes proteolytic processing at the C‐terminus, at a site after the first 202 N‐terminal amino acids. We further identified a periplasmic BB0323 binding protein in B. burgdorferi, annotated as BB0104, having serine protease activity responsible for the primary cleavage of BB0323 to produce discrete N‐ and C‐terminal polypeptides. These two BB0323 polypeptides interact with each other, and either individually or as a complex, are associated with multiple fu...


Monday 25 March 2013

Southern Tick-Associated Rash IllnessSouthern Tick-Associated Rash Illness

Can you tell whether your patient has Lyme or STARI? CDC Expert Commentary (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Monday 25 March 2013

Quirky Feature Of Lyme Disease Bacteria Revealed

Scientists have confirmed that the pathogen that causes Lyme Disease - unlike any other known organism - can exist without iron, a metal that all other life needs to make proteins and enzymes. Instead of iron, the bacteria substitute manganese to make an essential enzyme, thus eluding immune system defenses that protect the body by starving pathogens of iron. To cause disease, Borrelia burgdorferi requires unusually high levels of manganese, scientists at Johns Hopkins University (JHU), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the University of Texas reported... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)

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Friday 22 March 2013

Manganese and SOD in the Lyme Disease Pathogen [Enzymology]

The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi represents a novel organism in which to study metalloprotein biology in that this spirochete has uniquely evolved with no requirement for iron. Not only is iron low, but we show here that B. burgdorferi has the capacity to accumulate remarkably high levels of manganese. This high manganese is necessary to activate the SodA superoxide dismutase (SOD) essential for virulence. Using a metalloproteomic approach, we demonstrate that a bulk of B. burgdorferi SodA directly associates with manganese, and a smaller pool of inactive enzyme accumulates as apoprotein. Other metalloproteins may have similarly adapted to using manganese as co-factor, including the BB0366 aminopeptidase. Whereas B. burgdorferi SodA has evolved in a manganese-rich, iron-poor ...


Friday 22 March 2013

B. burgdorferi and Autophagy [Microbiology]

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Recent studies have shown that recognition of the spirochete is mediated by TLR2 and NOD2. The latter receptor has been associated with the induction of the intracellular degradation process called autophagy. The present study demonstrated for the first time the induction of autophagy by exposure to B. burgdorferi and that autophagy modulates the B. burgdorferi-dependent cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with autophagy inhibitors showed an increased IL-1β and IL-6 production in response to the exposure of the spirochete, whereas TNFα production was unchanged. Autophagy induction against B. burgdorferi was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) because cells from patients with c...


Friday 15 March 2013

Study on public perceptions and protective behaviors regarding Lyme disease among the general public in the Netherlands: implications for prevention programs

Conclusions: Prevention programs targeting tick bites and LD should aim at influencing people's perceptions and increasing their knowledge and perceived efficacy of protective behavior. This can be done by strengthening motivators (e.g. knowledge, concern about LD, perceived efficacy of wearing protective clothing) and removing barriers (e.g. low perceived personal risk, not knowing how to recognize a tick). The challenge is to take our study findings and translate them into appropriate prevention strategies. (Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles)


Friday 8 March 2013

Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma associated with juxta‐articular fibrotic nodules in a teenager

Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (PCMZL) has rarely been reported in teenagers and is occasionally associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Juxta‐articular fibrotic nodules represent a unique, localized fibrosing response to spirochete infections, namely Borreliosis. Herein, we report a 15‐year‐old healthy boy who presented with a 4‐year history of progressive acquisition of asymptomatic, erythematous nodules, ≤3 cm, beginning with his right forearm (3), then right arm (1) and lastly his right inner thigh (1). Biopsy showed PCMZL in three of five samples, and inflamed, fibrotic nodules, near the elbow in two. The bottom heavy lymphomatous nodules consisted of mostly small CD20+ CD43+ lymphocytes, some with plasmacytoid features. Mature plasma cells were lambda li...


Tuesday 5 March 2013

Lyme nephritis

ConclusionsThere is no experimental model of LN to study predisposing factors, pathogenesis, onset, progression, treatment, or prevention. There are no predictive tests to identify the few individuals at highest risk, therefore all seropositive dogs should be screened and monitored for proteinuria. Lyme nephritis mimics other forms of protein‐losing nephropathy and sometimes Leptospirosis. Renal biopsy helps show if immune‐complex disease exists, but may not prove LN specifically. More studies are warranted on dogs with Lyme‐specific immune‐complex deposition to evaluate risk factors, understand pathogenesis, variability of expression, and to validate treatment and prevention protocols. (Source: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care)

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Friday 1 March 2013

Distinguishing Lyme From Septic Knee Monoarthritis in Lyme Disease-Endemic Areas

Children with Lyme and septic arthritis of the knee may present similarly, although septic arthritis requires prompt treatment initiation to avoid joint destruction. Clinicians must make initial management decisions without Lyme serology and bacterial culture results. Our clinical prediction rule accurately identified patients at low risk for septic arthritis in a Lyme disease–endemic area. In the appropriate clinical context, low-risk patients may be spared invasive testing such as diagnostic arthrocentesis. (Read the full article) (Source: PEDIATRICS)


Friday 1 March 2013

Rheumatologists Name 5 Tests to ReconsiderRheumatologists Name 5 Tests to Reconsider

The ACR's part of the Choosing Wisely campaign includes questions about ANA subserology and Lyme disease testing, peripheral joint MRIs, first-line biologics for RA, and frequent DXA scans. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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Thursday 28 February 2013

The Many Faces of Solitary and Multiple Erythema Migrans.

In conclusion, multiple erythema migrans may be more common than anticipated, and since only 50% of the patients were seropositive when seeking medi-cal help, PCR testing of skin lesions is helpful to confirm the diagnosis in clinically atypical cases. PMID: 23450303 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Dermato-Venereologica)


Thursday 28 February 2013

Dysregulation of CD4+CD25hi+ T cells in the synovial fluid of patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis

Conclusion.Patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis often had lower frequencies of Treg, higher expression of activation co‐receptors, and less effective inhibition of pro‐inflammatory cytokines. This suggests that immune responses in these patients were excessively amplified leading to immune dysregulation and refractory arthritis. © 2013 American College of Rheumatology. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Monday 25 February 2013

Development of a foundation for a case definition of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome

Summary: Objectives: The study objective is to demonstrate the clinical and research utility of an operationalized definition of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), as proposed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.Methods: Seventy-four patients with confirmed erythema migrans and 14 controls were enrolled. Patient-reported symptoms and health function (SF-36) were collected pre-treatment and at follow-up visits over 6 months post-treatment.Results: Eight (11%) patients met our operationalized definition of PTLDS, which included self-reported symptoms of fatigue, widespread musculoskeletal pain or cognitive complaints, and functional impact as measured by a T score of (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)


Sunday 24 February 2013

A Study of the Technique of Western Blot for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease caused by Borrelia afzelii in China.

