Lyme Disease News & Current Medical Research

The latest publications of scientific medical research, articles and news on Lyme disease from many resources are automatically displayed here.

List of latest Lyme news and medical research

Tuesday 9 February 2016

Pilot Cross-Sectional Study of Three Zoonoses (Lyme Disease, Tularaemia, Leptospirosis) among Healthy Blood Donors in Eastern Slovakia.

CONCLUSIONS: ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. PMID: 26851418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Central European Journal of Public Health)

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Monday 8 February 2016

Researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease

A new bacterial species that causes Lyme disease in people has been identified by researchers. The new species has been provisionally named Borrelia mayonii. Prior to this finding, the only species believed to cause Lyme disease in North America was Borrelia burgdorferi. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 8 February 2016

Mayo researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease

(Mayo Clinic) Mayo Clinic researchers, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and health officials from Minnesota, North Dakota and Wisconsin, have discovered a new bacterial species that causes Lyme disease in people. The new species has been provisionally named Borrelia mayonii. Prior to this finding, the only species believed to cause Lyme disease in North America was Borrelia burgdorferi. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Monday 8 February 2016

Diagnostic Value of Recombinant Tp0821 Protein in Serodiagnosis for Syphilis

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology)


Sunday 7 February 2016

Mapping human risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in a periurban forest in France

The objective of our study was to provide a snapshot map of the risk of human infection with B. burgdorferi s. l. pathogens in a periurban forest at a high resolution, and to analyze the factors that contribute to variation in this risk. Field monitoring took place over three weeks in May 2011 in the suburban Sénart forest (3,200ha; southeast of Paris), which receives over 3 million people annually. We sampled ticks over the entire forest area (from 220 forest stands with a total area of 35,200 m2) and quantified the density of questing nymphs (DON), the prevalence of infection among nymphs (NIP), and the density of infected nymphs (DIN), which is the most important predictor of the human risk of Lyme borreliosis. For each of these response variables, we explored the relative roles of wea...


Friday 5 February 2016

Targeting Lyme disease

Did you know that deer ticks can live for up to 2 years and are able to survive in the winter? During the winter months, ticks can be active when temperatures increase to 35° F or higher. Learn how to protect your patients year round. (Source: Nursing Made Incredibly Easy)

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Friday 5 February 2016

[Winged scapula in lyme borreliosis].

Authors: Rausch V, Königshausen M, Gessmann J, Schildhauer TA, Seybold D Abstract Here we present the case of a young patient with one-sided winged scapula and lyme borreliosis. This disease can be very delimitating in daily life. If non-operative treatment fails, dynamic or static stabilization of the scapula can be a therapeutic option. PMID: 26849378 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Orthopade)


Thursday 4 February 2016

How 11 Top NYC Doctors Missed My Lyme Disease

A July 2014 wedding on Long Beach Island, New Jersey was the start of my nightmare. It was a beautiful weekend filled with love for two of our dearest friends who were, after 14 years together, finally legally able to marry. There was lobster and champagne and a crazy Gordon Gekko-style house on the beach. I sang a few songs, made a toast, and cried happy tears. I woke up two days later, back home in NYC, with a crushing head and neck ache. It was weird, but I figured I would sleep it off and be better in the morning. It took a few days, but I recovered. That Saturday, I got out of the shower and saw a faint red circular rash on my shoulder with a bug bite in the middle. My knees buckled. I called for my husband, Andy, "HUNNEEEE! I have LYME!" He really didn't think so. I banged on my...


Thursday 4 February 2016

Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment.

Authors: Omura Y, Lu D, Jones MK, Nihrane A, Duvvi H, Shimotsuura Y, Ohki M Abstract A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i.e. β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau Protein, Apolip...


Wednesday 3 February 2016

What the rise of Zika (and other viruses) might tell us about our planet

Follow me at @JohnRossMD Zika virus, a pathogen that was almost unknown a few months ago, is now rampant in Central and South America and the Caribbean. In Brazil, it has already infected about 1.5 million people and caused nearly 4,000 cases of microcephaly, a severe birth defect. It is almost certain to spread to every country in the Americas, except Canada and Chile, which lack the Aedes mosquitoes that spread Zika. Zika is not the only virus that has come from the tropics to menace the United States. Dengue, an unpleasant and potentially fatal viral infection, has broken out in Texas, Florida and Hawaii in the past 10 years. Chikungunya, a virus that can cause prolonged joint pain and ruin your vacation, has caused recent outbreaks in Florida, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A...

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Monday 1 February 2016

Why Are We Seeing an Explosion of New Viruses Like Zika?

Zika virus, Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, bird flu, swine flu -- these viruses have all grabbed international attention in recent years. In the past few decades the world has witnessed an alarming surge in emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Since 1980, new pathogens have emerged in the human population at a rate of about three each year. Why are we seeing such a surge in new pathogens? One could argue that some of the pathogens may not be new at all; they could have circulated among humans for centuries and are just being identified for the first time because of increased surveillance and reporting. While this is true in a small number of cases, a study found that even after co...


Friday 29 January 2016

Cell-free Expression of MraY Homologues and Mur Enzymes [Enzymology]

We report the efficient production of MraY homologues from various human pathogens by synthetic cell-free expression approaches and their subsequent characterization. MraY homologues originating from Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Escherichia coli as well as Bacillus subtilis were co-translationally solubilized using either detergent micelles or preformed nanodiscs assembled with defined membranes. All MraY enzymes originating from Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to detergents and required nanodiscs containing negatively charged lipids for obtaining a stable and functionally folded conformation. In contrast, the Gram-positive B. subtilis MraY not only tolerates detergent but is also less specific for its lipid environment. T...


Wednesday 27 January 2016

New way to detect human-animal diseases tested in lemurs

(Duke University) RNA sequencing is uncovering emerging diseases in wildlife that other diagnostic tests cannot detect. Researchers used a technique called transcriptome sequencing to screen for blood-borne diseases in Madagascar's lemurs, distant primate cousins to humans. The animals were found to be carrying several previously unknown parasites similar to those that cause Lyme disease in humans. The approach could pave the way for earlier, more accurate detection of disease outbreaks that move between animals and people. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Wednesday 27 January 2016

Next Generation Sequencing Reveals Restriction and Clonotypic Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Conclusions: Our data identified restriction and clonotypic expansions in the JIA Treg repertoire with sharing of Treg clonotypes across arthritis patients. These findings suggest that abnormalities in the Treg repertoire, possibly engendered by shared antigenic triggers, may contribute to disease pathogenesis in JIA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Tuesday 26 January 2016

Emma Horlock with Lyme disease forced to spend 22 HOURS a day in bed

Emma Horlock, 41, from Liverpool, thought she had MS when she found herself struggling to walk. But when tests came back negative, a laboratory in Germany found she had Lyme disease. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Sunday 24 January 2016

Tick iron and heme metabolism – New target for an anti-tick intervention

Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Ondrej Hajdusek, Radek Sima, Jan Perner, Gabriela Loosova, Adela Harcubova, Petr Kopacek Ticks are blood-feeding parasites and vectors of serious human and animal diseases. Ixodes ricinus is a common tick in Europe, transmitting tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, or babesiosis. Immunization of hosts with recombinant tick proteins has, in theory, the potential to interfere with tick feeding and block transmission of pathogens from the tick to the host. However, the efficacy of tick antigens has, to date, not been fully sufficient to achieve this. We have focused on 11 in silico identified genes encoding proteins potentially involved in tick iron and heme metabolis...


Friday 22 January 2016

Treat Lyme disease naturally without toxic antibiotic drugs

(NaturalNews) Lyme disease is a common, yet serious, problem for many regions of the United States. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease are documented by state health departments each year, with countless others going undiagnosed and... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Friday 22 January 2016

IgA nephropathy and infections.

Authors: Rollino C, Vischini G, Coppo R Abstract In this paper we concentrate on the role of infections in IgA nephropathy both from a pathogenetic and clinic point of view. The current hypotheses as regards the role of infections in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy are: (a) role of particular pathogens, (b) chronic exposure to mucosal infections, (c) abnormal handling of commensal microbes (gut microbiota). We also focus on particular infections reported in association with classic IgA nephropathy (HIV, malaria, Chlamydia, Lyme disease), as well as on IgA dominant-infection-associated glomerulonephritis. This is a unique form of glomerulonephritis, where IgA deposition is dominant. It is mostly recognized in old, diabetic patients and in association with staphylococcal infectio...

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Friday 22 January 2016

Lyme Disease

Occupational and environmental health nurses should educate workers about ways to prevent tick bites, which can cause Lyme disease. (Source: Workplace Health and Safety)


Friday 22 January 2016

First Molecular Evidence of Zoonotic Bacteria in Ticks in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This study reports the occurrence of emerging zoonotic bacteria in ticks from Bosnia and Herzegovina for the first time, indicating a public health threat to humans. Therefore, physicians and practitioners should be aware of the presence of these tick‐borne bacteria, especially when they are faced with acute febrile illnesses after tick exposure. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 21 January 2016

Ticks carrying Lyme disease found in half of U.S. counties

Stephen FellerATLANTA, Jan. 21 (UPI) -- Ticks carrying Lyme disease can now be found in half of counties in the United States, a significant increase over the last two decades. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)


Wednesday 20 January 2016

An Australian guideline on the diagnosis of overseas-acquired Lyme disease/borreliosis.

Authors: Lum GD, Hood JR, Wright P PMID: 26779732 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report)


Tuesday 19 January 2016

Lyme Disease Ticks Reported in Nearly 50% of All US Counties

Lyme disease is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and the range of these ticks is spreading, according to research published in the Journal of Medical Entomology. (Source: Disabled World)


Tuesday 19 January 2016

Blacklegged Ticks Found in Half of U.S. Counties

Annapolis, MD; January 19, 2016 -- Lyme disease is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and the range of these ticks is spreading, according to research published in the Journal of Medical Entomology. read more (Source: ESA News)


Monday 18 January 2016

Lyme-Causing Ticks Expand Their Range in U.S.

Residents in nearly half of all counties now at risk, CDC says (Source: WebMD Health)

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Monday 18 January 2016

Ticks carrying Lyme disease in almost half of U.S. counties

(Reuters Health) - Ticks that can spread Lyme disease now live in almost half of U.S. counties, according to a new study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (Source: Reuters: Health)


Monday 18 January 2016

Ticks that transmit Lyme disease reported in nearly half of all US counties

Lyme disease is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and the range of these ticks is spreading, according to new research. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 18 January 2016

Woman told for 12 YEARS her insomnia, tiredness and dizzy spells were due to depression discovers her body is ravaged with Lyme disease 

Vanessa Boyd, 28, of Dronfield, Derbyshire, began experiencing bizarre symptoms from the age of 16 and claims she saw at least 30 different health professionals. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Monday 18 January 2016

Ticks that carry Lyme Disease live in almost half of US counties – study

Black-legged tick inhabits twice as many counties as in 1998, CDC reports, with 320% increase in number of north-eastern counties seen as high risk for diseaseTicks that can carry the debilitating illness Lyme disease have significantly spread across the US over the past 20 years and are now found in nearly half of all American counties, including areas where they’ve never previously been documented, a new analysis has found. The black-legged tick is now established in twice the number of counties it inhabited in 1998, according to the US Centers for Disease Control, and has expanded its range in the northeastern states and the upper midwest. Following its onward march, or hop, across the Ohio river valley, western New York and the shores of Lake Michigan since the 1990s, there has been ...

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Monday 18 January 2016

Ticks that transmit Lyme disease reported in nearly half of all US counties

(Entomological Society of America) Lyme disease is transmitted by the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and the range of these ticks is spreading, according to research published in the Journal of Medical Entomology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)


Monday 18 January 2016

Tick iron and heme metabolism - new target for an anti-tick intervention

Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Ondrej Hajdusek, Radek Sima, Jan Perner, Gabriela Loosova, Adela Harcubova, Petr Kopacek Ticks are blood-feeding parasites and vectors of serious human and animal diseases. Ixodes ricinus is a common tick in Europe, transmitting tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease (borreliosis), anaplasmosis, or babesiosis. Immunization of hosts with recombinant tick proteins has, in theory, the potential to interfere with tick feeding and block transmission of pathogens from the tick to the host. However, the efficacy of tick antigens has, to date, not been fully sufficient to achieve this. We have focused on 11 in silico identified genes encoding proteins potentially involved in tick iron and heme...


Friday 15 January 2016

Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d’Ivoire

Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d’Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)


Thursday 14 January 2016

Management approaches for suspected and established Lyme disease used at the Lyme disease diagnostic center.

Authors: Wormser GP, McKenna D, Nowakowski J Abstract 2015 marks the 27th year that the Lyme Disease Diagnostic Center, located in New York State in the United States, has provided care for patients with suspected or established deer tick-transmitted infections. There are five deer tick-transmitted infectious in this geographic area of which Lyme disease is the most common.For patients with erythema migrans, we do not obtain any laboratory testing. However, if the patient is febrile at the time of the visit or reports rigors and high-grade fevers, we consider the possibility of a co-infection and order pertinent laboratory tests.Our preferred management for Lyme disease-related facial palsy and/or radiculopathy is a 2-week course of doxycycline. Patients who are hospitalized for Ly...


Wednesday 13 January 2016

Third-degree heart block as initial presentation of Lyme disease.

Authors: Shah P, Mithawala P, Bajaj S, Virk H, Bikkina M PMID: 26717231 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Cardiologica)

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Monday 11 January 2016

Man Diagnosed With ALS Dies of Lyme Disease (Part 1 of 2)

Tara and David Geraghty On Dec. 22, three days before Christmas, 55-year-old David A. Geraghty died from complications of a supposedly rarely fatal infection: Lyme disease. As reported in The Valley Breeze, a Lincoln, R.I. newspaper, Geraghty and his family found out conclusively that he has had Lyme disease just one year ago, last December. As was the case for me and is not uncommon in other cases of Lyme disease diagnoses, it was Geraghty and his wife -- not his physicians -- who pushed for investigation into the cause of his illness and ultimately were responsible for discovering that Lyme disease was at the root. Geraghty was diagnosed in 2013 with ALS, a degenerative and usually fatal neuromuscular disease. (ALS was briefly raised as a potential cause of my most severe symptoms years ...