CONCLUSION: Establishment of WB criteria for B. afzelii is important in validating the diagnostic assays for Lyme disease in China. PMID: 23425802 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)


Sunday 24 February 2013

Seroepidemiological Investigation of Lyme Disease and Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis among People Living in Forest Areas of Eight Provinces in China.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that both pathogens are endemic in the forest areas in the eight provinces, but the prevalence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum differs between the provinces. PMID: 23425801 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)

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Friday 22 February 2013

Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Lyme Disease in Hungary: The Epidemiological Situation Between 1998 and 2008

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Thursday 21 February 2013

Reductions in Human Lyme Disease Risk Due to the Effects of Oral Vaccination on Tick-to-Mouse and Mouse-to-Tick Transmission

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Thursday 21 February 2013

Choosing wisely: The American College of Rheumatology's top 5 list of things physicians and patients should question

ConclusionThe ACR Top 5 list is intended to promote discussions between physicians and patients about health care practices in rheumatology whose use should be questioned and to assist rheumatologists in providing high‐value care. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)


Wednesday 20 February 2013

Borrelia Miyamotoi - New Tick Transmitted Disease in North America

Hunterdon Medical Center Physician Successfully Treats First Confirmed Case of Borrelia Miyamotoi - Joseph Gugliotta, M.D.; Anne Felix; Anthony Suarez, MLT (ASCP), Senior Laboratory Technician at Hunterdon Medical Center; and Amy Kurynow, MLT (ASCP), Senior Laboratory Technician at Hunterdon Medical Center. Suarez and Kurynow called attention to the spirochetes during the analysis of the fluid sample from Ms. Felix. (Source: Disabled World)


Wednesday 20 February 2013

Septic Arthritis in Children Ruled Out by New Test Septic Arthritis in Children Ruled Out by New Test

Children with knee arthritis who are from Lyme-disease-endemic areas rarely have septic arthritis and can be spared invasive testing if they meet ANC and ESR criteria. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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Tuesday 19 February 2013

Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus Populations Across Central Britain

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Tuesday 19 February 2013

Elevated Lyme Disease Seroprevalence Among Dogs in a Nonendemic County: Harbinger or Artifact?

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Tuesday 19 February 2013

Lyme disease and the heart.

Authors: Krause PJ, Bockenstedt LK PMID: 23429899 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Circulation)


Sunday 17 February 2013

Why has Borrelia burgdorferi not been transmitted by blood transfusion?

Authors: Ginzburg Y, Kessler D, Kang S, Shaz B, Wormser GP PMID: 23414144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transfusion)


Thursday 14 February 2013

A Tale of Two Eyes (P02.187)

CONCLUSIONS: Isolated bilateral sixth nerve palsy has been described in the literature and its incidence is almost equal to unilateral sixth nerve palsy. The most common causes are tumors and demyelinating lesions. Miller fisher syndrome classically presents with a triad of ataxia, opthalmoplegia and areflexia . It may present only as acute ophthalmoperesis, however this has been described in very few case reports. Rarely is the presentation isolated bilateral sixth nerve palsy as seen in our patient. It is hypothesized that infection by microorganism expressing GQ1b epitope triggers production of IgG anti-GQ1b antibodies. These antibodies bind to GQ1b, which are highly expressed on occulomotor nerves and group 1a muscle spindles. This condition has a self-limited course and seldom causes ...

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Thursday 14 February 2013

The tick that stopped the ticker

A 31 year old healthy male was brought to emergency department after he collapsed while attending a bingo tournament. He denied any chest pain, shortness of breath or palpitations. The witnesses of event reported no incontinence, tongue bite or jerky movements of body. Patient had no recollection of event and was asymptomatic at presentation. Patient reported being in the woods for last few days and developing malaise and generalized weakness 3days prior to this event. The patient was awake, alert and oriented to time, place and person. His vital signs and cardiovascular examination were unremarkable. His laboratory data revealed a normal cell count, electrolyte panel, thyroid functions and troponin-I. Urine examination was normal. His ECG showed () complete AV dissociation with an acceler...


Thursday 14 February 2013

Movement Disorder as the Clinical Presentation of Porphyria: A Case Report (P03.056)

CONCLUSIONS: We must be aware of other possible clinical presentations of porphyria to initiate treatment early and diminish complications related to the disease.Disclosure: Dr. Rundle-Gonzalez has nothing to disclose. Dr. Huang has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 13 February 2013

Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, have higher energy reserves.

Authors: Herrmann C, Voordouw MJ, Gern L Abstract Ticks use their energy reserves to maintain their water balance, search for hosts and transmit tick-borne pathogens. However, the influence of tick-borne pathogens on the energy reserves of the tick vector has not been well studied. The relationship between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection status and fat content in questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs was examined. Nymphs were sampled from the field. Their body mass and fat content were measured, and their Borrelia genospecies infection status (using reverse line blot analysis), and spirochete load (using quantitative PCR) were analysed. Of the 900 nymphs tested, 21.2% were infected with a variety of Borrelia genospecies. Borrelia-infected nymphs had 12.1% higher fat conte...


Wednesday 13 February 2013

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Infecting Ticks of the Ixodes ricinus Complex in Uruguay: First Report for the Southern Hemisphere

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Thursday 7 February 2013

New study highlights Chagas disease as a growing health and socio-economic challenge

(Sabin Vaccine Institute) Today, The Lancet Infectious Diseases published a new report that examines the global economic burden of Chagas disease. In the first study of its kind, researchers measured the health and economic impact of Chagas disease and found that the total economic burden of Chagas disease matches or exceeds that of many more well-known diseases such as rotavirus, Lyme disease and cervical cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)

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Friday 1 February 2013

Cutaneous Primary Marginal Zone Lymphoma Associated with Juxta‐Articular Fibrotic Nodules in a Teenager

Abstract Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (PCMZL) has rarely been reported in teenagers and is occasionally associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Juxta‐articular fibrotic nodules represent a unique, localized fibrosing response to spirochete infections, namely Borreliosis. Herein, we report a 15‐year‐old healthy boy who presented with a 4year history of progressive acquisition of asymptomatic, erythematous nodules, ≤3cm, beginning with his right forearm (3), then right arm (1), and lastly his right inner thigh (1). Biopsy demonstrated PCMZL in 3 of 5 samples, and inflamed, fibrotic nodules, near the elbow in 2. The bottom heavy lymphomatous nodules consisted of mostly small CD20+ CD43+ lymphocytes, some with plasmacytoid features. Mature plasma cells were lambda l...


Friday 1 February 2013

Borrelia host adaptation Regulator (BadR) regulates rpoS to modulate host adaptation and virulence factors in Borrelia burgdorferi.

Summary The RpoS transcription factor of Borrelia burgdorferi is a “gatekeeper” because it activates genes required for spirochetes to transition from tick to vertebrate hosts. However, it remains unknown how RpoS becomes repressed to allow the spirochetes to transition back from the vertebrate host to the tick vector. Here we show that a putative carbohydrate‐responsive regulatory protein, designated BadR (Borrelia host adaptation Regulator), is a transcriptional repressor of rpoS. BadR levels are elevated in B. burgdorferi cultures grown under in vitro conditions mimicking unfed‐ticks and badR‐deficient strains are defective for growth under these same conditions. Microarray and immunoblot analyses of badR‐deficient strains showed up‐regulation of rpoS and other factors imp...


Friday 1 February 2013

"Making Lemonade" out of Lyme.

"Making Lemonade" out of Lyme. Pediatr Ann. 2013 Feb 1;42(2):57-60 Authors: Block SL PMID: 23379407 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)


Thursday 31 January 2013

Orchestration of inflammation and adaptive immunity in Borrelia burgdorferi‐induced arthritis by NapA

Conclusion.Herein, we prove that NapA functions as one of the main bacterial products involved in the pathogenesis of LA. Accordingly, we show that, at very early stages of LA, NapA accumulates and, in turn, orchestrates the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the joint cavity; thereafter, with the contribution of recruited cells, NapA promotes the infiltration of T cells producing IL‐17 and/or IFN‐γ. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 30 January 2013

Lyme Culture Test Causes UproarLyme Culture Test Causes Uproar

The aggressive marketing of an unvalidated culture test for Borrelia burgdorferi has raised red flags among infectious disease specialists and may lead to more restrictive regulation of such tests. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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Wednesday 30 January 2013

Tick‐Borne Diseases in the South‐East Need Human Studies: Lyme Disease, STARI and Beyond

(Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)


Wednesday 23 January 2013

Emerging tick-borne disease reaches USA

A new tick-borne infection caused by the spirochete bacteria Borrelia miyamotoi that produces similar symptoms to Lyme disease has been confirmed in a small number of patients in the USA. (Source: MedWire News - Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 22 January 2013

Ability to cause erythema migrans differs between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates

Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. isolates, distinguished based on IGS and opsC sequences, differ in their propensity to cause erythema migrans. Furthermore, detection of identical ospC types in different genospecies indicates plasmid exchange. Image: Tick in a symbolic bull¿s eye. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 21 January 2013

Management of suspected Lyme borreliosis: experience from an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy service

Conclusions: These results show the complexity of translating well-substantiated regimens from clinical trials to actual clinical practice. OPAT was an effective way of administering parenteral therapy for Lyme disease but should not be undertaken lightly due to the rate of adverse events and low rates of success in certain patient groups seen in this study. In view of this, stricter criteria for inclusion to OPAT in line with published guidance should be applied to minimize patient harm and optimize success. (Source: QJM)


Monday 21 January 2013

Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for Lyme borreliosis: a 'real world' view

(Source: QJM)

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Monday 21 January 2013

Lyme borreliosis: the need for more research

(Source: QJM)



Saturday 19 January 2013

New Tick-Borne Disease Found In The U.S.

A new infection causes by ticks that is extremely similar to Lyme disease has been found in 18 people in southern New England and upstate New York. The unnamed disease has been confirmed in humans for the first time by researchers from Yale University who published their findings in the New England Journal of Medicine. The report suggests that this new sickness could be infecting more than 4,300 Americans a year with flu-like symptoms and relapsing fevers. Luckily, one dosage of antibiotics seems capable of eliminating the disease... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Friday 18 January 2013

Unilateral phrenic nerve lesion in Lyme neuroborreliosis

Conclusion: Although Lyme neuroborreliosis is a rare cause of diaphragmatic weakness, it should be considered in the differential workup because of its potentially treatable nature. (Source: BioMed Central)


Thursday 17 January 2013

U.S. Researchers Find New Disease Carried by Deer TicksU.S. Researchers Find New Disease Carried by Deer Ticks

U.S. scientists have discovered a new deer tick-borne disease in humans, with the viral-like illness sharing similarities both with Lyme disease and relapsing fever infections. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)

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Wednesday 16 January 2013

Deer Ticks Carry Yet Another Bacterial Threat

Lyme disease is better known, but a different germ causes an infection that may lead to dementia Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Dementia, Lyme Disease (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Wednesday 16 January 2013

New Tickborne Pathogen Found in U.S. (CME/CE)

(MedPage Today) -- An elderly immunocompromised woman who developed meningoencephalitis was most likely infected with Borrelia miyamotoi, which is related to the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, researchers said. (Source: MedPage Today Geriatrics)


Wednesday 16 January 2013

Deer Ticks Carry Yet Another Bacterial Threat

People who go outdoors in several regions of the United States may have something else to worry about. Scientists report that there's another troublesome germ hiding in the deer tick that already harbors the Lyme disease bacterium. (Source: RWJF News Digest - Public Health)


Monday 14 January 2013

Common Misconceptions About Lyme Disease

Abstract: Lyme disease, infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, is a focally endemic tick-transmitted zoonosis. During the 3 decades since the responsible spirochete was identified, a series of misconceptions and misunderstandings have become widely prevalent, leading to frequent misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Persistent misconceptions concern the reliability of available diagnostic tools, the signs and symptoms of nervous system involvement, the appropriate choice and duration of antimicrobial therapy, the curability of the infection, and the cause of symptoms that may persist in some patients after treatment. Concern about disparate perspectives led the Institute of Medicine to review the subject. In this article we review the principal misconceptions, discussing their origins a...


Monday 14 January 2013

Rapid progressive bilateral hearing loss due to granulomatous otitis media in Lyme disease

We report on a patient with Lyme disease who presented with chronic bilateral otitis media and cranial neuropathy with rapid progresive hearing loss. After ceftriaxone and high-dose intravenous immunglobulins, the disease was controlled only with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. The relationship between Lyme disease and granulomatous vasculitis is discussed. Lyme disease should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of various otolaryngological and neurological presentations. (Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology)

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Sunday 13 January 2013

Tick related diseases in Switzerland, 2008 to 2011.

CONCLUSIONS: Tick related diseases are frequent and widespread in Switzerland. They are leading to a considerable usage of the health care system. Thus, tick bite prevention and vaccination against tick borne encephalitis are essential. However, long term follow-up cohort studies with reasonably large study populations after tick bite would be required to elucidate the risk of developing a tick borne disease. PMID: 23299974 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Swiss Medical Weekly)


Saturday 12 January 2013

Recent lesson from a clinical and seroepidemiological survey: low positive predictive value of Borrelia burgdorferi antibody testing in a high risk population.

Conclusion: Positive Borrelia antibody test result may be especially misleading in a high-risk population. PMID: 23314562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Medical Sciences)


Friday 11 January 2013

Chronic Lyme; diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

Authors: Ljøstad U, Mygland A Abstract In this review, we aim to discuss the definition, clinical and laboratory features, diagnostics, and management of chronic Lyme. Chronic Lyme is a rare condition caused by long-lasting and ongoing infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). The most common manifestations are progressive encephalitis, myelitis, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans with or without neuropathy, and arthritis. Chronic Lyme is not considered to present with isolated subjective symptoms. Direct detection of Bb has low yield in most manifestations of chronic Lyme, while almost 100% of the cases are seropositive, that is, have detectable Bb IgG antibodies in serum. Detection of Bb antibodies only with Western blot technique and not with ELISA and detection...


Friday 11 January 2013

In vitro susceptibility of European human Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains to antimicrobial agents

This study is the first report on the antibiotic susceptibility of a series of European human isolates of B. burgdorferi s.s. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)


Friday 11 January 2013

B. burgdorferi and Tick Proteins in the VectorB. burgdorferi and Tick Proteins in the Vector

A greater understanding of vector–pathogen interaction and the identification of tick proteins that are key for survival of B. burgdorferi will help develop effective management for Lyme disease. Future Microbiology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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Monday 7 January 2013

Cerebrospinal fluid CXCL13 in Lyme neuroborreliosis and asymptomatic HIV infection

Conclusions: We confirm previous reports of highly elevated CSF CXCL13 levels in LNB patients and that these levels decline after oral doxycycline treatment. The same pattern is seen for CSF mononuclear cells. CSF CXCL13 levels are elevated in neurologically asymptomatic HIV patients and the levels overlap those of LNB patients. The diagnostic value of CSF CXCL13 in LNB remains to be established. (Source: BMC Neurology)


Saturday 5 January 2013

Lyme Borreliosis Spirochetes and Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ixodid Ticks from Pianosa Island, Tuscany Archipelago, Italy

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Saturday 5 January 2013

Complement evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: it takes three to tango.