Saturday 9 January 2016

Expanding the clinicopathological spectrum of late cutaneous Lyme borreliosis (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans [ACA]): A prospective study of 20 culture- and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-documented cases

The diagnosis of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA), the late cutaneous manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, can be challenging. Histologic changes in ACA have been described in a few studies from endemic countries, relying on cases documented by serology only. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)


Wednesday 6 January 2016

Lyme Neuroborreliosis: A Potentially Preventable Cause of Stroke

A 15-year-old boy presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies including bilateral facial nerve palsy, right-sided limb weakness, and cerebellar signs. Nine months previously, after a trip to the Scottish Highlands where he reported a discrete scalp rash, he began experiencing lethargy, anorexia, arthromyalgia, and headache. He attended his general practitioner 4 months into the course of this illness and was treated with a short course of oral azithromycin, following which symptoms transiently improved. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)


Wednesday 6 January 2016

Lyme disease-related intracranial hypertension in children: clinical and imaging findings

The objective of this study is to evaluate the history, clinical findings, CSF analysis, and brain imaging results in pediatric patients with increased intracranial pressure secondary to LD. A retrospective database search was performed using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9/10 codes to identify patients diagnosed with LD and IH between 2004 and 2014 at a tertiary referral pediatric hospital. Clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging data for each patient were reviewed. Seven patients met inclusion criteria; mean age was 9.6 years (standard deviation 4.0 years); 4/7 patients were male. Average body mass index was 18.8 kg/m2 (standard deviation 3.0 kg/m2). Fever was present in four patients. Four had a history of LD related erythema migrans. All had elevated CSF opening ...


Tuesday 5 January 2016

Bitten: A Patient With Tickborne Disease Struggles To Find The Right Provider [Narrative Matters]

For a patient with Lyme disease–like symptoms, the biggest challenge is finding a specialist who understands her condition. (Source: Health Affairs)

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Sunday 27 December 2015

Parry-Romberg syndrome: a case with a possible association with Lyme disease.

Authors: di Meo N, Stinco G, Nan K, Pinzani C, Trevisan G Abstract Parry-Romberg syndrome is an acquired slowly progressive disease characterized by an atrophy mostly involving half of the face. The pathogenesis of this disfiguring condition is still controversial. The relationship between Parry-Romberg syndrome and Lyme disease needs to be considered in depth. A 16-year-old woman from Albania presented with linear depressions of the right side of the face, clinically compatible with Parry-Romberg syndrome. She had a positive history of Lyme disease. Borrelia infection was confirmed by the positivity of PCR and the presence of IgM antibodies. The patient received intravenous penicillin and metronidazole for 14 days. After treatment and during a 2-year follow-up, the clinical diseas...


Friday 25 December 2015

Christmas, Grief, and Moving Forward After an Alzheimer's Diagnosis

The last time my mother and I stood near a Christmas tree together was December 2012. She was in the middle of a long battle with Chronic Lyme Disease and we had recently found out that she also had Alzheimer's. This dynamic cocktail of ailments left her unable to function as she used to -- as an entertainer, caregiver, and a joker. My mother and I were very close, and when she began showing signs of her disease I became extremely protective of her. A little more than 10 years prior my mother was very protective of me as I successfully battled Stage 3 Hodgkin's Disease -- cancer. This created a unique bond that seems to have literally given me the ability to feel her pain, shame and exhaustion. The Christmas season is my favorite time of year. Mainly because of all the amazing memories I ...


Wednesday 23 December 2015

Anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in neuronal cultures of dorsal root ganglia and myelinating cells of the peripheral nervous system

Conclusions: These data help further explain our in vivo findings of significantly reduced levels of inflammatory mediators, DRG-apoptosis, and lack of inflammatory neurodegenerative lesions in the nerve roots and DRG of Bb-infected animals that were treated with dexamethasone, but not meloxicam. Evaluating the role of the signaling mechanisms that contribute to the anti-inflammatory potential of dexamethasone in the context of LNB could serve to identify therapeutic targets for limiting radiculitis and axonal degeneration in peripheral LNB. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)


Tuesday 22 December 2015

Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2015; 69:1222-1227 "Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy"

Conclusion: The average value of flexibility of spirochetes’ surface expressed by Young’s modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young’s modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system. (Source: Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej)


Tuesday 22 December 2015

Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes persulcatus in Irkutsk City and its neighboring territories, Russia

Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Maxim A. Khasnatinov, Galina A. Danchinova, Ai Takano, Hiroki Kawabata, Norio Ohashi, Toshiyuki Masuzawa Adult Ixodes persulcatus were collected in highly populated districts in Irkutsk city, Russia, and/or in popular recreational and professional areas in its neighboring territories. Borrelia miyamotoi infection in I. persulcatus was examined using multiplex Taqman-PCR targeting 16S rDNA, and nested PCR and sequencing analyses targeting flaB and 16S rDNA. B. miyamotoi and Lyme disease Borrelia species were detected in 13 (infection rate, 2.9%) and 77 (17.3%) out of 445 I. persulcatus ticks, respectively, collected from 4 sites around the Baikal Lake. The 16S rDNA and flaB sequences ...

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Monday 21 December 2015

Distribution and survival of Borrelia miyamotoi in human blood components.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that B. miyamotoi can survive standard storage conditions of most human blood components, suggesting the possibility of transmission by blood transfusion. PMID: 26689144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transfusion)


Sunday 20 December 2015

Lyme Borreliosis: Is there a preexisting (natural) variation in antimicrobial susceptibility among Borrelia burgdorferi strains?

Authors: Hodzic E Abstract The development of antibiotics changed the world of medicine and has saved countless human and animal lives. Bacterial resistance/tolerance to antibiotics have spread silently across the world and has emerged as a major public health concern. The recent emergence of pan-resistant bacteria can overcome virtually any antibiotic and poses a major problem for their successful control. Selection for antibiotic resistance may take place where an antibiotic is present: in the skin, gut, and other tissues of humans and animals and in the environment. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis, evades host immunity and establishes persistent infections in its mammalian hosts. The persistent infection poses a challenge to the effective antibi...


Friday 18 December 2015

Impact of Spring Bird Migration on the Range Expansion of Ixodes scapularis Tick Population.

In this study, we develop a periodic delay meta-population model which takes into consideration the local landscape for tick reproduction within patches and the times needed for ticks to be transported by birds between patches. Assuming that the tick population is endemic in the source region, we find that bird migration may boost an already established tick population at the subsequent region and thus increase the risk to humans, or bird migration may help ticks to establish in a region where the local landscape is not appropriate for ticks to survive in the absence of bird migration, imposing risks to public health. This theoretical study reveals that bird migration plays an important role in the geographic range expansion of I. scapularis, and therefore our findings may suggest some str...

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Friday 18 December 2015

Multi-trophic interactions driving the transmission cycle of Borrelia afzelii between Ixodes ricinus and rodents: a review

The tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, in the western Palearctic. Rodents are the reservoir host of B. afzelii, which can be transmitted to I. ricinus larvae during a blood meal. The infected engorged larvae moult into infected nymphs, which can transmit the spirochaetes to rodents and humans. Interestingly, even though only about 1 % of the larvae develop into a borreliae-infected nymph, the enzootic borreliae lifecycle can persist. The development from larva to infected nymph is a key aspect in this lifecycle, influencing the density of infected nymphs and thereby Lyme borreliosis risk. The density of infected nymphs varies temporally and geographically and is influenced by multi-trophic (tick-...


Friday 18 December 2015

Serological and molecular evidence for Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in the Netherlands

In conclusion, our data show that B. burgdorferi s.l. and SFG rickettsiae co-infection occurs in Dutch I. ricinus and that Lyme borreliosis patients, or patients suspected of Lyme borreliosis, are indeed exposed to both tick-borne pathogens. Whether SFG rickettsiae actually cause disease, and whether co-infections alter the clinical course of Lyme borreliosis, is not clear from our data, and warrants further investigation. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Thursday 17 December 2015

Infectious aetiology of marginal zone lymphoma and role of anti-infective therapy

Marginal zone lymphomas have been associated with several infectious agents covering both viral and bacterial pathogens and in some cases a clear aetiological role has been established. Pathogenetic mechanisms are currently not completely understood, however the role of chronic stimulation of the host immune response with persistent lymphocyte activation represents the most convincing explanation for lymphoproliferation. Gastric MALT lymphoma is strictly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and various eradicating protocols, developed due to increasing antibiotic resistance, represent the first line therapy. The response rate to eradication is good with 80% of response at 1 year; this finding is also noteworthy because recapitulates a cancer cured only by antibacterial approach an...


Wednesday 16 December 2015

The generalist tick Ixodes ricinus and the specialist tick Ixodes trianguliceps on shrews and rodents in a northern forest ecosystem– a role of body size even among small hosts

Conclusions: Body mass was important for explaining load of I. ricinus mainly up to a body mass of ~10 g across a range of smaller mammalian hosts. Consistent with earlier work elsewhere in Europe, we found the highest tick infestation intensity on the wood mouse A. sylvaticus. However, this rodent species fed only 20.4 % of all I. ricinus larvae, while the much more abundant S. araneus fed 61.9 %. Our study emphasizes an important quantitative role of the common shrew S. araneus as a main host to I. ricinus larvae and to both I. trianguliceps larvae and nymphs. The partly seasonal distinct attachment pattern of I. ricinus and I. trianguliceps is evidence for niche separation. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 14 December 2015

Ben Baddeley desperate to walk made Christmas cards with his FEET to pay for physio

Ben Baddeley, 11, of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, is learning to walk unaided for the first time since having an operation to relieve muscle spasms caused by cerebral palsy. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Monday 14 December 2015

How to beat Lyme disease and keep enjoying the great outdoors

A surge in cases of the tick-borne infection Lyme disease has made some people wary of the countryside. But there’s no need to worry, if you take care‘To be honest,” enthuses Dr Tim Brooks, “it’s a fascinating disease.” As head of the Rare and Imported Pathogens laboratory at Public Health England, trying to solve the growing problem of Lyme disease (and other bugs, such as ebola) is his vocation. Lyme disease – a bacterial infection spread by infected ticks – is a particularly complex puzzle, with little reliable data available so far. It can appear in numerous forms, occasionally causing long-term neurological symptoms that could be mistaken for other conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or motor neurone disease.Following a surge in cases this year – th...


Monday 14 December 2015

"Lyme": Chronic Fatigue Syndrome by Another Name?

(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)

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Sunday 13 December 2015

Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi strains from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the southern England.

CONCLUSION: As a result of this study, antigenic differences have been seen between the UK isolates and the foreign isolates used as laboratory standards. PMID: 26191500 [PubMed] (Source: BioImpacts)


Saturday 12 December 2015

Clinical and diagnosis considerations of Lyme disease.

Authors: Ionescu D, Cotar AI, Bădescu D, Dumitriu S PMID: 24187811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology)


Saturday 12 December 2015

[Evaluation of 10 cases of Lyme disease presenting with erythema migrans in Istanbul, Turkey].

Authors: Akın Belli A, Derviş E, Özbaş Gök S, Midilli K, Gargılı A Abstract Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne, multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Although variable rates of seropositivity for B.burgdorferi have been reported between 2% to 44% in Turkey, its actual prevalence is not well-understood. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the characteristics of 10 cases of LD presenting as erythema migrans (EM) between 2009 and 2013 from Istanbul which is one of the metropolitan cities of Turkey. Of the patients, five were male and five were female, ages between 9-51 years (mean age: 34.5 years). Five of the patients were admitted in June, three in October, one in November and two in December and all have the history of tick bite in last 1-2 w...


Friday 11 December 2015

Comparison of detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA and anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patients with erythema migrans in north-eastern Poland.

CONCLUSIONS: Polymerase chain reaction of skin biopsy specimens seems to be currently the most sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of patients with EM, especially in patients with a short duration of the disease (< 14 days) but still its effectiveness is much lower than expected. Polymerase chain reaction of blood samples cannot be recommended at the present time for the routine diagnostic of patients with EM. PMID: 25821421 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Dermatology and Allergology)


Friday 11 December 2015

Sequential insults: acute Lyme disease with splenic infarction

After appropriate treatment was started for a patient’s most likely diagnosis, a surprising new finding prompted reevaluation. Previously healthy, the 39-year-old-man presented to his primary care clinic in early October after 7 days of progressive lower extremity myalgias, malaise, intermittent fevers, generalized headaches, rigors, and night sweats. He had no upper respiratory symptoms, abdominal pain, dysuria, diarrhea, rash, or arthralgias. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)

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Wednesday 9 December 2015

Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe

Publication date: Available online 9 December 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Veronika Rusňáková Tarageľová, Lenka Mahríková, Diana Selyemová, Radovan Václav, Markéta Derdáková Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, B. lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of th...



Monday 7 December 2015

Tick-Borne Disease Preventive Practices and Perceptions in an Endemic Area

Publication date: Available online 7 December 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Amber D. Butler, Tannaz Sedghi, Joann R. Petrini, Ramin Ahmadi Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Since the institution of Nationally Notifiable surveillance efforts for Lyme disease in the United States in 1991, there has been a consistent increase in the number of reported cases. Thus, the need for targeted prevention strategies is underscored. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge about tick-borne diseases as well as beliefs and practices related to a variety of personal tick-borne disease prevention methods among individuals in southwestern Connecticut, a Lyme disease-endemic area. Between June and September 2014, a...


Wednesday 2 December 2015

Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Scottish patients: a novel approach.

Authors: Mavin S, Watson EJ, Evans R Abstract Traditional two-tier (enzyme immunoassay [EIA] screening and Western blot confirmation) testing for the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is expensive, lacks sensitivity in the diagnosis of early LB, cannot distinguish between current and past infection and cannot be used as a marker for treatment response. The aims of the present study is to investigate the role of the C6 EIA as a screening assay, as part of two-tier EIA test strategy, and its use as a marker of treatment response or resolving infection in a routine diagnostic laboratory. The C6 EIA was significantly less sensitive than the Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE/IgG EIA (169/249 vs. 190/249 reactive sera, respectively; P = 0.0455, Fishers exact two-tailed test). The two-...

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Wednesday 2 December 2015

[Seropositivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in risky groups in Van region, Turkey].

Authors: Parlak M, Bayram Y, Çıkman A, Ceylan N, Berktaş M Abstract Lyme borreliosis, which is more prevalent in the northern hemisphere, is the most common tick-borne contagious disease among people living in the North America and Europe. The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by the bites of ticks of the genus Ixodes. In Turkey, the seroprevalence of Lyme disease is increased in regions where ticks and tick-bite cases are prevalent. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in people at risk, living in the rural areas of Van province, which is located in the eastern region of Turkey. No previous study on this topic has been performed in our province. The study included a total of 446 subjects (mean age: 3...


Wednesday 2 December 2015

This Scientist Says Your Fears About The Coming Genetic Engineering Revolution Are Overblown

This week, hundreds of scientists from around the world are descending on Washington D.C. for a three-day summit on a new technique that has spurred a major genetic revolution. Thanks to a gene-editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9, it is now not only possible, but easy, cheap and fast, to change, delete or replace genes in any plant or animal, including people. The range of hypothetical ways CRISPR could change our lives is staggering -- from creating wheat that is invulnerable to mildew to curing the world’s most intractable diseases. Anything that has DNA, which is to say, every living thing on earth, can now be more easily manipulated than ever before. When it comes to the human genome, especially, this raises fears as much as it raises hopes. You don’t have to dip that deep...


Wednesday 2 December 2015

The burden of Lyme borreliosis expressed in disability-adjusted life years

Conclusions: LB causes a substantial disease burden in the Netherlands. The vast majority of this burden is caused by patients with Lyme-related persisting symptoms. EM and disseminated Lyme have a more modest impact. Further research should focus on the mechanisms that trigger development of these persisting symptoms that patients and their physicians attribute to LB. (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)



Tuesday 1 December 2015

Appendix C: Practice Parameter: Diagnosis of Patients With Nervous System Lyme Borreliosis (Lyme Disease)

No abstract available (Source: CONTINUUM)

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Tuesday 1 December 2015

Lyme Neuroborreliosis

This article reviews clinical aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis, with focus on the United States. DISCLAIMER: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (Source: CONTINUUM)


Tuesday 1 December 2015

IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 15182-15203: GIS and Remote Sensing Use in the Exploration of Lyme Disease Epidemiology

Given the relatively recent recognition of Lyme disease (LD) by CDC in 1990 as a nationally notifiable infectious condition, the rise of reported human cases every year argues for a better understanding of its geographic scope. The aim of this inquiry was to explore research conducted on spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in order to identify strategies for implementing vector and reservoir-targeted interventions. The focus of this review is on the use of GIS-based methods to study populations of the reservoir hosts, vectors and humans in addition to the spatiotemporal interactions between these populations. New GIS-based studies are monitoring occurrence at the macro-level, and helping pinpoint areas of occurrence at the micro-level, where spread within populations of reservoir hosts...


Tuesday 1 December 2015

Will Culling White‐Tailed Deer Prevent Lyme Disease?

Summary White‐tailed deer play an important role in the ecology of Lyme disease. In the United States, where the incidence and geographic range of Lyme disease continue to increase, reduction of white‐tailed deer populations has been proposed as a means of preventing human illness. The effectiveness of this politically sensitive prevention method is poorly understood. We summarize and evaluate available evidence regarding the effect of deer reduction on vector tick abundance and human disease incidence. Elimination of deer from islands and other isolated settings can have a substantial impact on the reproduction of blacklegged ticks, while reduction short of complete elimination has yielded mixed results. To date, most studies have been conducted in ecologic situations that are not rep...


Tuesday 1 December 2015

Lyme disease associated neuroretinitis - Case report.

We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with blurred vision on her right eye. Because of the suspicion of optic neuritis (multiplex sclerosis) neurological examination was ordered. Surprisingly, computer tomography of the brain revealed incomplete empty sella, which generally results not monocular, but bilateral optic nerve swelling. Opthalmological examination (ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography) indicated not only monocular optic nerve, but retinal oedema next to the temporal part of the right optic disk. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) demonstrated no P100 latency delay and mild differences between the amplitudes of the responses of the left and right eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated the swelling of the optic nerve head and oedematous retina at the tempor...


Monday 30 November 2015

Distribution and presentation of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland - analysis of data from a national testing laboratory.

Conclusion The incidence of Lyme borreliosis may be stabilising in Scotland but NHS Highland remains an area of high incidence. Lyme borreliosis should be considered in symptomatic patients that have had exposure to ticks and not just those with a definite tick bite. PMID: 26517097 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh)

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Monday 30 November 2015

What are the Most Common Arboviruses in Children in the US?

Discussion Arboviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods (primarily mosquitos and ticks) to humans. Most infections are asymptomatic. Many others have mild symptoms such as an influenza-like illnesses. But for some patients they can cause neuroinvasive disease with meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Some patients also unfortunately die. Diagnosis is by serum or cerebrospinal fluid IgM antibody to the specific virus. Treatment is supportive only as there is no specific treatment and currently there are no vaccines for prevention. Mosquito bite and tick bite prevention are the best options for families and can be reviewed here. A systematic review of West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in adults showed those infected can have a lengthy recovery with many sequelae, p...


Monday 30 November 2015

What are the Most Common Arbovirus in Children in the US?

Discussion Arboviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods (primarily mosquitos and ticks) to humans. Most infections are asymptomatic. Many others have mild symptoms such as an influenza-like illnesses. But for some patients they can cause neuroinvasive disease with meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Some patients also unfortunately die. Diagnosis is by serum or cerebrospinal fluid IgM antibody to the specific virus. Treatment is supportive only as there is no specific treatment and currently there are no vaccines for prevention. Mosquito bite and tick bite prevention are the best options for families and can be reviewed here. A systematic review of West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in adults showed those infected can have a lengthy recovery with many sequelae, p...


Monday 30 November 2015

My Open Letter to Lyme Disease

Dear Lyme disease, I'm not angry. But I admit you made me miserable. You sneakily rushed through my veins. Anonymous, without a name, you tortured me for months. I didn't know who you were or where you came from. I would stare bleakly out my freshman dorm window, my eyes dull and my head throbbing. I blamed my school. During my first quarter at Northwestern University, my boyfriend and I broke up, my grandfather died, and I couldn't get out of bed for my morning classes. I reluctantly dropped a course after meeting with an adviser who thought I was struggling to acclimate to college. I was 850 miles from home and started to believe that I never should have left the East Coast. But Northwestern was the pennant on my corkboard at home; it was the sweatshirt my dad wore proudly to our local ...


Monday 30 November 2015

Diagnosing Septic Arthritis in the Synovial White Cell Count “Gray Zone”

Abstract Differentiating septic arthritis of the pediatric hip from other causes of hip pain and effusion continues to present a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Although septic arthritis traditionally has been reported to have a synovial white blood cell count of 75,000 cells/mm3 or greater, lower counts can be seen in this condition. In cases where a synovial sample has been obtained and the cell count falls in the intermediate range between 25,000 and 75,000 cells/mm3, it is unclear what proportion of these cases may be truly septic hips. In this evidence-based review, we examine Heyworth et al’s study focusing on the predictive value of this intermediate white cell count range in a Lyme-endemic region. (Source: HSS Journal)


Sunday 29 November 2015

Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)-clarithromycin as an anti-cancer agent.

Authors: Van Nuffel AM, Sukhatme V, Pantziarka P, Meheus L, Sukhatme VP, Bouche G Abstract Clarithromycin (CAM) is a well-known macrolide antibiotic available as a generic drug. CAM is traditionally used for many types of bacterial infections, treatment of Lyme disease and eradication of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori. Extensive preclinical and clinical data demonstrate a potential role for CAM to treat various tumours in combination with conventional treatment. The mechanisms of action underlying the anti-tumour activity of CAM are multiple and include prolonged reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, autophagy inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Here, we present an overview of the current preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical evidence supporting the role of ...

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Friday 27 November 2015

New, presumably tick-borne bacterium discovered in an Austrian fox

Ticks can transmit various diseases to people and animals. Some well-known diseases spread by ticks include tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme disease. Researchers are hot on the trail of pathogens carried by ticks. The parasitologists recently discovered a new form of the bacterium Candidatus Neoehrlichia in a red fox from the Austrian state of Vorarlberg. The pathogen might also be transmittable to humans, they warn. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Friday 27 November 2015

New and presumably tick-borne bacterium discovered in an Austrian fox

(University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna) Ticks can transmit various diseases to people and animals. Some well-known diseases spread by ticks include tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme disease. Researchers at the Vetmeduni Vienna are hot on the trail of pathogens carried by ticks. The parasitologists recently discovered a new form of the bacterium Candidatus Neoehrlichia in a red fox from Austrian. The pathogen might also be transmittable to humans. The results were published in the journal Parasites & Vectors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Wednesday 25 November 2015

Methodological quality of guidelines for management of Lyme neuroborreliosis

Background: Many aspects of clinical management of Lyme neuroborreliosis are subject to intense debates. Guidelines show considerable variability in their recommendations, leading to divergent treatment regimes. The most pronounced differences in recommendations exist between guidelines from scientific societies and from patient advocacy groups. Assessment of the methodological quality of these contradictory guideline recommendations can be helpful for healthcare professionals. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE and databases of four international and national guideline organizations for guidelines on Lyme neuroborreliosis published from 1999–2014. Characteristics (e.g., year of publication, sponsoring organization) and key recommendations were extracted from each gui...


Tuesday 24 November 2015

Long-term Assessment of Post-Treatment Symptoms in Patients With Culture-Confirmed Early Lyme Disease

Conclusions. PTLDS may persist for >10 years in some patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease. Such long-standing symptoms were not associated with functional impairment or a particular strain of B. burgdorferi. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Monday 23 November 2015

A tick that feeds on birds may increase the range of Lyme disease

(Entomological Society of America) A tick that is not known to bite people may play a role in the transmission of Lyme disease, according to an article in the Journal of Medical Entomology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)

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Monday 23 November 2015

Cross-reactivity between Lyme and syphilis screening assays: Lyme disease does not cause false-positive syphilis screens

This study supports the previously described cross-reactivity of Lyme screening among syphilis-positive sera and reports evidence against the possibility of false-positive syphilis screening tests resulting from previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)


Monday 23 November 2015

Ixodes scapularis dystroglycan-like protein promotes Borrelia burgdorferi migration from the gut

In conclusion, we have identified a dystroglycan-like protein in I. scapularis gut that can bind to B. burgdorferi and promotes B. burgdorferi migration from the tick gut. Key messages B. burgdorferi exploits tick proteins to orchestrate its transmission to the host. B. burgdorferi is able bind to an I. scapularis dystroglycan-like protein (ISDLP). Inhibition of ISDLP in ticks results in lower B. burgdorferi transmission to mice. ISDLP is a potential target to prevent Lyme borreliosis. (Source: Journal of Molecular Medicine)


Monday 23 November 2015

Monoclonal Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Borrelia crocidurae.

Authors: Aurélien FF, Mediannikov O, Nappez C, Azza S, Raoult D, Drancourt M Abstract Relapsing fever borreliae, produced by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species, cause mild to deadly bacteremia and miscarriage. In the perspective of developing inexpensive assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae, we produced 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Borrelia crocidurae and characterized the two exhibiting the highest titers. P3A10 MAb reacts with the 35.6-kDa flagellin B (flaB) of B. crocidurae while P6D9 MAb recognizes a 35.1-kDa variable-like protein (Vlp) in B. crocidurae and a 35.2-kDa Vlp in Borrelia duttonii. Indirect immunofluorescence assay incorporating relapsing fever and Lyme group borreliae and 11 blood-borne organisms responsible for fever in West Afr...


Monday 23 November 2015

Cross reactivity between Lyme and syphilis screening assays: Lyme disease does not cause false positive syphilis screens

This study supports the previously-described cross-reactivity of Lyme screening among syphilis-positive sera, and reports evidence against the possibility of false-positive syphilis screening tests resulting from previous Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)


Saturday 21 November 2015

Coinfection by Ixodes Tick-Borne Pathogens: Ecological, Epidemiological, and Clinical Consequences.

Authors: Diuk-Wasser MA, Vannier E, Krause PJ Abstract Ixodes ticks maintain a large and diverse array of human pathogens in the enzootic cycle, including Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti. Despite the poor ecological fitness of B. microti, babesiosis has recently emerged in areas endemic for Lyme disease. Studies in ticks, reservoir hosts, and humans indicate that coinfection with B. burgdorferi and B. microti is common, promotes transmission and emergence of B. microti in the enzootic cycle, and causes greater disease severity and duration in humans. These interdisciplinary studies may serve as a paradigm for the study of other vector-borne coinfections. Identifying ecological drivers of pathogen emergence and host factors that fuel disease severity in coinfected individua...

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Friday 20 November 2015

Lyme Disease Diagnosis

Serology is the mainstay of confirmation of Lyme borreliosis; direct detection has limited application. Because standardized 2-tier testing (STTT) has been commonly used since the mid 1990s, standardization and performance have improved. STTT detection of early, localized infection is poor; that of late disease is good. The best indicator of stage 1 infection, erythema migrans, is presented in the majority of US cases and should prompt treatment without testing. Clinical and epidemiologic correlates should be carefully assessed before ordering STTT. STTT has great value in confirming extracutaneous infection. Recent developments promise to improve performance, particularly in early disease detection. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)


Friday 20 November 2015

Friends from New York to Mexico make video for friend with Lyme disease

Chantelle Lewis, 31, from Falmouth, Cornwall, caught Lyme disease while working on a superyacht in the Caribbean. She cried 'the happiest tears' after receiving the supportive video. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Friday 20 November 2015

Gender Differences in Childhood Lyme Neuroborreliosis.

Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation. PMID: 26576072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Behavioural Neurology)


Friday 20 November 2015

Intermediate uveitis and multiple sclerosis: to scan or not to scan

The investigation and management of inflammatory eye disease is complex and relies on detailed history taking and examination. It is not therefore unexpected that many patients are over-investigated. A question that has caused much debate in the past is whether patients with intermediate uveitis (IU), particularly young Caucasian women with no neurological symptoms, should have routine neuroimaging to ‘screen’ for multiple sclerosis (MS). In this editorial, we discuss the key issues related to the clinical presentation of IU, its association with MS and the rationale for investigation; in particular, we put forward our view that neuroimaging should not be carried out as a screening tool for patients with IU. IU is the term given to inflammation, which has the vitreous as its fo...


Thursday 19 November 2015

Truncated seasonal activity patterns of the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in central and southern California

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Andrew J. MacDonald, Cheryl J. Briggs Patterns of seasonal activity and density of host-seeking western blacklegged ticks, Ixodes pacificus, were investigated in central and southern California. Weekly to monthly drag sampling was undertaken at two sites in Santa Barbara County and one site in Los Angeles County over multiple years. Adult I. pacificus became active in the winter (late November) and were rare or absent by late April to early May. Nymphal ticks became active in early to late February, were absent by early May to early June, and were rarely encountered using the drag method throughout their period of peak seasonal activity. Larval ticks became active earlier in the season, o...


Thursday 19 November 2015

Testing practices and volume of non-Lyme tickborne diseases in the United States

Publication date: Available online 30 October 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Neeta P. Connally, Alison F. Hinckley, Katherine A. Feldman, Melissa Kemperman, David Neitzel, Siok-Bi Wee, Jennifer L. White, Paul S. Mead, James I. Meek Large commercial laboratories in the United States were surveyed regarding the number of specimens tested for eight tickborne diseases in 2008. Seven large commercial laboratories reported testing a total of 2,927,881 specimens nationally (including Lyme disease). Of these, 495,585 specimens (17%) were tested for tickborne diseases other than Lyme disease. In addition to large commercial laboratories, another 1051 smaller commercial, hospital, and government laboratories in four states (CT, MD, MN, and NY) were surveyed regarding...


Thursday 19 November 2015

Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Christian Melaun, Sina Zotzmann, Vanesa Garcia Santaella, Antje Werblow, Helga Zumkowski-Xylander, Peter Kraiczy, Sven Klimpel Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Some stages of the borrelial transmission cycle in ticks (transstadial, feeding and co-feeding) can potentially occur also in insects, particularly in mosquitoes. In the present study, adult as well as larvae mosquitoes were collected at 42 different geographical locations throughout Germany. This is the first study, in which German mosquitoes were analysed for the presence of Borrelia spp. Targeting two specific borreli...