Authors: de Taeye SW, Kreuk L, van Dam AP, Hovius JW, Schuijt TJ Abstract The complement system is one of the major innate defense mechanisms Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato has to overcome to establish an infection of mammalian hosts and to cause Lyme borreliosis in humans. Borrelia prevents complement-mediated killing during host colonization through (i) recruitment of host complement regulators by Borrelia, (ii) evasion mechanisms by Borrelia itself, and (iii) exploitation of tick proteins by Borrelia. These interactions with complement can be host species-specific. This review provides an overview of interactions between Borrelia, tick, and host leading to evasion of complement-mediated killing. PMID: 23298533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Parasitol...


Thursday 3 January 2013

Refractory Lyme Arthritis May Be Autoimmune (CME/CE)

(MedPage Today) -- Activated T- and B-cell responses to an autoantigen in synovial tissue may explain the development of resistant arthritis among a small number of patients with Lyme disease, researchers suggested. (Source: MedPage Today Infectious Disease)


Monday 31 December 2012

Hypocretin Deficiency Develops During Onset of Human Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

Conclusions:We confirm that hypocretin deficiency develops in parallel to the onset of human narcolepsy with cataplexy.Citation:Savvidou A; Knudsen S; Olsson-Engman M; Gammeltoft S; Jennum P; Palm L. Hypocretin deficiency develops during onset of human narcolepsy with cataplexy. SLEEP 2013;36(1):147-148. (Source: Sleep)

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Monday 31 December 2012

Herbert Dorken (1926–2012).

Herbert Dorken was born in Montreal, Canada, on July 7, 1926, and died in Grass Valley, California, on February 18, 2012, at the age of 85. Dorken was a prolific writer, with nearly 100 publications to his credit. He was particularly adept at taking raw health care data that the government had assembled with no apparent interpretation and translating it so that its meaning and implications for health care practice were clear. He strongly believed that the health care system in America, and particularly its mental health system, was in need of extensive reform. At the invitation in the mid- 1980s of the National Academies of Practice, he designed a model health care system that was heralded by many health economists, but it went nowhere because it was not in keeping with either of the two m...


Monday 31 December 2012

Leptospirosis as a tick-borne disease? Detection of [i]Leptospir[/i]a spp. in[i] Ixodes ricinus[/i] ticks in eastern Poland.

In conclusion, this study shows for the first time the presence of Leptospira spp. in Ixodes ticks and marked frequency of the occurrence of these bacteria in ticks. This finding has significant epidemiological implications by indicating the possibility of the transmission of leptospirosis by Ixodes ricinus, the commonest tick species in Europe and most important vector of numerous pathogens. PMID: 23311784 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Monday 31 December 2012

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato as activators of the complement system in in vitro model.

Conclusions. The results obtained on the basis of the in vitro model can be analysed from the aspect of spirochetes' real contact with a host's organism during the bite of infected ticks. Despite blocking of the alternative pathway, Borrelia initiate the activation cascade regardless of antibodies via the first contact of a host's organism with spirochetes, or in accordance with antibodies during the infection or subsequent contact with bacteria. PMID: 23311781 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Thursday 27 December 2012

Year in Review: Pieces Added to the Lyme Puzzle

(MedPage Today) -- Final numbers for this year aren't in yet, so we don't know if predictions for the worst year ever for Lyme disease will bear out, but pieces of the larger puzzle continue to fall into place. (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)


Thursday 27 December 2012

Year in Review: Worst Summer Yet for Lyme Disease?

(MedPage Today) -- The summer of 2012 was predicted to be the worst year ever for Lyme disease in the northeastern U.S., even as researchers made advances in the understanding and treatment of refractory cases. (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)

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Friday 21 December 2012

Functional analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi uvrA in DNA damage protection

(Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters)


Wednesday 19 December 2012

Borrelia burgdorferi and tick proteins supporting pathogen persistence in the vector

Future Microbiology , January 2013, Vol. 8, No. 1, Pages 41-56. (Source: Future Microbiology)


Tuesday 18 December 2012

LYME HP (Baptisia Tinctoria, Echinacea, Hydrastis Canadensis, Lym D Nosode, Arsenicum Album, Bryonia, Chelidonium Majus) Liquid [Energique, Inc.]

Updated Date: Dec 18, 2012 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Monday 17 December 2012

Circumstantial evidence for an increase in the total number and activity of borrelia-infected ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands

In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme disease has been on the rise since 1994. Here, we investigated whether the abundance of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with the Lyme spirochete has increased concomitantly. Image: Questing female Ixodes ricinus. Courtsey: Hans Smid (http://www.bugsinthepicture.com/). (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 17 December 2012

One Last Chance For APA To Make DSM 5 Safer

The vigorous opposition to the American Psychiatric Association's approval of DSM-5 suggests that it will lack credibility and will not gain widespread approval. I suggest four ways that DSM-5 can be revised to make it less risky and more usable in clinical practice.read more (Source: Psychology Today Anxiety Center)

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Thursday 13 December 2012

Director's Comments: Lyme Disease Recurrence Is a New Infection – Not a Relapse

Listen to the NLM Director's Comments on "Lyme Disease Recurrence Is a New Infection – Not a Relapse". The transcript is also available. Lyme disease’s recurrence is a new infection rather than a relapse, suggests research based on DNA sequencing recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine... (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)


Thursday 13 December 2012

Relating land cover and spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis in Belgium

(Source: International Journal of Environmental Health Research)


Wednesday 12 December 2012

---

This book is the ideal text for anyone wishing to develop a broad understanding of the subject of neuroimmunology. It is small enough to carry on the train, yet manages to cover a broad range of related topics with a surprising degree of detail. In the first few chapters, it offers an introduction to the basic principles of immunology, neurology and neuroimmunology, instantly making the book accessible to all comers to the field. It uses clever analogies to illustrate basic principles of how the immune and nervous systems interact to maintain health, and to describe how inappropriate levels of regulation can lead to disease. Further chapters go onto discuss some of the prototypical neuroimmunological diseases in detail, offering a structured approach to understanding these conditions. Part...


Monday 10 December 2012

CXCL13 may improve diagnosis in early neuroborreliosis with atypical laboratory findings

Conclusion: CXCL13 is a novel biomarker with high sensitivity and specificity for acute LNB. Our data show, that CXCL13 might be helpful in unclear cases and support the presumption that it might be a valuable tool for treatment monitoring. Anti-OspC antibody negativity is a rare observation, given the need of OspC for infection of the human hosts. Most likely this is due to a lack of sensitivity of OspC immunoblots that are unable to detect rare OspC variants. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)


Wednesday 5 December 2012

Baby makes miracle recovery after heart 'swelled to the size of a football'

The valves in Liam Dalgarno’s heart were so narrow that it caused severe pressure on the left side of his heart. The baby from Newcastle-under-Lyme needed risky surgery. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Wednesday 5 December 2012

Spatial spread and demographic expansion of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes in Eurasia.