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Thursday 19 November 2015

Fine-scale genetic structure of woodrat populations (Genus: Neotoma) and the spatial distribution of their tick-borne pathogens

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Janet Foley, Daniel Rejmanek, Colin Foley, Marjorie Matocq Dusky-footed woodrats are territorial cricetid rodents that individually occupy large stick houses from which they foray to gather food, find mates, and engage in other activities. These rodents are often bitten by Ixodes spp. ticks and are reservoirs of some strains of tick-borne bacterial pathogens such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi. Limited dispersal by hosts and vectors could create fine-scale population structure where related hosts and pathogen exposure are co-distributed in space. To quantify population genetic structure and infection status, we genotyped 167 woodrats using a panel of 15 microsatel...


Thursday 19 November 2015

Assessing the abundance, seasonal questing activity, and Borrelia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland

Publication date: Available online 24 October 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Jani J. Sormunen, Tero Klemola, Eero J. Vesterinen, Ilppo Vuorinen, Jukka Hytönen, Jari Hänninen, Kai Ruohomäki, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Elina Tonteri, Ritva Penttinen Studies have revealed that Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) have become more abundant and their geographical distribution extended northwards in some Nordic countries during the past few decades. However, ecological data of tick populations in Finland are sparse. In the current study, I. ricinus abundance, seasonal questing activity, and their Borrelia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence were evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland, Seili Island, where a previous stu...


Wednesday 18 November 2015

Babesiosis and Lyme disease co-infection in a female patient returning from the United States.

Authors: Surgers L, Belkadi G, Foucard A, Lalande V, Girard PM, Hennequin C PMID: 26525187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses)

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Wednesday 18 November 2015

Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease [Immunoassays]

We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy cont...


Tuesday 17 November 2015

Why FDA should oversee laboratory developed tests

By: Peter Lurie, M.D., M.P.H. Today FDA is issuing a report that illustrates the real and potential harms to patients and to public health from certain laboratory developed tests (LDTs) – tests that are designed, manufactured and used in a single laboratory. When FDA first began regulating medical devices under the Medical Device Amendments in the 1970s, we chose not to enforce applicable regulatory requirements for LDTs because they were relatively simple tests generally confined to local labs, and often used for rare conditions. But times have changed. LDTs have increased in complexity and availability and are now frequently used to diagnose common, serious medical conditions, including cancer and heart disease, with potentially greater impact on patients. And yet, LDTs are still under...


Sunday 15 November 2015

A Systematic Approach to the Evaluation of a Limping Child.

Authors: Naranje S, Kelly DM, Sawyer JR Abstract A limp is defined as a deviation from a normal age-appropriate gait pattern resulting in an uneven, jerky, or laborious gait. It can be caused by pain, weakness, or deformity as a result of a variety of conditions. Transient synovitis is the most common diagnosis. Other causes of acute limp include contusion, foreign body in the foot, fracture, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and Lyme arthritis. Causes of chronic limp include rheumatic disease, dermatomyositis, acute rheumatic fever, inflammatory bowel disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Evaluation of a limping child should begin with a history focused on identifying pain, trauma, and associated systemic symptoms. For a limping child with focal findings on...


Friday 13 November 2015

Borrelial Lymphocytoma in Children

Conclusions: BL in children, treated with recommended antibiotics, is a mild disease with a good prognosis. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Friday 13 November 2015

Lyme disease sufferer Tahlia Smith had live parasites in her blood

Lyme disease sufferer Tahlia Smith, 21, from the New South Wales Hunter Region has flown to Germany to undergo controversial treatment where doctors found live parasites in her blood (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Friday 13 November 2015

Association of Immune Response to Endothelial Cell Growth Factor With Early Disseminated and Late Manifestations of Lyme Disease but Not Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

Endothelial cell growth factor has been recently proposed as a potential autoantigen in manifestations of Lyme disease that are thought to involve immune-mediated mechanisms. Our findings indicate that a humoral immune response to this protein is not associated with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 12 November 2015

BORRELIA BABESIA REMEDY (Babesia Microti, Borrelia Burgdorferi Nosode) Liquid [Deseret Biologicals, Inc.]

Updated Date: Nov 12, 2015 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Thursday 12 November 2015

Causes of neuropathy in patients referred as “idiopathic neuropathy”

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Muscle and Nerve)


Tuesday 10 November 2015

Is Lyme the New AIDS? Part Three: A Caution to Gay Men

Note: This is the third and final entry in a series about how my life has been devastated by Lyme disease. With the advent of PrEP and effective medical interventions for HIV, I am truly disturbed that gay men -- first, younger generations, but increasingly people my age who lived through the plague of AIDS -- increasingly are rejecting the use of condoms and feeling invulnerable to potential sexually transmitted infections. Although the CDC claims absolutely that Lyme disease cannot be transmitted sexually, objective scientific research and anecdotes of those whose partners have Lyme argue otherwise. You do not want Lyme disease. It will change your life for the worse, not only by potentially disabling you at too young an age, but by rendering you an untouchable to many primary care phys...

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Tuesday 10 November 2015

Lyme disease in Poland - A serious problem?

CONCLUSIONS: The reported incidence of LD in Poland, in our opinion, may be biased by overreporting and overdiagnosis. Nonspecific musculoskeletal and joint pain are the most frequent cause of LD suspicion and hospitalization. There is a necessity of better tests for active LD confirmation (especially in patients with musculoskeletal pain) as seroprevalence of anti Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies is high in endemic regions. PMID: 26641887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Advances in Medical Sciences)

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Tuesday 10 November 2015

Long-Term Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi Lacking the Hibernation Promotion Factor Homolog in the Unfed Tick Vector [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is a zoonotic pathogen that survives in nutrient-limited environments within a tick, prior to transmission to its mammalian host. Survival under these prolonged nutrient-limited conditions is thought to be similar to survival during stationary phase, which is characterized by growth cessation and decreased protein production. Multiple ribosome-associated proteins are implicated in stationary-phase survival of Escherichia coli. These proteins include hibernation-promoting factor (HPF), which dimerizes ribosomes and prevents translation of mRNA. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that B. burgdorferi harbors an hpf homolog, the bb0449 gene. BB0449 protein secondary structure modeling also predicted HPF-like structure and function. Howe...


Tuesday 10 November 2015

Outer Surface Protein OspC Is an Antiphagocytic Factor That Protects Borrelia burgdorferi from Phagocytosis by Macrophages [Molecular Pathogenesis]

In this study, we showed that the ospC-deficient spirochete could not establish infection in NOD-scid IL2rnull mice that lack B cells, T cells, NK cells, and lytic complement. The ospC mutant also could not establish infection in anti-Ly6G-treated SCID and C3H/HeN mice (depletion of neutrophils). However, depletion of mononuclear phagocytes at the skin site of inoculation in SCID and C3H/HeN mice allowed the ospC mutant to establish infection in vivo. In phagocyte-depleted mice, the ospC mutant was able to colonize the joints and triggered neutrophilia during dissemination. Furthermore, we found that phagocytosis of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ospC mutant spirochetes by murine peritoneal macrophages and human THP-1 macrophage-like cells, but not in PMN-HL60, was significantl...


Tuesday 10 November 2015

Lyme disease in Poland – A serious problem?

Conclusions The reported incidence of LD in Poland, in our opinion, may be biased by overreporting and overdiagnosis. Nonspecific musculoskeletal and joint pain are the most frequent cause of LD suspicion and hospitalization. There is a necessity of better tests for active LD confirmation (especially in patients with musculoskeletal pain) as seroprevalence of anti Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies is high in endemic regions. (Source: Advances in Medical Sciences)


Tuesday 10 November 2015

Lyme disease and juvenile idiopathic arthritis – a pediatric case report

Discussion In this case, the resolution of cutaneous symptoms and the persistence of chronic arthritis suggest that the strong likelihood of infection by Borrelia has triggered Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia)


Monday 9 November 2015

Model Jessica Bennett left bed bound after medics failed to diagnose Lyme disease

Jessica Bennett, 31, of Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, suffered seizures, speech problems, hair loss, chronic insomnia and severe bloating due to Lyme disease she caught from a tick. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Wednesday 4 November 2015

Quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi Membrane Proteins in Human Serum: A New Concept for Detection of Bacterial Infection

Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b02803 (Source: Analytical Chemistry)


Wednesday 4 November 2015

Application of Nanotrap technology for high sensitivity measurement of urinary outer surface protein A carboxyl-terminus domain in early stage Lyme borreliosis

ObjectivesPrompt antibiotic treatment of early stage Lyme borreliosis (LB) prevents progression to severe multisystem disease. There is a clinical need to improve the diagnostic specificity of early stage Lyme assays in the period prior to the mounting of a robust serology response. Using a novel analyte harvesting nanotechnology, Nanotrap particles, we evaluated urinary Borrelia Outer surface protein A (OspA) C-terminus peptide in early stage LB before and after treatment, and in patients suspected of late stage disseminated LB.MethodWe employed Nanotrap particles to concentrate urinary OspA and used a highly specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a detector of the C-terminus peptides. We mapped the mAb epitope to a narrow specific OspA C-terminal domain OspA236-239 conserved acr...


Wednesday 4 November 2015

A Highly Expressed Human Protein, Apolipoprotein B-100, Serves as an Autoantigen in a Subgroup of Patients With Lyme Disease

To discover novel autoantigens associated with Lyme arthritis (LA), we identified T-cell epitopes presented in vivo by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)–DR molecules in patients' inflamed synovial tissue or joint fluid and tested each epitope for autoreactivity. Using this approach, we identified the highly expressed human protein, apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100), as a target of T- and B-cell responses in a subgroup of LA patients. Additionally, the joint fluid of these patients had markedly elevated levels of apoB-100 protein, which may contribute to its autoantigenicity. In patients with antibiotic-refractory LA, the magnitude of apoB-100 antibody responses correlated with increased numbers of plasma cells in synovial tissue, greater numbers and activation of endothelial cells, and mor...


Monday 2 November 2015

Medical News Today: How to remove a tick

Around 30,000 new cases of Lyme disease are reported each year. Avoiding ticks and removing them when necessary are essential skills for anyone who likes to venture into nature. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)

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Sunday 1 November 2015

'Water on the knee' could be early sign of Lyme disease

Spontaneous knee effusion, also known as 'water on the knee,' can be a primary symptom of Lyme disease, even when patients do not exhibit a 'bull's eye' rash, another common Lyme disease symptom. According to a literature review, early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment can prevent the development of Lyme disease's more severe symptoms. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Sunday 1 November 2015

Water on the Knee Can Be Sign of Lyme Disease

Spontaneous knee effusion, also known as "water on the knee," can be a primary symptom of Lyme disease, even when patients do not exhibit a "bull's eye" rash, another common Lyme disease symptom. According to a literature review appearing in the November issue of The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS), early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment can prevent the development of Lyme disease's more severe symptoms. (Source: Disabled World)


Sunday 1 November 2015

'Water on the knee' could be early sign of Lyme disease

(American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) Spontaneous knee effusion, also known as 'water on the knee,' can be a primary symptom of Lyme disease, even when patients do not exhibit a 'bull's eye' rash, another common Lyme disease symptom. According to a literature review appearing in the November issue of The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS), early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment can prevent the development of Lyme disease's more severe symptoms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Wednesday 28 October 2015

Absence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the myocardium of subjects with normal left ventricular systolic function: a study using PCR and electron microscopy.

CONCLUSIONS: The absence of Bb in the myocardium of individuals who undergo cardiac surgery and have normal LV systolic function supports the idea of Bb pathogenicity in the development of DCM. PMID: 26498214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub)


Tuesday 27 October 2015

Spirochetal motility and chemotaxis in the natural enzootic cycle and development of Lyme disease.

Authors: Motaleb MA, Liu J, Mark Wooten R Abstract Two-thirds of all bacterial genomes sequenced to-date possess an organelle for locomotion, referred to as flagella, periplasmic flagella or type IV pili. These genomes may also contain a chemotaxis-signaling system which governs flagellar rotation, thus leading a coordinated function for motility. Motility and chemotaxis are often crucial for infection or disease process caused by pathogenic bacteria. Although motility-associated genes are well-characterized in some organisms, the highly orchestrated synthesis, regulation, and assembly of periplasmic flagella in spirochetes are just being delineated. Recent advances were fostered by development of unique genetic manipulations in spirochetes coupled with cutting-edge imaging techniq...

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Monday 26 October 2015

Do citation trends reflect epidemiologic patterns? Assessing MRSA, emerging and re-emerging pathogens, 1963–2014

Conclusions: The Type I pattern pathogens had varied trends in disease incidence in the years following the exponential growth and subsequent decline in the number of citations. Their differing epidemiologic patterns did not correlate with their pattern of citations. We conclude that citation trends on MRSA cannot be used to determine past epidemiologic trends and also that the citation trend for MRSA in 1995–2011 most closely resembled that for HIV in 1981–1998. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)


Saturday 24 October 2015

Use of in vivo Expression Technology for the Identification of Putative Host Adaptation Factors of the Lyme Disease Spirochete

The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, is an obligate parasite that requires either a tick vector or a mammalian host for survival. Identification of the bacterial genes that are specifically expressed during infection of the mammalian host could provide targets for novel therapeutics and vaccines. In vivo expression technology (IVET) is a reporter-based promoter trap system that utilizes selectable markers to identify promoters of bacterial host-specific genes. Using previously characterized genes for in vivo and in vitro selection, this study utilized an IVET system that allows for selection of B. burgdorferi sequences that act as active promoters only during murine infection. This promoter trap system was able to successfully distinguish active promoter sequences bot...


Saturday 24 October 2015

No Geographic Correlation between Lyme Disease and Death Due to 4 Neurodegenerative Disorders, United States, 2001-2010.

Authors: Forrester JD, Kugeler KJ, Perea AE, Pastula DM, Mead PS Abstract Associations between Lyme disease and certain neurodegenerative diseases have been proposed, but supportive evidence for an association is lacking. Similar geographic distributions would be expected if 2 conditions were etiologically linked. Thus, we compared the distribution of Lyme disease cases in the United States with the distributions of deaths due to Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson disease; no geographic correlations were identified. Lyme disease incidence per US state was not correlated with rates of death due to ALS, MS, or Parkinson disease; however, an inverse correlation was detected between Lyme disease and Alzheimer disease. The abse...


Saturday 24 October 2015

Structure of decorin binding protein B from Borrelia burgdorferi and its interactions with glycosaminoglycans

Publication date: December 2015 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics, Volume 1854, Issue 12 Author(s): Wei Feng, Xu Wang Decorin-binding proteins (DBPs), DBPA and DBPB, are surface lipoproteins on Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPs bind to the connective tissue proteoglycan decorin and facilitate tissue colonization by the bacterium. Although structural and biochemical properties of DBPA are well understood, little is known about DBPB. In current work, we determined the solution structure of DBPB from strain B31 of B. burgdorferi and characterized its interactions with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Our structure shows that DBPB adopts the same topology as DBPA, but possesses a much shorter terminal helix, resulting in a longer u...