Authors: Vollmer S, Feil EJ, Chu CY, Raper SL, Cao WC, Kurtenbach K, Margos G Abstract The Lyme borreliosis (LB) group of spirochaetes currently comprises 18 named species that vary in their geographic distribution, host specificity and ability to cause disease in humans. In Europe three species are most abundant, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia valaisiana but only two of these (B. garinii and B. afzelii) are regularly found in Asia as well. A recently published study has shown that Borrelia species associated with birds, such as B. garinii, showed limited geographic structuring between European countries while, the rodent associated species, B. afzelii, showed extensive spatial structuring in Europe. Here, we use multilocus sequence analysis to show that when the w...


Tuesday 4 December 2012

Why some strains of Lyme disease bacteria are common and others are not

(American Society for Microbiology) New clues about the bacteria that cause Lyme disease could lead to a novel strategy to reduce infections, according to a study to be published in mBio on Dec. 4. The study reveals that the immune system of the white-footed mouse, a very common reservoir for the bacteria that causes the disease responds differently to different strains of the bacterium, a finding that will help scientists tweak the animals' immune systems to prevent spread of infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Saturday 1 December 2012

[Indolent lymphoma of the ear].

DISCUSSION: CD8+ indolent lymphoma is an entity first described in 2007 and reported in the literature in 15 patients. Lesions are located on the nose or external ear. It comprises a non-epidermotropic proliferation of CD8+ T lymphocytes negative for CD4, CD30, CD56, CD57, granzyme B and perforin. The Mib1 proliferation index is low. This new entity appears neither in the 2005 World Health Organization/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO/EORTC) classification of cutaneous lymphomas nor in the WHO 2008 Classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Surgical treatment or radiotherapy is sufficient, and unlike aggressive, epidermotropic CD8+ T lymphomas chemotherapy is not required. PMID: 23237280 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annales de Der...

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Saturday 1 December 2012

Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Three Clustered Cases Co‐Infected with Lyme Disease and Rickettsioses

We reported three related female patients admitted at Beijing Ditan Hospital from October to December 2010. They had similar epidemiological histories. At the beginning, they only got a single diagnosis, respectively, but after specific screenings, the final diagnoses were made. Because arthropods can harbour more than one disease‐causing agent, patients can be infected with more than one pathogen at the same time, so the possibility of co‐infection could be higher than what was thought previously. These observations suggested that clinicians should enhance the complete screening of arthropod‐related infectious diseases so as to make an accurate diagnosis and to avoid diagnostic errors. (Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)


Saturday 1 December 2012

Livid erythematous patches on the trunk in Lyme borreliosis

(Source: JDDG)


Friday 30 November 2012

Emerging vector-borne diseases create new public health challenges

(University of California - Santa Cruz) West Nile virus, Lyme disease, dengue fever, and plague are examples of "vector-borne zoonotic diseases," caused by pathogens that naturally infect wildlife and are transmitted to humans by vectors such as mosquitoes or ticks. Land-use change, globalization of trade and travel, and social upheaval are driving the emergence of such diseases in many regions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 29 November 2012

Chronic Lyme; diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

In this review, we aim to discuss the definition, clinical and laboratory features, diagnostics, and management of chronic Lyme. Chronic Lyme is a rare condition caused by long‐lasting and ongoing infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). The most common manifestations are progressive encephalitis, myelitis, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans with or without neuropathy, and arthritis. Chronic Lyme is not considered to present with isolated subjective symptoms. Direct detection of Bb has low yield in most manifestations of chronic Lyme, while almost 100% of the cases are seropositive, that is, have detectable Bb IgG antibodies in serum. Detection of Bb antibodies only with Western blot technique and not with ELISA and detection of Bb IgM antibodies without simultaneous det...


Wednesday 28 November 2012

Zoonotic Transmission of Pathogens by Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania.

Authors: Paduraru OA, Buffet JP, Cote M, Bonnet S, Moutailler S, Paduraru V, Femenia F, Eloit M, Savuta G, Vayssier-Taussat M Abstract TO THE EDITOR: The Ixodes ricinus tick is a predominant vector of a large variety of pathogens of veterinary and medical consequence in Europe (1). The most prevalent I. ricinus-borne infection of persons in Europe is Lyme borreliosis, a multisystemic disorder caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (2). Persons bitten by ticks can also become infected with many other pathogens, such as bacteria (Anaplasma spp., Francisella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., Rickettsiae spp., and Neoerhlichia mikurensis); parasites (Babesia spp., Theileria spp.); and arboviruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo hemorr...


Monday 26 November 2012

Immunetics, Inc. Names John Yonkin as CEO

BOSTON, Nov. 26, 2012 (HSMN NewsFeed) -- Immunetics, Inc., an innovative developer of state-of-the-art assay technology for infectious disease diagnosis and blood screening, today announced that the company's Board of Directors has appointed John Yonkin ... Diagnostics, PersonnelImmunetics, BacTx, Lyme disease, Babesiosis, Chagas disease (Source: HSMN NewsFeed)


Friday 23 November 2012

Biodiversity and disease: a synthesis of ecological perspectives on Lyme disease transmission.

Authors: Wood CL, Lafferty KD Abstract Recent reviews have argued that disease control is among the ecosystem services yielded by biodiversity. Lyme disease (LD) is commonly cited as the best example of the 'diluting' effect of biodiversity on disease transmission, but many studies document the opposite relationship, showing that human LD risk can increase with forestation. Here, we unify these divergent perspectives and find strong evidence for a positive link between biodiversity and LD at broad spatial scales (urban to suburban to rural) and equivocal evidence for a negative link between biodiversity and LD at varying levels of biodiversity within forests. This finding suggests that, across zoonotic disease agents, the biodiversity-disease relationship is scale dependent and com...

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Thursday 22 November 2012

Changes in Borrelia burgdorferi ELISA antibody over time in both antibiotic treated and untreated horses.

The objective of this study was to compare Borrelia ELISA antibody concentrations in naturally exposed horses both before and following antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease. A retrospective study was performed comparing oxytetracycline- or doxycyclinetreated (n = 68) and untreated (n = 183) horses from a single equine practice and their change in Borrelia ELISA values over a similar time period. Antibiotictreated horses had a decline in ELISA values in comparison to control horses (P ≤ 0.05) and untreated horses were twice as likely to have their ELISA values increase (OR = 0.5; 95% C.I. = 0.3-0.9) compared to treated horses. The magnitude of the decline in ELISA units following treatments was small compared to that previously reported in experimentally infected and treated ponies. Fiel...