Friday 23 October 2015

Lyme Disease Presenting As Multiple Ischaemic StrokesLyme Disease Presenting As Multiple Ischaemic Strokes

This unusual case highlights the need to consider CNS Lyme vasculitis in patients with cryptogenic strokes, particularly those who are younger and who come from areas where Lyme disease is endemic. Practical Neurology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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Friday 23 October 2015

Vesiculobullous and hemorrhagic erythema migrans: uncommon variants of a common disease

ConclusionsIt is important to recognize the vesiculobullous and hemorrhagic variants of ECM in order to minimize the provision of inappropriate antibiotic treatment for other diagnoses. Early diagnosis of ECM and the initiation of appropriate antibiotics may prevent late complications of Lyme disease. (Source: International Journal of Dermatology)


Thursday 22 October 2015

Lyme Disease Is on the Rise

Title: Lyme Disease Is on the RiseCategory: Doctor's & Expert's views on SymptomsCreated: 4/29/2000 12:00:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 10/22/2015 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Arthritis General)


Thursday 22 October 2015

Incidence and Patterns of Extended-Course Antibiotic Therapy in Patients Evaluated for Lyme Disease

Conclusions. Insurance claims data suggest that the use of extended courses of antibiotics and multiple antibiotics in the treatment of LD has increased in recent years. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 22 October 2015

Flagellar motility of the pathogenic spirochetes

Publication date: Available online 17 October 2015 Source:Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology Author(s): Charles W. Wolgemuth Bacterial pathogens are often classified by their toxicity and invasiveness. The invasiveness of a given bacterium is determined by how capable the bacterium is at invading a broad range of tissues in its host. Of mammalian pathogens, some of the most invasive come from a group of bacteria known as the spirochetes, which cause diseases such as syphilis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever and leptospirosis. Most of the spirochetes are characterized by their distinct shapes and unique motility. They are long, thin bacteria that can be shaped like flat-waves, helices, or have more irregular morphologies. Like many other bacteria, the spirochetes use long, he...


Wednesday 21 October 2015

So what IS the truth about the Lyme disease 'epidemic'?

Phones 4u's John Caudwell, (pictured with daughters Rebekah and Rhiannon) believes Lyme disease is behind a host of health problems that his family suffers from. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Wednesday 21 October 2015

The controversy over the chronic form of Lyme disease

(Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)


Tuesday 20 October 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi HtrA: evidence for twofold proteolysis of outer membrane protein p66

In this study, HtrA was found to degrade B. burgdorferi outer membrane protein p66 protein, as well as inhibit its transcription. In intact spirochetes, evidence is given for co‐localization of HtrA and p66 in membrane lipid rafts. Taken together, the data support a role for HtrA in the regulation of p66 expression. (Source: Molecular Microbiology)


Monday 19 October 2015

The Salt‐Sensitive Structure and Zinc Inhibition of Borrelia burgdorferi Protease BbHtrA

In this study, we utilized size exclusion chromatography and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN‐PAGE) to demonstrate BbHtrA oligomeric structures which were substrate‐independent and salt sensitive. Examination of the influence of transition metals on the activity of BbHtrA revealed that this protease is inhibited by Zn2+>Cu2+>Mn2+. Extending this analysis to two other HtrA proteases, E. coli DegP and HtrA1, revealed that all three HtrA proteases were reversibly inhibited by ZnCl2 at all micro molar concentrations examined. Commercial inhibitors for HtrA proteases are not available and physiologic HtrA inhibitors are unknown. Our observation of conserved zinc inhibition of HtrA proteases will facilitate structural and functional studies of additional members of th...


Saturday 17 October 2015

Supervised Resistance Exercise for Patients with Persistent Symptoms of Lyme Disease

Conclusions: Although larger and controlled studies are necessary, supervised resistance exercise was feasible and may benefit patients with persistent symptoms of Lyme disease. (Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)


Saturday 17 October 2015

Tick saliva: Paving the way for the stowaway Borrelia

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Experimental Dermatology)

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Wednesday 14 October 2015

The Positive Predictive Value of Lyme Elisa for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease in Children

By using a Lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we demonstrated that high ELISA index values are strongly predictive of Lyme disease. In children with clinical presentations consistent with Lyme disease, ELISA index values ≥3.0 had a positive predictive value of 99.4% (95% confidence interval: 98.1–99.8%) for Lyme disease, making a supplemental Western immunoblot potentially unnecessary. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Tuesday 13 October 2015

Lyme disease jab is 'in sight' as MassBiologics scientists reveal breakthrough

Scientists at UMass Medical School MassBiologics have identified an antibody that could protect against the tick-borne disease afflicting Yolana Foster and her daughter Bella Hadid, 18. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Tuesday 13 October 2015

Medical News Today: Ticks and Lyme disease: how worried should we be?

With recent reports of a rise in Lyme disease cases, we try to find out just how worried should we be about the pesky bugs closely associated with the condition: ticks. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Monday 12 October 2015

Concern about rise in UK Lyme disease cases

"Surging numbers of people are being diagnosed with Lyme disease as cases spread from rural areas to the suburbs," the Daily Mail reports. The ongoing rise in Lyme disease cases in the UK – thought to be driven by climate change, leading to warmer winters – has been known by public health officials for some time. Reported cases in England and Wales rose from 268 in 2001 to 959 in 2011, but the true figure is thought be much higher. Current estimates put the actual figure at around 3,000 cases a year in England and Wales.It may also be the case that the disease is, as the Mail puts it, "moving into the suburbs," or least into the parks. A recent study from September 2015 found ticks that could potentially carry infection in two South London parks: Richmond Par...


Monday 12 October 2015

The symptoms of Lyme disease are a lot like flu - which is perhaps why NHS treatment is so inadequate

It took four years for me to be diagnosed - doctors and patients alike need to know much more about this illness to prevent more lives being ruined (Source: Telegraph Health)

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Monday 12 October 2015

Lyme disease cases quadruples in 12 years with over 1,000 diagnosed in 2013 

Surging numbers of people are being diagnosed with Lyme disease, experts warn, as cases are spreading from rural areas to the suburbs. The debilitating disease is spread by tick bites. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Monday 12 October 2015

Prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms in Lyme neuroborreliosis after pharmacological treatment: a systematic review

Abstract Controversy exists about residual symptoms after pharmacological treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Reports of disabling long-term sequels lead to concerns in patients and health care providers. We systematically reviewed the available evidence from studies reporting treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis to assess the prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms after treatment. A literature search was performed in three databases and three clinical trial registers to find eligible studies reporting on residual symptoms in patients after pharmacological treatment of LNB. Diagnosis must have been performed according to consensus-derived case definitions. No restrictions regarding study design or language were set. Symptom prevalence was pooled using a random-effects model. F...


Saturday 10 October 2015

Ticks Carrying Lyme Disease Found in London

Visitors to two popular parks in South London are at risk of coming into contact with ticks that can transmit Lyme disease to humans, according to new research published in Medical and Veterinary Entomology. (Source: Disabled World)


Friday 9 October 2015

Bella and Anwar Hadid both have Lyme disease, Yolanda Foster reveals

The 51-year-old reality star was honoured at the Global Lyme Alliance Gala in New York City on Thursday, and told the audience her children were diagnosed over three years ago. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Friday 9 October 2015

Yolanda Foster reveals her model daughter Bella, 18, and son Anwar, 16, both also have Lyme disease at charity gala

The 51-year-old reality star was honoured at the Global Lyme Alliance Gala in New York City on Thursday, and told the audience her children were diagnosed over three years ago. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Friday 9 October 2015

Vesicular erythema migrans: an atypical and easily misdiagnosed form of Lyme disease.

Authors: Mazori DR, Orme CM, Mir A, Meehan SA, Neimann AL Abstract Erythema migrans is the initial sign in the majority of patients infected with Borrelia, the genus of spirochetes that causes Lyme disease. Early identification and treatment decrease the risk of progression to later stages of disease. Although a "bull's eye" appearance owing to lesional clearing is considered classic for erythema migrans, this feature is surprisingly often lacking among patients in the United States. Furthermore, cutaneous Lyme disease can exhibit a wide range of morphologic variability in a minority of patients. Herein, we describe the case of a patient with Lyme disease in which the presence of atypical vesicular features, in conjunction with the initial absence of clearing, resulted in multiple ...


Friday 9 October 2015

Poor Positive Predictive Value of Lyme Disease Serologic Testing in an Area of Low Disease Incidence

Conclusions. In this low-prevalence cohort, fewer than 20% of positive Lyme disease tests are obtained from patients with clinically likely Lyme disease. Positive Lyme disease test results may have little diagnostic value in this setting. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)



Thursday 8 October 2015

Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Romania

Conclusion: This first report of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in red foxes from Romania suggests a limited role of foxes in the maintenance of the two related pathogens, but may represent a potential risk from a public health perspective. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 6 October 2015

[Review] Emerging tick-borne infections in mainland China: an increasing public health threat

Since the beginning of the 1980s, 33 emerging tick-borne agents have been identified in mainland China, including eight species of spotted fever group rickettsiae, seven species in the family Anaplasmataceae, six genospecies in the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, 11 species of Babesia, and the virus causing severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. In this Review we have mapped the geographical distributions of human cases of infection. 15 of the 33 emerging tick-borne agents have been reported to cause human disease, and their clinical characteristics have been described. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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Saturday 3 October 2015

'Like the Caudwells, our family also has Lyme disease'

Adelle Huckins believes her husband and children have contracted the illness from her after John Caudwell said he passed the illness on to his children (Source: Telegraph Health)


Saturday 3 October 2015

Lyme Disease Presenting as a Spontaneous Knee Effusion.

Authors: Matzkin E, Suslavich K, Curry EJ Abstract Musculoskeletal complaints, which are frequently associated with Lyme disease, often prompt patients to see a physician. In particular, transient episodes of spontaneous knee effusion are common early in the progression of Lyme disease, and, if left untreated, 60% of patients diagnosed with the disease develop Lyme arthritis. This disease is easily treated with antibiotics; therefore, inclusion of Lyme disease in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of a spontaneous knee effusion can prevent the development of more severe symptoms associated with the disease. However, the time required to receive test results and the inconsistencies between serum and synovial tests can complicate diagnosis of the disease. PMID: 26416...


Friday 2 October 2015

#InvisibleIllnessWeek Is Over -- What Happens Now?

Social media has been taken over by #InvisibleIllnessWeek. Almost everyone has seen a tweet there or a status update here referring to it, and as awesome as it has been in generating interest in a topic that doesn't often surface in everyday media, the conversations it has given rise to deviate into two extremes: either showcasing the horrible aspects of living with a chronic diagnosis or an all-encompassing positivity celebrating invisible illnesses. First of all, what IS an invisible illness? It's a diagnosis that often doesn't show itself on the surface, most of them are autoimmune conditions such as Lyme disease, Crohn's disease, etc. The reason they are so hard to track and represent is because they are so dispersed despite affecting literally millions of people around the world. Als...


Friday 2 October 2015

What is Lyme disease? The silent killer affecting over 3000 Brits a year

AVRIL LAVIGNE is a celebrity sufferer, but Lyme disease is no joke - there's 3,000 new cases occurring in the UK every year, but do you know what it is? (Source: Daily Express - Health)


Friday 2 October 2015

No Geographic Correlation between Lyme Disease and Death due to 4 Neurodegenerative Disorders, United States, 2001–2010

J. D. Forrester et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)

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Thursday 1 October 2015

Why I’m thankful for my daughter’s MRSA

“What time is surgery today?” Ellie, age 12, croaks. She hasn’t opened her eyes yet, but she knows she’s headed to the operating room … again. It may be the fourth surgery this month, maybe the fifth. We don’t know. What we do know is our routine has changed from soccer carpools and homework battles to twice-weekly trips to the operating room, where the orthopedic surgeon will slice open my baby girl’s thigh and attempt to wash out the deadly bacteria accumulating in her right femur and knee joint. We’re trying to learn the new routine and master a new language. The vocabulary is demanding. There are procedures, medications, devices and acronyms. Most are scary — wound vacuum, PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter), clinical failure of vancomycin, Methicillin-resis...


Thursday 1 October 2015

In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of phytochemicals and micronutrients against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii

ConclusionsThe most effective antimicrobial compounds against all morphological forms of the two tested Borrelia sp. were baicalein and monolaurin. This might indicate that the presence of fatty acid and phenyl groups is important for comprehensive antibacterial activity. Significance and Impact of the StudyThis study reveals the potential of phytochemicals as an important tool in the fight against the species of Borrelia causing Lyme disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)


Thursday 1 October 2015

Lyme Carditis in the Fast Lane: From Alternating Bundle Branch Block to Asystole in 12 Hours.

We report a case of Lyme disease in a previously healthy 24-year-old male presenting with alternating right- and left-bundle branch block, indicating infra-Hisian atrioventricular (infra-His) block with an accelerated fascicular escape rhythm. Inless than 12 hours, the conduction abnormalities progressed to asystole requiring the urgent placement of a temporary transvenous pacemaker. Subsequently, with appropriate antibiotic treatment, the patient's conduction abnormalities resolved in a week without the need for a permanent pacemaker. PMID: 26630701 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Connecticut Medicine)


Monday 28 September 2015

Similarities in murine infection and immune response to Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

Authors: Leydet BF, Liang FT Abstract Three decades ago Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) was identified as the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Since then an increasing number of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) species have been isolated in the United States. To date, many of these species remain understudied despite mounting evidence associating them with human illness. Borrelia bissettii is a spirochete closely related to B. burgdorferi that has been loosely associated with human illness. Using an experimental murine infection model, we compared the infectivity and humoral immune response to a North American isolate of B. bissettii and B. burgdorferi using culture, molecular and serological methods. Our original B. bissettii cultures were unable to infect immunocompet...


Saturday 26 September 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme Disease, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2002-2013.

Authors: Hatchette TF, Johnston BL, Schleihauf E, Mask A, Haldane D, Drebot M, Baikie M, Cole TJ, Fleming S, Gould R, Lindsay R Abstract Ixodes scapularis ticks, which transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), are endemic to at least 6 regions of Nova Scotia, Canada. To assess the epidemiology and prevalence of LD in Nova Scotia, we analyzed data from 329 persons with LD reported in Nova Scotia during 2002-2013. Most patients reported symptoms of early localized infection with rash (89.7%), influenza-like illness (69.6%), or both; clinician-diagnosed erythema migrans was documented for 53.2%. In a separate serosurvey, of 1,855 serum samples screened for antibodies to B. burgdorferi, 2 were borderline positive (both with an indeterminate IgG on Western...

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Saturday 26 September 2015

Structural and functional analysis of BB0689 from Borrelia burgdorferi, a member of the bacterial CAP superfamily

In this study, the bacterial CAP domain structure was analyzed and compared with the previously solved crystal structures of representative CAPs, and the function of BB0689 was examined. To determine the potential function of BB0689 and ascertain whether the functions that have been attributed to the CAP domain proteins are conserved, the binding of previously reported CAP domain interaction partners was analyzed, and the results suggested that BB0689 has a unique function that is yet to be discovered. (Source: Journal of Structural Biology)


Saturday 26 September 2015

Quality of life, fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment in Lyme neuroborreliosis

Abstract The prognosis and impact of residual symptoms on quality of life in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is subject to debate. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life, fatigue, depression, cognitive impairment and verbal learning in patients with definite LNB and healthy controls in a case–control study. We retrospectively identified all patients diagnosed with definite LNB between 2003 and 2014 in our tertiary care center. Healthy controls were recruited from the same area. Patients and healthy controls were assessed for quality of life [Short Form (36) with subscores for physical and mental components (PCS, MCS)], fatigue (fatigue severity scale), depression (Beck depression inventory), verbal memory and learning and cognitive impairment (mini-mental ...


Friday 25 September 2015

Patients may present with ticks in South London A&Es

Nurses working in emergency and primary care settings in South London could encounter patients with Lyme disease-carrying ticks, suggests latest research. (Source: Nursing Times Breaking News)


Friday 25 September 2015

Identification and the preliminary in vitro characterization of IRIS homologue from salivary glands of Ixodes persulcatus Schulze

In conclusion, Ipis could contribute to the establishment of environments suitable for tick blood feeding and pathogen transmission by suppressing the function of immune cells. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Thursday 24 September 2015

Researchers find ticks linked with Lyme disease in south London parks

(Wiley) Visitors to two popular parks in South London are at risk of coming into contact with ticks that can transmit Lyme disease to humans, according to a new study in Medical and Veterinary Entomology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 24 September 2015

Ticks carrying Lyme disease found in South London parks

(London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine) Visitors to two popular parks in South London are at risk of coming into contact with ticks that can transmit Lyme disease to humans, according to new research by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)

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Thursday 24 September 2015

Ecology and Epidemiology of Lyme Borreliosis

Lyme borreliosis is a zoonotic, tick-borne disease that infects humans worldwide. The disease is currently recognized as the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. Disease is caused by several genospecies of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Humans are at high risk of infection in regions where highly competent reservoirs are the primary hosts for the subadult stages of the tick, in contrast to regions where less competent or refractory animals feed ticks. Human infections are also most frequently associated with spring and summer months when the nymph stage of the tick is active. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)


Thursday 24 September 2015

Pathogens vectored by the tick, Dermacentor reticulatus, in endemic regions and zones of expansion in Poland

Conclusions: Our study found significant differences between the range and prevalence of vectored pathogens in D. reticulatus from the endemic areas and newly inhabited expansion zones. The differences were likely associated with the different time of settlement or ‘source’ of ticks populations, the Eastern and the Western one. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 24 September 2015

Clinical Manifestations and Treatment of Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States and is also seen in areas of Europe and Asia. The growing deer and Ixodes species tick populations in many areas underscore the importance of clinicians to properly recognize and treat the different stages of Lyme disease. Controversy regarding the cause and management of persistent symptoms following treatment of Lyme disease persists and is highlighted in this review. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)


Wednesday 23 September 2015

Ericaceae in Post-Lyme Disease

Homoeopathic Links 2015; 28: 179-181DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1563551Alex Leupen has been working in the Homeopathic Doctors Centre in Utrecht, the Netherlands, since 1990. Eight colleagues work in this centre, including Jan Scholten. Alex is an experienced teacher on the underlying systems in the plant families, nosodes, animal orders and the periodic table of the elements pertaining to homeopathic practice. He shares his clinical tips in this article.[...]Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd. Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Homoeopathic Links)

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Tuesday 22 September 2015

Lyme neuroborreliosis: a treatable cause of acute ocular motor disturbances in children

Conclusions LNB can present as acute ocular motor disorders in conjunction with fatigue and other clinical manifestations. In endemic areas, children with unexplained, acquired ocular motor abnormalities should be evaluated for LNB, a treatable medical condition. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)


Monday 21 September 2015

An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains." PMID: 26389711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences)


Saturday 19 September 2015

Exploratory spatial analysis of Lyme disease in Texas –what can we learn from the reported cases?

Conclusions: These results emphasize the need for follow-up investigations to determine whether the identified spatial pattern is due to: clustering of misdiagnosed cases, clustering of patients with an out-of state travel history, or presence of a clustered unknown enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi in Texas. This would enable an improved surveillance and reporting of LD in Texas. (Source: BMC Public Health)


Thursday 17 September 2015

Disease

Borrelia miyamotoi disease (BMD) is a newly recognized borreliosis globally transmitted by ticks of the Ixodes persulcatus species complex. Once considered to be a tick symbiont with no public health implications, B miyamotoi is increasingly recognized as the agent of a nonspecific febrile illness often misdiagnosed as acute Lyme disease without rash, or as ehrlichiosis. The frequency of its diagnosis in the northeastern United States is similar to that of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. A diagnosis of BMD is confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of acute blood samples, or by seroconversion using a recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase enzyme immunoassay. BMD is successfully treated with oral doxycycline or amoxicillin. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)


Thursday 17 September 2015

Nervous System Lyme Disease

Nervous system involvement occurs in 10% to 15% of patients infected with the tick-borne spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, B afzelii, and B garinii. Peripheral nervous system involvement is common. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, most commonly presenting with lymphocytic meningitis, causes modest cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. Parenchymal CNS infection is rare. If the CNS is invaded, however, measuring local production of anti–B burgdorferi antibodies in the CSF provides a useful marker of infection. Most cases of neuroborreliosis can be cured with oral doxycycline; parenteral regimens should be reserved for patients with particularly severe disease. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)

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Wednesday 16 September 2015

Meningomyeloradiculitis as an Unusual Presentation of Neuroborreliosis in Childhood

We report a pediatric case of Lyme neuroborreliosis–associated meningomyeloradiculitis with atypical manifestations and negative initial cerebrospinal fluid borrelial antibodies. Transverse myelitis and painful radiculoneuritis have rarely been described in pediatric neuroborreliosis. Clinical manifestations are wide ranging and nonspecific, and the serologic diagnosis is often delayed in the acute phase. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Wednesday 16 September 2015

Azithromycin Is Equally Effective as Amoxicillin in Children with Solitary Erythema Migrans

Conclusions: Comparison of azithromycin and amoxicillin for the treatment of children with solitary EM revealed comparable efficacy and adverse effects of treatment. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Wednesday 16 September 2015

Cross-reactive acquired immunity influences transmission success of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii.

This study shows that cross-immunity in infected vertebrate hosts can reduce pathogen load in the arthropod vector with potential consequences for vector-to-host pathogen transmission. PMID: 26384476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)

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Wednesday 16 September 2015

Evaluation of selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 encoded gene products expressed during mammalian infection as antigens to improve serodiagnostic testing for early Lyme disease.

Authors: Weiner ZP, Crew RM, Brandt KS, Ullmann AJ, Schriefer ME, Molins CR, Gilmore RD Abstract Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced either within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by ELISA, with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme ...


Wednesday 16 September 2015

Nervous system Lyme disease, chronic Lyme disease, and none of the above

Abstract Lyme borreliosis, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, causes nervous system involvement in 10–15 % of identified infected individuals. Not unlike the other well-known spirochetosis, syphilis, infection can be protracted, but is microbiologically curable in virtually all patients, regardless of disease duration. Diagnosis relies on 2-tier serologic testing, which after the first 4–6 weeks of infection is both highly sensitive and specific. After this early, acute phase, serologic testing should rely only on IgG reactivity. Nervous system involvement most commonly presents with meningitis, cranial neuritis and radiculoneuritis, but can also present with a broader array of peripheral nervous system manifestations. Central nervous sy...


Tuesday 15 September 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi HtrA: evidence for two‐fold proteolysis of outer membrane protein p66

Summary In prokaryotes, members of the High Temperature Requirement A (HtrA) family of serine proteases function in the periplasm to degrade damaged or improperly folded membrane proteins. Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, codes for a single HtrA homolog. Two‐dimensional electrophoresis analysis of B. burgdorferi B31A3 and a strain that over‐expresses HtrA (A3HtrAOE) identified a down‐regulated protein in A3HtrAOE with a mass, pI and MALDI‐TOF spectrum consistent with outer membrane protein p66. P66 and HtrA from cellular lysates partitioned into detergent‐resistant membranes, which contain cholesterol‐glycolipid‐rich membrane regions known as lipid rafts, suggesting that HtrA and p66 may reside together in lipid rafts also. This agrees with previous work from ...


Monday 14 September 2015

Tickborne Infections: Beyond Just Lyme Disease

Members of the Borrelia genus are associated with two main clinical syndromes: Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever. With a few exceptions, these spirochetes share many similarities, including transmission via blood feeding arthropods, environmental maintenance among rodent populations, and interruption of the lifecycle following human infection. As a result of the high annual incidence of Lyme disease in both the United States (approximately 300,000 cases) and Europe (approximately 85,000 cases from 18 countries), Lyme borreliosis and its causative agents (primarily Borrelia burgdorferi in the United States and Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii in Europe) often garner the most attention from both the medical community and public forums. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)


Saturday 12 September 2015

Isolated facial diplegia in Guillain–Barré syndrome: Bifacial weakness with paresthesias

ABSTRACT Bifacial weakness with paresthesias (BFP) is a subtype of Guillain–Barré syndrome defined by rapidly progressive bilateral facial weakness in the absence of other cranial neuropathies, ataxia, or limb weakness. Many patients also complain of distal limb paresthesias and display diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes. BFP is a localized form of Guillain–Barré syndrome and is thought to be caused exclusively by demyelinating‐ rather than axonal‐type neuropathy. Patients with BFP do not display anti‐ganglioside IgG antibodies. Since it is rare, many physicians are unfamiliar with BFP, as bilateral facial weakness is more commonly associated with sarcoidosis, Lyme disease, or meningeal pathology. Many patients diagnosed with bilateral Bell palsy may instead have BFP. In...


Friday 11 September 2015

'Lab-on-a-Chip' technology to cut costs of sophisticated tests for diseases and disorders

Engineers have developed a breakthrough device that can significantly reduce the cost of sophisticated lab tests for medical disorders and diseases, such as HIV, Lyme disease and syphilis. The new device uses miniaturized channels and valves to replace 'benchtop' assays -- tests that require large samples of blood or other fluids and expensive chemicals that lab technicians manually mix in trays of tubes or plastic plates with cup-like depressions. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Wednesday 9 September 2015

What Is Lyme disease and why the controversy?

(NaturalNews) Lyme disease is no longer an obscure malady that can only be caught in Connecticut. In 2013, the year with the latest available data, the CDC predicted an estimated 300,000 actual new cases, though only 30,000 per year were reported and confirmed. Cases have been diagnosed... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Wednesday 9 September 2015

General practitioner reported incidence of Lyme carditis in the Netherlands.

CONCLUSIONS: We report the first incidence estimate for Lyme carditis in the Netherlands, validated by a systematic review of the medical records. Although Lyme carditis is an uncommon manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, physicians need to be aware of this diagnosis, in particular in countries where the incidence of Lyme borreliosis has increased during the past decades. PMID: 26353767 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Netherlands Heart Journal)


Wednesday 9 September 2015

Tricky ticks: the importance of Lyme carditis recognition.

Authors: Jansweijer JA, van Oort RJ PMID: 26353768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Netherlands Heart Journal)


Tuesday 8 September 2015

Lyme law: targeting best practices.

Authors: Patrick DM PMID: 26351367 [PubMed - in process] (Source: cmaj)


Monday 7 September 2015

8 illnesses you could have brought back from holiday

From Lyme disease in Scotland to Chikungunya from the Caribbean, a list of common ailments you could have contracted during your week away (Source: Telegraph Health)

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Monday 7 September 2015

Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology of Lyme Neuroborreliosis: A Report of 3 Cases with Literature Review

We present 3 Lyme neuroborreliosis cases in order to illustrate the challenging cytomorphological and immunophenotypic features of their CSF specimens. Three male patients who presented with central nervous system manifestations were diagnosed with Lyme disease. The clinical presentation, laboratory tests, CSF cytological examination and flow-cytometric studies were described for each case. CSF cytology showed lymphocytic pleocytosis with increased plasmacytoid cells and/or plasma cells. Flow cytometry showed the presence of polytypic B lymphocytes with evidence of plasmacytic differentiation in 2 cases. In all cases, Lyme disease was confirmed by the Lyme screening test and Western blotting. In such cases of Lyme neuroborreliosis, flow cytometry of CSF samples employing plasmacytic marker...


Saturday 5 September 2015

Lyme Disease Diagnosed by Alternative Methods: A Phenotype Similar to That of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Conclusions. In British Columbia, a setting with low Lyme disease incidence, ADCLS patients have a similar phenotype to that of CFS patients. Disagreement between alternative and reference laboratory Lyme testing results in this setting is most likely explained by false-positive results from the alternative laboratory. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Saturday 5 September 2015

Lyme Disease Comparators

(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Friday 4 September 2015

Lyme Deaths From Heart Inflammation Likely Worse Than We Thought

Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections are skyrocketing. In western Pennsylvania, where I work, Lyme increased 25% just between 2013 and 2014, with Butler County having 412 cases and Allegheny County chalking up a record 822 cases last year. And where I vacation, in Maine, the rate of Lyme in 2014 was 240 cases per 100,000, which is more than 20 times the national average, and twice the rate of Butler. Across the country, the CDC now estimates there are ~329,000 cases of Lyme disease each year, tenfold higher than previously thought. Vermont and New Hampshire have the highest incidence. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)


Friday 4 September 2015

Abundance of questing ticks and molecular evidence for pathogens in ticks in three parks of Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.

DISCUSSION: The peak of nymph presence was in May, and the higher prevalence of pathogens occurred in April-June, most often in nymphs; therefore, spring season could represent the higher risk period for the transmission of pathogens. These data could provide guidelines for the preventions of tick-trasmitted diseases in this region. PMID: 26403115 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Friday 4 September 2015

Clinical and molecular features of one case of human infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Podlaskie Province in eastern Poland.

Authors: Welc-Falęciak R, Kowalec M, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz SA, Siński E Abstract The article focuses on the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in one of 28 patients (3.6%; n=1/28 tested samples) with early Lyme borreliosis. The clinical and laboratory results of a 42-year-old patient fulfilled criteria of confirm anaplasmosis and suggest an acute stage of illness. The described case provides strong presumptive evidence that infection in this patient was acquired with a pathogenic strain of A. phagocytophilum through a tick bite. A positive DNA with PCR for A. phagocytophilum infection was sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Physicians should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis in pati...