Wednesday 21 November 2012

Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards

Ixodes ricinus abundances and Borrelia prevalences at three biotopes in the Siebengebirge, Germany, compared with data from previous studies, revealed increasing abundances since 1987. Prevalences did not increase simultaneously, but the number of multiple Borrelia infections in ticks rose. Image: Galio-Fagetum typicum biotope and Ixodes ricinus at the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Friday 16 November 2012

PodMed: A Medical News Roundup from Johns Hopkins (with audio)

(MedPage Today) -- This week's topics include steroid injections for sciatica, fungal injection following steroid injection, probiotics for Clostridium difficile infection, and recurrent versus relapsing Lyme disease. (Source: MedPage Today Pain Management)


Thursday 15 November 2012

Lyme Rash Reappearance Probably Signals New Infection, Study Says

Title: Lyme Rash Reappearance Probably Signals New Infection, Study SaysCategory: Health NewsCreated: 11/14/2012 6:36:00 PMLast Editorial Review: 11/15/2012 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)


Thursday 15 November 2012

Second cases of Lyme rash are often reinfection

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - When the bulls-eye-shaped rash of Lyme disease reappears many months after treatment, the source is almost certainly a new tick bite and not a resurgence of the original infection, according to a new analysis of 17 patients. (Source: Modern Medicine)

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Thursday 15 November 2012

Recurring Lyme Disease Symptoms Caused by New Infection, Study Finds

Research comparing the genetic signatures of Lyme bacteria in people who had the disease more than once challenges the notion that it has a tendency to turn into a chronic illness. (Source: NYT Health)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

Lyme Disease Recurrences May Be Reinfections, Not RelapsesLyme Disease Recurrences May Be Reinfections, Not Relapses

Repeat episodes of Lyme disease (erythema migrans) in antibiotic-treated patients result from reinfection and not relapse. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

Second cases of Lyme rash are often reinfection

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - When the bulls-eye-shaped rash of Lyme disease reappears many months after treatment, the source is almost certainly a new tick bite and not a resurgence of the original infection, according to a new analysis of 17 patients. (Source: Reuters: Health)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

New Infection, Not Relapse, Brings Back Symptoms of Lyme Disease, Study Finds

Research comparing the genetic signatures of Lyme bacteria in people who had the disease more than once challenges the notion that it has a tendency to turn into a chronic illness. (Source: NYT Health)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

Reinfection versus Relapse in Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 367, Issue 20, Page 1950-1951, November 2012. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)

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Wednesday 14 November 2012

Differentiation of Reinfection from Relapse in Recurrent Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 367, Issue 20, Page 1883-1890, November 2012. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

Lyme Rash Reappearance Probably Signals New Infection, Study Says

It's even more likely when bull's-eye rash shows up on different part of body Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Antibiotics, Lyme Disease (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

Repeat Lyme Is Reinfection, Not Relapse (CME/CE)

(MedPage Today) -- All patients successfully treated for Lyme disease with antibiotics who then had another episode of erythema migrans had a reinfection rather than a relapse, a small study showed. (Source: MedPage Today Rheumatology)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

Newly Emerging Tick-Borne Afflictions Challenge Scientists To Improve Diagnosis And Surveillance

An emerging tick-borne disease that causes symptoms similar to malaria is expanding its range in areas of the northeast where it has become well-established, according to new research presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Researchers from the Yale School of Public Health reported that from 2000 to 2008, cases of babesiosis - which invades red blood cells and is carried by the same tick that causes Lyme disease - expanded from 30 to 85 towns in Connecticut... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Wednesday 14 November 2012

Recurrent Lyme Disease Rash in Treated Patients Usually Due to Reinfection, Not Relapse

(Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

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Tuesday 13 November 2012

Disseminated Lyme Borreliosis preceded by hepatitis in an African American male.

Authors: Fathi R, Huang WW, Brown K Abstract Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States and has a multitude of systemic effects. Infrequently, however, Lyme disease is seen to cause liver dysfunction. Dermatologists should be aware that early, disseminated borreliosis can present with multiple erythema migrans plaques and hepatitis. PMID: 23122011 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Dermatol Online J)


Tuesday 13 November 2012

Tick-Borne Illnesses in U.S. Move Beyond Lyme Disease

Title: Tick-Borne Illnesses in U.S. Move Beyond Lyme DiseaseCategory: Health NewsCreated: 11/12/2012 12:36:00 PMLast Editorial Review: 11/13/2012 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)


Tuesday 13 November 2012

Murine Borrelia arthritis is highly dependent on ASC and caspase-1, but independent of NLRP3

An early murine Lyme arthritis model using intra-articular injection of live B.burgdorferi demonstrates that induction of Lyme arthritis is strongly dependent on IL-1β production, suggesting IL-1 may be a future therapeutic target. (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)


Monday 12 November 2012

Tick-Borne Illnesses in U.S. Move Beyond Lyme Disease

Malaria-like babesiosis has gained traction in Northeast, researchers say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Monday 12 November 2012

Increased IFNα activity and differential antibody response in patients with a history of Lyme disease and persistent cognitive deficits

In this study, a longitudinal analysis of specific immune markers of interest was carried out in patients with a history of Lyme disease and persistent objective memory impairment, prior to and following treatment with either ceftriaxone or placebo. IFNα activity was measured by detection of serum-induced changes in specific target genes, using a functional cell-based assay and quantitative real-time PCR. Level and pattern of antibody reactivity to brain antigens and to Borrelia burgdorferi proteins were analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting. Sera from the patient cohort induced significantly higher expression of IFIT1 and IFI44 target genes than those from healthy controls, indicating increased IFNα activity. Antibody reactivity to specific brain and borrelial proteins was significantly ...


Sunday 11 November 2012

Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic by David Quammen – review

Killer organisms and viruses that jump from animal to human are tracked down in this forensic studyLet's not beat around the bush. This is an extraordinary book. David Quammen has woven a story of incredible complexity; a detective story with a difference, with a host of murderers – all of them real. They are viruses, bacteria and single-celled organisms which infect other animals, but every now and then make the jump – spill over – to our own species. Each chapter follows the quest to track down a new villain. An international team of detectives works on the cases, and Quammen follows them as they uncover the traces which will lead them to the killers.After an opening chapter about a horrific virus which lays low horses and humans, the Ebola virus emerges through a dark tale, with p...


Thursday 8 November 2012

Borrelia burgdorferi infection and Lyme disease in children

Summary: Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that frequently affects children. It is caused by a group of related spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, that are transmitted by ticks belonging to species of the genus Ixodes. The clinical characteristics of Lyme disease in pediatrics resemble those observed in adults, although the symptoms may last for a shorter time and the outcome may be better. However, identifying Lyme disease in children can be significantly more difficult because some of its signs and symptoms can be similar to those of other common pediatric clinical manifestations. Finally, the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to childhood Lyme disease is frequently not codified, and guidelines specifically prepared for adults are used for children without having been va...

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Thursday 8 November 2012

Lyme disease in the state of Tocantins, Brazil: report of the first cases.

Authors: Carranza-Tamayo CO, Costa JN, Bastos WM Abstract Lyme disease is an underdiagnosed zoonosis in Brazil. There are no cases registered in the state of Tocantins, the newest Brazilian state. The cases of three patients in contact with rural areas in three Tocantins' districts are herein described, and the Brazilian literature is reviewed. PMID: 23141972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)


Wednesday 7 November 2012

Acetate supplementation reduces microglia activation and brain interleukin-1beta levels in a rat model of Lyme neuroborreliosis

Conclusions: These results suggest that microglial activation is an essential component to neuroborreliosis and that acetate supplementation may be an effective treatment to reduce injury phenotype and possibly injury progression in Lyme neuroborreliosis. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)


Wednesday 7 November 2012

Acetate supplementation reduces microglia activation and brain interleukin-1beta levels in a rat model of Lyme neuroborreliosis

Conclusions: These results suggest that microglial activation is an essential component to neuroborreliosis and that acetate supplementation may be an effective treatment to reduce injury phenotype and possibly injury progression in Lyme neuroborreliosis. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)


Monday 5 November 2012

FDA warns Tennessee company that online product claims violate federal law

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today issued a Warning Letter to The Avalon Effect Inc., a company based in Franklin, Tenn., for its marketing of a light therapy product that claims to cure or treat symptoms of fungal meningitis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), concussions, Lyme disease, and other diseases. (Source: Food and Drug Administration)


Monday 5 November 2012

Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Italian horses.

Authors: Ebani VV, Bertelloni F, Pinzauti P, Cerri D Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy horses living in 7 provinces of central Italy. In the period 2007-2009, sera from 386 horses were tested by microagglutination test (MAT) to detect antibodies to Leptospira spp., employing the following serovars as antigens: Bratislava, Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Pomona, Tarassovi. 3 animals were positive for the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, 2 to Bratislava, and 1 to Pomona, for a total 1.5% seroprevalence. All sera were examined by immunofluorence antibody test (IFAT) to reveal anti-B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies. 94 (24.3%) horses were positive with antibody titr...


Monday 5 November 2012

Seroprevalence of Lyme disease and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients diagnosed with borreliosis in the Province of Warmia-Masuria in north-eastern Poland.

Authors: Kubiak K, Dzika E, Równiak J, Dziedziech M, Dzisko J Abstract Between 2009-2010, a group of 259 patients suspected of contracting Lyme disease were examined in the Provincial Sanitary-Epidemiological Station in Olsztyn for the presence of IgM and IgG against specific Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies antigens by immunoblot. A total of 27.4% and 29.0% of the blood serum samples showed positive and uncertain results for IgM and IgG antibodies. The majority of positive and uncertain results were found in patients aged 30-40 years (30%) for IgM, and people aged 50 and over (35.8%) for IgG. Significantly more positive results for IgG were found in males (40.2%) then females (19.7%). In both groups, similar proportions of positive results for IgM anti-Borrelia ...

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Friday 2 November 2012

New Tick Disease In Switzerland

Until now, we knew that ticks primarily transmit two pathogens to humans in Switzerland: the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi - which causes borreliosis - and the early-summer-meningoencephalitis virus, which can cause cerebral inflammation. Now, microbiologists from the University of Zurich confirm the existence of another tick disease in Switzerland - neoehrlichiosis. The pathogenic bacteria Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was first discovered in ticks and rodents in Europe and Asia in 1999... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Thursday 1 November 2012

A novel iron‐ and copper‐binding protein in the Lyme disease spirochaete

Summary Iron and copper are transition metals that can be toxic to cells due to their abilities to react with peroxide to generate hydroxyl radical. Ferritins and metallothioneins are known to sequester intracellular iron and copper respectively. The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi does not require iron, but its genome encodes a ferritin‐like Dps (DNA‐binding protein from starved bacteria) molecule, which has been shown to be important for the spirochaete's persistence in the tick and subsequent transmission to a new host. Here, we show that the carboxyl‐terminal cysteine‐rich (CCR) domain of this protein functions as a copper‐binding metallothionein. This novel fusion between Dps and metallothionein is unique to and conserved in all Borrelia species. We term this mole...


Thursday 1 November 2012

Reinfection Likely Spur of Repeat Lyme

When erythema migrans recurs a year or more after standard courses of antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease, it most likely represents a reinfection from another tick bite, not a relapse of the first infection, according to a report. (Source: Rheumatology News International)


Wednesday 31 October 2012

Bartonella spp. Bacteremia and Rheumatic Symptoms in Patients from Lyme Disease-endemic Region.

Authors: Ben Beard C, Nelson CA, Mead PS, Petersen LR Abstract TO THE EDITOR: We believe the recent article by Maggi et al. (1) contains serious flaws in content and underlying message, including a poorly defined study population, lack of appropriate controls, improper use of the term bacteremia, and incongruent laboratory findings. Selection criteria were vague: the authors state only that participants were a "biased" collection of "patients selected by a rheumatologist," with no control population included for comparison. The diagnosis of Lyme disease and other previously diagnosed conditions was solely by self-report. Although blood samples were collected from every participant, the authors apparently neglected to perform standardized testing for Borrelia burgdorferi or other co...

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Tuesday 30 October 2012

Lyme disease: aetiopathogenesis, factors for disease development and control

Abstract  Lyme disease is caused by infection with several genospecies from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, and is transmitted by ixodid ticks. Human disease is an infrequent sequel to infection, which suggests that multiple factors underlie disease development. Several innate immune defects modulating disease development are observed in both natural and experimental infections, and significant heterogeneity exists between B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochaetes. These factors create a panel of presentations from asymptomatic carriage to overt and variable disease. In this short review we summarise the host immune responses associated with Lyme disease in humans, domestic species and laboratory mouse strains, and discuss B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogenicity. We also...


Tuesday 30 October 2012

New Technique Enables Scientists To Step Up Hunt For Bacterial Genes Tied To Lyme Disease

Investigators at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have accelerated the search for the bacterial genes that make the Lyme disease bacterium so invasive and persistent. The discovery could advance the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, which affects an estimated 30,000 Americans each year. The researchers have developed a new technique that allowed them to test 15 times more bacterial genes than had been evaluated in the previous 30 years to ascertain their roles in infection... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Monday 29 October 2012

Management of paediatric Lyme disease in non-endemic and endemic areas: data from the Registry of the Italian Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Abstract  The purpose of this investigation was to determine how specialists in paediatric infectious diseases (PIDs) manage children with suspected Lyme disease (LD) by comparing their approaches in Italian endemic and non-endemic areas. A cross-sectional survey of the PID specialists participating in the Italian Society for Pediatric Infectious Disease (SITIP) Registry of LD was carried out between 1 January and 30 April 2012. A total of 160 children (80 living in endemic areas and 80 living in non-endemic areas) were diagnosed as having LD between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011. The clinical manifestations were erythema migrans in 130 cases (81.3 %), arthritis in 24 (15.0 %) and neuroborreliosis in six (3.8 %). Significant differences from the recomme...


Monday 29 October 2012

[Should a lumbar puncture be performed in any child with acute peripheral facial palsy and clinical suspicion of Lyme borreliosis?]

Authors: Blin-Rochemaure N, Quinet B Abstract Lyme borreliosis should be considered in any child affected with acute peripheral facial palsy without obvious cause in endemic areas, especially if it happens from May to November, with a history of erythema migrans, tick bite, or possible exposure during the previous weeks. The clinical appearance of Lyme borreliosis differs between adults and children and according to the geographical origin of the infection: therefore it is difficult to interpret and follow the recommendations for the management and treatment of this disease. Neuroborreliosis is more frequent in Europe than in the United States, and meningitis associated to facial palsy occurs earlier and is more frequent among the European pediatric population, too. When peripheral...