Friday 4 September 2015

ER-Coordinated Activities of Rab22a and Rab5a Drive Phagosomal Compaction and Intracellular Processing of Borrelia burgdorferi by Macrophages

Publication date: Available online 3 September 2015 Source:Cell Reports Author(s): Xenia Naj, Stefan Linder Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting the skin, joints, and nervous system. Macrophages and dendritic cells counteract Borrelia dissemination through internalization and degradation of spirochetes. We now show that Borrelia internalization by primary human macrophages involves uptake and compaction into Rab22a-positive phagosomes that are in close contact with Rab5a-positive vesicles. Compaction of borreliae involves membrane extrusion from phagosomes, is driven by Rab22a and Rab5a activity, and is coordinated by ER tubules forming contact sites of Rab22a phagosomes with Rab5a vesicles. Importantly, Rab22a and Rab5a deplet...


Friday 4 September 2015

Peroxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid in the course of Lyme arthritis.

CONCLUSIONS: It may be suggested that in the course of LA, the level of binding 8-isoPGF2α is significantly enhanced, and it may also be suggested that uncontrolled changes in the lipid status of some patients may make their Lyme arthritis unresponsive to antibiotics. PMID: 26403109 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Friday 4 September 2015

A broad-range survey of ticks from livestock in Northern Xinjiang: changes in tick distribution and the isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

Conclusions: Warmer and wetter climate may have contributed to the altered distribution and abundance of the five most common ticks in northern Xinjiang. The genetic analyses showed that certain tick species, such as Hy. asiaticum or Rh. turanicus, exhibit genetic commonness or diversity. Additionally, this study is the first to isolate B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in Hy. asiaticum asiaticum, H. punctata, D. nuttalli and D. marginatus ticks from domestic animals. These ticks may transmit borreliosis among livestock. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Wednesday 2 September 2015

Lyme disease: How reliable are serologic results?

Authors: Gregson D, Evans G, Patrick D, Bowie W PMID: 26323708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal)

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Wednesday 2 September 2015

A 35-year-old man with a positive Lyme test result from a private laboratory.

Authors: Andany N, Cardew S, Bunce PE PMID: 26323702 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal)


Wednesday 2 September 2015

Persister mechanisms in Borrelia burgdorferi: implications for improved intervention

Authors: Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang & Ying Zhang (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)


Wednesday 2 September 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi elongation factor EF-Tu is an immunogenic protein during Lyme borreliosis

Authors: Sebastian E Carrasco, Youyun Yang, Bryan Troxell, Xiuli Yang, Utpal Pal & X Frank Yang (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)


Tuesday 1 September 2015

How to rid the body of Lyme disease naturally

(NaturalNews) The bacteria that cause Lyme can be found in the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system. On top of that, Lyme disease specialists are finding that what we call Lyme disease may be caused by several different infectious organisms and may even be caused by a combination... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Tuesday 1 September 2015

Lyme Arthritis

No abstract available (Source: Pediatric Emergency Care)

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Tuesday 1 September 2015

Transfusion-Transmitted Babesiosis During Total Hip Arthroplasty.

This article summarizes the current state of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis and the detrimental impact of this infection on blood transfusion safety. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(9):e852-e855.]. PMID: 26375547 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Orthopedics)


Tuesday 1 September 2015

Tick abundances in South London parks and the potential risk for Lyme borreliosis to the general public

Abstract Tick abundances and prevalences of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, were investigated in four South London parks. A total of 360 transects were sampled using three methods of collection (blanket, leggings and flags) simultaneously. No ticks were found on Wimbledon Common or at Hampton Court, but 1118 Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks were collected at Richmond and Bushy Parks. At Richmond Park, lower canopy humidity [odds ratio (OR) 0.94; P = 0.005], increased mat depth (OR 1.15; P < 0.001) and increased soil moisture (OR 1.40; P = 0.001) predicted the presence of I. ricinus, and increased sward height [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01; P = 0.006] and decreased ground temperature (IRR 0.90; P = 0.009) predicted increased...


Tuesday 1 September 2015

BadR (BB0693) controls growth phase‐dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Borrelia burgdorferi via recognizing TAAAATAT motifs

Summary In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a central role during Bb's adaptation to ticks and mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that RpoS is not expressed during the early stages of spirochetal growth or when Bb resides in ticks during the intermolt phase, but the molecular details of these events remain unknown. In the current study, biomagnetic bead separation of rpoS promoter‐binding proteins, coupled with genetic inactivation, was employed to identify BadR (BB0693) as a negative regulator that controls growth phase‐dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Bb. When badR was inactivated, the expression of rpoS and bosR was induced only during the early stages of bacterial growth, but not during the stationary growth phase. Recombinant BadR ...


Monday 31 August 2015

Staffordshire mother loses FOUR STONE after seeing herself in Ice Bucket Challenge video

Louise Bentley, 47, an admin assistant from Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, slimmed from 15st 5lb to a trim 11st 4lb in less than a year after swapping junk food for healthy meals. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Monday 31 August 2015

Lyme disease testing: Canadians may receive false-positives from some US labs

Lyme disease is becoming increasingly common in Canada, and Canadians with Lyme disease symptoms may seek diagnoses from laboratories in the United States, although many of the results will be false-positives, according to a new commentary article. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

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Monday 31 August 2015

Lyme disease testing: Canadians may receive false-positives from some US labs

(Canadian Medical Association Journal) Lyme disease is becoming increasingly common in Canada, and Canadians with Lyme disease symptoms may seek diagnoses from laboratories in the United States, although many of the results will be false-positives, according to a commentary in Canadian Medical Association Journal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Monday 31 August 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme Disease, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2002–2013

T. F. Hatchette et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)


Monday 31 August 2015

Alternatives to Serologic Testing for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

Although serologic testing remains the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease, the antibody response may take several weeks to increase greater than the limit of detection. Because of this extended time frame, it is necessary to identify new diagnostic methods for earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Lyme disease. Alternative diagnostic modalities, such as Borrelia culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, may be beneficial in specific clinical scenarios. In early phases of acute infection, before the development of an immune response, detection of Borrelia DNA from clinical specimens may help establish the diagnosis sooner than serologic methods. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)

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Monday 31 August 2015

Lyme Disease Coinfections in the United States

Lyme disease in North America is caused by infection with the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus ticks. These ticks also have the potential to transmit a rapidly expanding list of other pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, deer tick (Powassan) virus, Borrelia miyamotoi, and the Ehrlichia muris–like organism. Coinfections with B burgdorferi and these other agents are often difficult to diagnose and may go untreated, and thus contribute significantly to patient morbidity and mortality from tick-borne infections. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)


Monday 31 August 2015

Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi

This study, utilizing the sodA mutant, has provided insights into adaptive capabilities critical for survival of B. burgdorferi in its hosts. (Source: PLoS One)


Saturday 29 August 2015

Lyme disease/borreliosis as a systemic disease

Lyme disease/borreliosis (LD) is a well-known arthropod-transmitted entity in the northern hemisphere. The incidence of LD is reportedly rising throughout the world, although better diagnostic facilities may be contributory. The disease distribution is expanding in Europe, with its presence being now documented at higher altitudes and latitudes. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the most important genospecies leading to LD, although newer ones continue to be discovered. The variations in clinical spectrum with genospecies involved are an interesting feature. (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)


Saturday 29 August 2015

Structural characterization and modeling of the Borrelia burgdorferi hybrid histidine kinase Hk1 periplasmic sensor: a system for sensing small molecules associated with tick feeding

Publication date: Available online 28 August 2015 Source:Journal of Structural Biology Author(s): William J. Bauer, Amit Luthra, Guangyu Zhu, Justin D. Radolf, Michael G. Malkowski, Melissa J. Caimano Two-component signal transduction systems are the primary mechanisms by which bacteria perceive and respond to changes in their environment. The Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system (TCS) in B. burgdorferi consists of a hybrid histidine kinase and a response regulator with diguanlyate cyclase activity, respectively. Phosphorylated Rrp1 catalyzes the synthesis of c-di-GMP, a second messenger associated with bacterial life-style control networks. Spirochetes lacking either Hk1 or Rrp1 are virulent in mice but destroyed within feeding ticks. Activation of Hk1 by exogenous stimuli represents the...


Friday 28 August 2015

Isolated facial diplegia in Guillain‐Barré syndrome: Bifacial weakness with paresthesias

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Muscle and Nerve)


Friday 28 August 2015

Lyme Disease

The answer key for this puzzle is available online. (Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners)


Friday 28 August 2015

IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 10536-10548: Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Models for Modeling Epidemiological Data with Excess Zeros

Epidemiological data often include excess zeros. This is particularly the case for data on rare conditions, diseases that are not common in specific areas or specific time periods, and conditions and diseases that are hard to detect or on the rise. In this paper, we provide a review of methods for modeling data with excess zeros with focus on count data, namely hurdle and zero-inflated models, and discuss extensions of these models to data with spatial and spatio-temporal dependence structures. We consider a Bayesian hierarchical framework to implement spatial and spatio-temporal models for data with excess zeros. We further review current implementation methods and computational tools. Finally, we provide a case study on five-year counts of confirmed cases of Lyme disease in Illinois at t...


Thursday 27 August 2015

Why antibiotics may not work for Lyme disease

(NaturalNews) For some, early treatment with antibiotics is effective. For others and for those in the late stages of infection, antibiotics may be ineffective for the following reasons:Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, has a corkscrew shape that allows... (Source: NaturalNews.com)




Thursday 27 August 2015

Characterization Through Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Borrelia turdi Isolates from Portugal.

In this study, we isolated B. turdi from five I. frontalis feeding on Turdus merula, Turdus philomelos, Parus major and Troglodytes troglodytes, and one Ixodes ricinus feeding on a T. merula in Portugal. These isolates were genetically characterised according to their 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer, 16S rRNA and through typing of seven housekeeping genes (multilocus sequence typing). Multilocus sequence analyses revealed that the strains isolated in our study, although belonging to B. turdi genospecies, are not identical to the B. turdi reference strain Ya501. Instead, our strains are separated into a clear defined group, suggesting that the European samples diverged genetically from the strain originally detected in Japan. Population analysis of 5S-23S rRNA sequences can further resolve su...

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Thursday 27 August 2015

The Fur homologue BosR requires Arg39 to activate rpoS transcription in Borrelia burgdorferi and thereby direct spirochete infection in mice.

This study shows that BosR repressed synthesis of the long transcript while at the same time activating synthesis of the short transcript. How BosR does this is unclear. To address this, spirochetes were engineered to express either BosR or the naturally occurring variant BosRR39K. Mice became infected by the spirochetes expressing BosR but not by the spirochetes expressing BosRR39K. Furthermore, the spirochetes expressing BosR activated rpoS transcription during growth in culture whereas the spirochetes expressing BosRR39K did not. Thus, BosR's activation of rpoS transcription somehow involves Arg39. This arginine is highly conserved in other FUR proteins and therefore other FUR proteins may also require this arginine to function. PMID: 26318670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (So...


Wednesday 26 August 2015

Ixodes tick saliva suppresses the keratinocyte cytokine response to TLR2/TLR3 ligands during early exposure to Lyme borreliosis

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Experimental Dermatology)


Wednesday 26 August 2015

Methods to Prevent Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

Current approaches for prevention of tick bites, Lyme disease, and other tick-borne diseases are described. Particular attention is paid to 4 risk-reduction strategies: (i) avoiding risk areas; (ii) personal protective measures that reduce the risk of tick bites or transmission of the agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi; (iii) reducing the number of infected ticks in the environment; and (iv) use of prophylactic antibiotic treatments following a bite to prevent clinical Lyme disease. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)


Sunday 23 August 2015

Transient synovitis of the hip: which investigations are truly useful?

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that most investigations performed during the initial work-up in patients suspected transient synovitis of the hip are unnecessary and should routinely include only. PMID: 26295841 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Swiss Medical Weekly)


Sunday 23 August 2015

Incidence of Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Disease, United States, 2005-2010.

Authors: Nelson CA, Saha S, Kugeler KJ, Delorey MJ, Shankar MB, Hinckley AF, Mead PS Abstract National surveillance provides important information about Lyme disease (LD) but is subject to underreporting and variations in practice. Information is limited about the national epidemiology of LD from other sources. Retrospective analysis of a nationwide health insurance claims database identified patients from 2005-2010 with clinician-diagnosed LD using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes and antimicrobial drug prescriptions. Of 103,647,966 person-years, 985 inpatient admissions and 44,445 outpatient LD diagnoses were identified. Epidemiologic patterns were similar to US surveillance data overall. Outpatient incidence was highest among...

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Sunday 23 August 2015

Enhancing Lyme Disease Surveillance by Using Administrative Claims Data, Tennessee, USA.

Authors: Clayton JL, Jones SG, Dunn JR, Schaffner W, Jones TF Abstract Lyme disease is underreported in the United States. We used insurance administrative claims data to determine the value of such data in enhancing case ascertainment in Tennessee during January 2011-June 2013. Although we identified ≈20% more cases of Lyme disease (5/year), the method was resource intensive and not sustainable in this low-incidence state. PMID: 26291336 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)


Saturday 22 August 2015

Cutaneous Borreliosis With a T-Cell–Rich Infiltrate and Simultaneous Involvement by B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia With t(14;18)(q32;q21)

We report an unusual constellation in a patient with synchronously diagnosed B-CLL and Borrelia infection of skin presenting with a dense dermal T-cell–rich infiltrate masking specific leukemic infiltrates of neoplastic B cells in the context of B-CLL harboring t(14;18)(q32;q21). Specific cutaneous involvement by B-CLL was confirmed by the detection of t(14;18)(q32;q21) (BCL2–IGH) using FISH in neoplastic B cells within the skin infiltrates. Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) DNA detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in the skin biopsy and serological findings proved Borrelia infection. Complete resolution of the cutaneous infiltrates was observed after antibiotic treatment. This case demonstrates that Borrelia infection of the skin may present with dense T-cell–rich infiltrate...


Saturday 22 August 2015

A prospective study on the incidence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection after a tick bite in Sweden and on the Åland Islands, Finland (2008-2009)

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Peter Wilhelmsson, Linda Fryland, Pontus Lindblom, Johanna Sjöwall, Clas Ahlm, Johan Berglund, Mats Haglund, Anna J. Henningsson, Peter Nolskog, Marika Nordberg, Clara Nyberg, Katharina Ornstein, Dag Nyman, Christina Ekerfelt, Pia Forsberg, Per-Eric Lindgren Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common and increasing tick-borne disease in Europe. The risk of acquiring a Borrelia infection after a tick bite is not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick and if the Borrelia load and/or the duration of tick-feeding influenced the risk of infection. During 2008-2009, ticks and blood samples were collected from 154...