Friday 26 October 2012

Scientists step up hunt for bacterial genes tied to Lyme disease

(University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston) Lyme disease is a bacterial illness that affects tens of thousands. It can lead to abnormalities in the nervous system, heart and joints. New research into the bacterium's genetic makeup could advance the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of the disease. A preclinical study by scientists at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston appears in the journal PLOS ONE. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)

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Thursday 25 October 2012

Scientists step up hunt for bacterial genes tied to lyme disease

Lyme disease is a bacterial illness that affects tens of thousands. It can lead to abnormalities in the nervous system, heart and joints. New research into the bacterium’s genetic makeup could advance the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of the disease. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Thursday 25 October 2012

The musculoskeletal abnormalities of the Simulaun Iceman (“ÖTZI”): clues to chronic pain and possible treatments

Conclusions  These observations highlight several diagnostic features of musculoskeletal conditions in the Iceman with the possibility that tattoos may have been used for diagnosis or location of his painful states. The origins of his musculoskeletal conditions are unclear but there are indications that Lyme disease and CHD may have been factors. The associations or use of natural products may give insights into their applications at the time of the life of the Iceman. Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Research ArticlePages 1-10DOI 10.1007/s10787-012-0153-5Authors Walter F. Kean, Division of Rheumatology, McMaster University, 401-1 Young Street, Hamilton, ON L8N1T8, CanadaShannon Tocchio, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg, USAMary Kean, ...


Thursday 25 October 2012

The musculoskeletal abnormalities of the Similaun Iceman (“ÖTZI”): clues to chronic pain and possible treatments

Conclusions  These observations highlight several diagnostic features of musculoskeletal conditions in the Iceman with the possibility that tattoos may have been used for diagnosis or location of his painful states. The origins of his musculoskeletal conditions are unclear but there are indications that Lyme disease and CHD may have been factors. The associations or use of natural products may give insights into their applications at the time of the life of the Iceman. Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Research ArticlePages 1-10DOI 10.1007/s10787-012-0153-5Authors Walter F. Kean, Division of Rheumatology, McMaster University, 401-1 Young Street, Hamilton, ON L8N1T8, CanadaShannon Tocchio, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg, USAMary Kean, ...


Wednesday 24 October 2012

Vascular binding of a pathogen under shear force through mechanistically distinct sequential interactions with host macromolecules

Summary Systemic dissemination of microbial pathogens permits microbes to spread from the initial site of infection to secondary target tissues and is responsible for most mortality due to bacterial infections. Dissemination is a critical stage of disease progression by the Lyme spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi. However, many mechanistic features of the process are not yet understood. A key step is adhesion of circulating microbes to vascular surfaces in the face of the shear forces present in flowing blood. Using real‐time microscopic imaging of the Lyme spirochaete in living mice we previously identified the first bacterial protein (B. burgdorferi BBK32) shown to mediate vascular adhesion in vivo. Vascular adhesion is also dependent on host fibronectin (Fn) and glycosaminoglycans (G...


Monday 22 October 2012

Are magazines at the dentist a health risk? Publications 'can spread germs and should be thrown out after a week'

An NHS infection control worker advised Monica Symes, a dentist in Lyme Regis, Dorset, to throw out or recycle magazines because they could spread germs. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Wednesday 17 October 2012

Spirochetal ‘debris’ versus persistent infection in chronic Lyme disease: from semantics to science

Future Microbiology , November 2012, Vol. 7, No. 11, Pages 1243-1246. (Source: Future Microbiology)


Friday 12 October 2012

Single-tier testing with the C6 peptide ELISA kit compared with two-tier testing for Lyme disease

In conclusion, using a reference standard of 2-tier testing, the C6 ELISA as a single-step serodiagnostic test provided increased sensitivity in early Lyme disease with comparable sensitivity in later manifestations of Lyme disease. The C6 ELISA had slightly decreased specificity. Future studies should evaluate the performance of the C6 ELISA compared with 2-tier testing in routine clinical practice. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)


Monday 8 October 2012

Antibiotic retreatment of Lyme disease in patients with persistent symptoms: A biostatistical review of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials

Discussion: This biostatistical review reveals that retreatment can be beneficial. Primary outcomes originally reported as statistically insignificant were likely underpowered. The positive treatment effects of ceftriaxone are encouraging and consistent with continued infection, a hypothesis deserving additional study. Additional studies of persistent infection and antibiotic treatment are warranted. (Source: Contemporary Clinical Trials)


Monday 8 October 2012

Cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's biomarker profiles in CNS infections

Abstract  The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker profile in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased beta amyloid (Aβ1-42), increased total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau, respectively), which is a useful diagnostic tool and gives insight in the pathogenesis of AD. It is of importance to study how these biomarkers react in other CNS diseases; therefore, we decided to analyse amyloid and tau biomarkers in different CNS infections. We also included analysis of soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and -β). CSF Aβ1-42, sAPPα and -β, t-tau and p-tau were analysed in bacterial meningitis (n = 12), Lyme neuroborreliosis (n = 13), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (n = 10), HIV-associated dementia (HA...


Monday 8 October 2012

A novel human autoantigen, endothelial cell growth factor, is a target of T and B cell responses in patients with Lyme disease

Conclusion.T and B cell responses to ECGF occur in a subset of patients with Lyme disease, particularly in those with antibiotic‐refractory arthritis, providing the first direct evidence for autoimmune T and B cell responses in this illness. © 2012 American College of Rheumatology. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)

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Thursday 4 October 2012

Lyme disease: How a little tick can make you ill

Lyme disease — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment, complications of this tick-borne illness. (Source: MayoClinic.com Full Feed)


Monday 1 October 2012

Wild Birds and Urban Ecology of Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2005-2010.

Authors: Hamer SA, Goldberg TL, Kitron UD, Brawn JD, Anderson TK, Loss SR, Walker ED, Hamer GL Abstract Bird-facilitated introduction of ticks and associated pathogens is postulated to promote invasion of tick-borne zoonotic diseases into urban areas. Results of a longitudinal study conducted in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA, during 2005-2010 show that 1.6% of 6,180 wild birds captured in mist nets harbored ticks. Tick species in order of abundance were Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, and I. scapularis, but 2 neotropical tick species of the genus Amblyomma were sampled during the spring migration. I. scapularis ticks were absent at the beginning of the study but constituted the majority of ticks by study end and were found predominantly on birds captured in areas...


Monday 1 October 2012

A Novel Iron‐ and Copper‐Binding Protein in the Lyme Disease Spirochete

Summary Iron and copper are transition metals that can be toxic to cells due to their abilities to react with peroxide to generate hydroxyl radical. Ferritins and metallothioneins are known to sequester intracellular iron and copper, respectively. The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi does not require iron, but its genome encodes a ferritin‐like Dps (DNA‐binding protein from starved bacteria) molecule, which has been shown to be important for the spirochete's persistence in the tick and subsequent transmission to a new host. Here, we show that the carboxyl‐terminal cysteine‐rich (CCR) domain of this protein functions as a copper‐binding metallothionein. This novel fusion between Dps and metallothionein is unique to and conserved in all Borrelia species. We term this mole...


Thursday 27 September 2012

The unique paradigm of spirochete motility and chemotaxis.

Authors: Charon NW, Cockburn A, Li C, Liu J, Miller KA, Miller MR, Motaleb MA, Wolgemuth CW Abstract Spirochete motility is enigmatic: It differs from the motility of most other bacteria in that the entire bacterium is involved in translocation in the absence of external appendages. Using the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) as a model system, we explore the current research on spirochete motility and chemotaxis. Bb has periplasmic flagella (PFs) subterminally attached to each end of the protoplasmic cell cylinder, and surrounding the cell is an outer membrane. These internal helix-shaped PFs allow the spirochete to swim by generating backward-moving waves by rotation. Exciting advances using cryoelectron tomography are presented with respect to in situ analysis of...