Friday 21 August 2015

Sexual transmission of Lyme disease: challenging the tickborne disease paradigm

Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Ahead of Print. (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)


Wednesday 19 August 2015

Lyme Disease May Linger for 1 in 5 Because of "Persisters"

A new theory about long-lasting Lyme disease symptoms suggests treatment options -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)

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Wednesday 19 August 2015

Persister mechanisms in Borrelia burgdorferi: implications for improved intervention

Authors: Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang & Ying Zhang (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)


Monday 17 August 2015

How This Couple Fought Through Illness To Find A New Destiny

I am a caregiver for my partner who has become housebound and bedridden due to an incurable "invisible" disease. I too live with a serious illness, barely getting through each day, mostly housebound myself. Franky and I met, and a spell was cast; we fell madly deeply infatuated with each other, as young love often does to people. We traveled, went to social events and started dreaming of a life together. Within a couple of months, I was diagnosed with an aggressive strain of HIV. Our fast-run fairytale seemed to be cursed and destined for failure. But we persevered. My family's involvement in my life was scarce due to their struggles with me being a gay man. Luckily, Franky took the reins in helping me to fight for my life. Though we had just met, Franky cared for my body, fed me, and cl...


Friday 14 August 2015

Tick-ing Time Bomb: Lyme Disease Conquers New Territory

In the summer of 1975 a group of children who often played together developed an unusual flu-like illness with severe joint pain. They were diagnosed with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA). All of them lived in a small town at the mouth of the Connecticut River called Lyme. The story of their disease contains all the elements of a good novel; mystery, loss, blood, empathy, indifference, conflict, controversy and conspiracy, truth and fiction. Doctors suspect JRA when they see kids with persistent joint pain or swelling, unexplained skin rashes, and fever associated with swelling of lymph nodes or inflammation of internal organs. No single test can be used to make the diagnosis. Both the cause and the cure of JRA, an autoimmune disorder, are unknown. But it is not an infectious disease. P...


Friday 14 August 2015

Defeat Lyme disease without antibiotics

(NaturalNews) Let's be blunt: Western medicine will never really cure Lyme disease because the focus (like everything they do) is on symptoms, not the underlying cause. In fact, sadly, if you've been suffering with Lyme disease for some time, you've probably been labeled with a mental... (Source: NaturalNews.com)




Wednesday 12 August 2015

Ticks: Summer’s Unwanted Guests

Thorough checks of spouses, children and friends for the tiny pathogen-carrying freeloaders are now a necessary part of summer rituals. (Source: NYT Health)


Wednesday 12 August 2015

Lyme disease is vastly under-reported, CDC says

Government researchers say the tick-borne disease is far more common than previously believed (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Wednesday 12 August 2015

Lyme Disease in U.S. Is Under-Reported, CDC Says

About 329,000 cases actually occur each year (Source: WebMD Health)


Wednesday 12 August 2015

Incidence of Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Disease, United States, 2005–2010

C. A. Nelson et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)


Wednesday 12 August 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi RevA Significantly Affects Pathogenicity and Host Response in the Mouse Model of Lyme Disease [Bacterial Infections]

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, expresses RevA and numerous outer surface lipoproteins during mammalian infection. As an adhesin that promotes bacterial interaction with fibronectin, RevA is poised to interact with the extracellular matrix of the host. To further define the role(s) of RevA during mammalian infection, we created a mutant that is unable to produce RevA. The mutant was still infectious to mice, although it was significantly less well able to infect cardiac tissues. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type revA gene restored heart infectivity to wild-type levels. Additionally, revA mutants led to increased evidence of arthritis, with increased fibrotic collagen deposition in tibiotarsal joints. The mutants also induced increased levels of the chemokine...


Wednesday 12 August 2015

BB0744 Affects Tissue Tropism and Spatial Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, produces a variety of proteins that promote survival and colonization in both the Ixodes species vector and various mammalian hosts. We initially identified BB0744 (also known as p83/100) by screening for B. burgdorferi strain B31 proteins that bind to α1β1 integrin and hypothesized that, given the presence of a signal peptide, BB0744 may be a surface-exposed protein. In contrast to this expectation, localization studies suggested that BB0744 resides in the periplasm. Despite its subsurface location, we were interested in testing whether BB0744 is required for borrelial pathogenesis. To this end, a bb0744 deletion was isolated in a B. burgdorferi strain B31 infectious background, complemented, and queried for the role of...


Wednesday 12 August 2015

Characterization and optimization of a novel vaccine for protection against Lyme borreliosis.

Authors: Comstedt P, Hanner M, Schüler W, Meinke A, Schlegl R, Lundberg U Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere and there is no vaccine available for disease prevention. The majority of LB cases in Europe are caused by four different Borrelia species expressing six different OspA serotypes, whereas in the US only one of these serotypes is present. Immunization with the outer surface protein A (OspA) can prevent infection and the C-terminal part of OspA is sufficient for protection against infection transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Here we show that the order of the stabilized monomeric OspA fragments making up the heterodimers in our LB vaccine does not influence the induced immunogenicity and protection. Using bioinformatics...


Wednesday 12 August 2015

Anaphylactoid reaction caused by sodium ceftriaxone in two horses experimentally infected by Borrelia burgdorferi

Conclusions: From the two cases presented here, it does appear that sodium ceftriaxone can induce anaphylactoid reactions in horses infected by Borrelia burgdorferi, which may evolve into colic syndrome, laminitis and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. However, further evidence should be collected in order to draw definite conclusions. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research)

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Tuesday 11 August 2015

The Search for Persisters

Lyme disease–causing bacteria can outmaneuver antibiotics in vitro and manipulate the mouse immune system. (Source: The Scientist)


Monday 10 August 2015

ESA Issues Statement on Tick-borne Diseases

Annapolis, MD; August 10, 2015 – The Entomological Society of America (ESA) recently released a statement (http://www.entsoc.org/ticks) supporting the creation and implementation of a national strategy using Integrated Tick Management to better control tick populations and reduce the rapidly escalating impact of tick-borne diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and Lyme disease. read more (Source: ESA News)


Monday 10 August 2015

Woman Loses Vision After Mosquito Bite Transmits Chikungunya Fever

By: Laura Geggel Published: 08/10/2015 10:38 AM EDT on LiveScience A woman who caught chikungunya fever while vacationing in the Caribbean wound up losing some of the vision in her right eye permanently, according to a new report of her case. The findings suggest that vision problems may be an underreported effect of the mosquito-transmitted virus, which has spread in recent years from Africa and Asia to the Caribbean, Latin America and parts of the United States, the report's authors said. "Sight-threatening visual loss can be a late complication of infection with chikungunya," said Dr. Abhijit Mohite, who treated the woman and co-authored the report of her case. [7 Devastating Infectious Diseases] It is important that people with vision problems get treatment early, to prevent lasting vi...


Monday 10 August 2015

Entomological Society of America issues statement on tick-borne diseases

(Entomological Society of America) The Entomological Society of America (ESA) recently released a statement supporting the creation and implementation of a national strategy using Integrated Tick Management to better control tick populations and reduce the rapidly escalating impact of tick-borne diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and Lyme disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)

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Monday 10 August 2015

The lipid raft proteome of Borrelia burgdorferi

This study provides the first analysis of a prokaryotic lipid raft and has relevance for the biology of Borrelia, other pathogenic bacteria, as well as for the evolution of these structures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics)


Sunday 9 August 2015

Molecular identification and bioinformatics analysis of a potential anti-vector vaccine candidate, 15-kDa salivary gland protein (Salp15), from Ixodes affinis ticks

In this study, we have identified a Salp15 homolog, designated as Iaff15, from Ixodes affinis ticks that are the principal enzootic vectors of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in the southeastern part of the United States. Comparison of the annotated amino acid sequences showed that Iaff15 share 81% homology with I. sinensis Salp15 homolog and 64% homology with I. scapularis Salp15. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Iaff15 come within the same clade with I. sinensis, I. scapularis and I. pacificus Salp15 homologs. The bioinformatics analysis of the posttranslational modifications prediction revealed that all the Salp15 family members contain glycosylation sites. In addition, Iaff15 carried a higher number of Casein Kinase II phosphorylation sites in comparison to the other Salp15 family memb...


Saturday 8 August 2015

10 Essential Facts About Lyme Disease

By Allison Pohle for Everyday Health Every year, U.S. state health departments report about 30,000 cases of Lyme disease to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). But the CDC says the true number of cases in the United States could be ten times as high. Lyme disease is transmitted to humans from tick bites. The ticks that transmit the disease are most active from April to September, which means spring and summer are the prime times for infection. With the right steps, and regular tick checks, however, you can prevent Lyme disease. Here are 10 things you should know about this tickborne disease: 1. You can only get Lyme disease from a tick bite. There is no evidence that Lyme disease can be transmitted from person-to-person, according to the CDC. You also can’t get Lyme dis...


Saturday 8 August 2015

Pathogenesis and the Immune Response

Borrelia burgdorferi is the tick-borne etiologic agent of Lyme disease. The spirochete must negotiate numerous barriers in order to establish a disseminated infection in a mammalian host. These barriers include migration from the feeding tick midgut to the salivary glands, deposition in skin, manipulation or evasion of the localized host immune response, adhesion to and extravasation through an endothelial barrier, hematogenous dissemination, and establishment of infection in distal tissue sites. Borrelia burgdorferi proteins that mediate many of these processes and the nature of the host response to infection are described. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)

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Saturday 8 August 2015

Mayo Clinic Q and A: Take precautions to avoid ticks and Lyme disease

DEAR MAYO CLINIC: In the summer, my kids play outdoors most of the day, and we have found ticks on their clothing. Is Lyme disease something I should be worried about? What are the early symptoms? Does bug spray keep ticks away? ANSWER: Lyme disease is the most common illness spread by ticks in the [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Saturday 8 August 2015

Detection, identification and genotyping of Borrellia spp. in rodents in Slovenia by PCR and culture

Conclusion: We determined the prevalence of B. afzelii in rodents and report for the first time the presence of B. miyamotoi in Slovenia. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research)


Thursday 6 August 2015

Undiagnosed Lyme disease in adults with schizophrenia

Lyme disease (LD) is the world's leading tick borne infection caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). This infection is a global health concern and is associated with numerous cardiologic, dermatologic, rheumatologic neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations (Bratton et al., 2008). Only a few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the frequency of antibodies to Bb in psychiatric patients; one study found only 1/517 (0.2%) of all adult psychiatric patients had Lyme titer seropositivity (Nadelman et al., 1997) and the other larger study found that 322/926 (35%) of psychiatric inpatients had seropositivity to antibodies to Bb (Hajek et al., 2002). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)


Thursday 6 August 2015

Middle region of the Borrelia burgdorferi surface‐located protein 1 (Lmp1) interacts with host chondroitin‐6‐sulfate and independently facilitates infection

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cellular Microbiology)


Thursday 6 August 2015

Relatively low prevalence of Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania

Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Marten J. Edwards, Laura A. Barbalato, Amulya Makkapati, Katerina D. Pham, Louise M. Bugbee Several human pathogens are transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. These include the spirochetes that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) which is endemic to the Lehigh Valley region of eastern Pennsylvania. Emerging and currently rare tick-borne diseases have been of increasing concern in this region, including tick-borne relapsing fever (caused by Borrelia miyamotoi), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum), and human babesiosis (caused by Babesia microti). Real-time PCR assays and in some instances, conventional PCR followed by DNA sequencing...


Wednesday 5 August 2015

Managing monoarthritis in children

Publication date: Available online 4 August 2015 Source:Joint Bone Spine Author(s): Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec, Matthias Thepaut, Romain Pecquery, Laetitia Houx Monoarthritis, defined as inflammation of a single joint, requires a thorough physical examination in children, as pain may be lacking in 10% to 30% of cases and joint stiffness may be the only symptom. Joint aspiration is a crucial diagnostic tool that remains markedly underused. Joint aspiration may be unnecessary, however, when the family history or other investigations provide the diagnosis. Radiographs of the involved joint may supply information on the severity of the lesions. In doubtful cases and in patients with arthralgia, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may confirm the presence of...

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Wednesday 5 August 2015

[Lyme disease in paediatrics].

Authors: Vázquez-López ME, Pérez-Pacín R, Díez-Morrondo C, Díaz P, Castro-Gago M PMID: 26254967 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anales de Pediatria)


Monday 3 August 2015

A Therapy That Rebuilds Your Defenses FAST

In ancient times, our ancestors had pure sources of the nutrients they needed to thrive. But they were limited in terms of how much they could get of any particular one. Organ meat gives you a wealth of nutrients, including protein, CoQ10, and a host of vitamins. But you can’t get really high doses of a nutrient or vitamin through food alone. That wasn’t a big issue for our ancestors because they had such a well-balanced environment. But it’s a big deal for you and me. In our toxic world, large doses of nutrients are sometimes necessary to balance or “straighten out” health concerns. This is a category of medicine I call “Ortho.” Ortho means, “to correct or straighten out.” If your basic needs for survival happen on a “Primal̶...


Monday 3 August 2015

Borrelia yangtzensis sp. nov. a rodent associated species in Asia is related to B. valaisiana.

Authors: Margos G, Chu CY, Takano A, Jiang BG, Liu W, Kurtenbach K, Masuzawa T, Fingerle V, Cao WC, Kawabata H Abstract Twenty nine isolates of Lyme borreliosis (LB) group spirochetes collected from ticks and rodents in China and Japan were included into multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Using a different typing system, three of these strains had previously been identified as being divergent from other LB spirochete species and the name "Borrelia yangtze" sp. nov. was proposed. The data presented here confirm that the genetic distance calculated using sequences of MLSA housekeeping genes to other known LB group spirochete species was <95 % and to B. valaisiana 96.67 % (which represents the closest related species within the group of LB spirochetes). This and the fact that the...


Saturday 1 August 2015

Pathogenesis of Lyme Neuroborreliosis in an Animal Model of Infection.

Authors: Baker PJ Abstract This Correspondence relates to the article by Ramesh et al (Inflammation in the pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Am J Pathol, 2015, 185:1344-1360). PMID: 26216287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Pathology)


Saturday 1 August 2015

Treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis with plasmapheresis

This study highlights that plasmapheresis could be a useful alternative for pediatric neuroborreliosis cases. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Clinical Apheresis)


Saturday 1 August 2015

The Many Masks of Cutaneous Lyme Disease

Abstract Early cutaneous Lyme disease, erythema migrans, may show different histopathologic patterns. The intent of this case series is to raise awareness of these findings to prevent misdiagnosis and keep this entity in the differential. Erythema migrans develops after a tick bite and subsequent infection with the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. It most commonly manifests as a solitary, annular lesion with a bull's‐eye appearance. Classic histopathologic findings include superficial and deep perivascular and interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates mixed with plasma cells and eosinophils. We identified and reviewed 8 cases of early erythema migrans. Each patient had confirmed B. burgdorferi IgM seropositivity and IgG seronegativity. Histopathologic evaluation of these biopsies reveals a d...

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Thursday 30 July 2015

Stoke University Hospital patient wakes from hysterectomy operation to find teeth missing

Clare Jones, 47, from Newcastle-under-Lyme, woke to two teeth missing after her operation at the Royal Stoke University Hospital. An investigation has been launched to establish what happened. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Wednesday 29 July 2015

Learn the ABCs of Ticks with Dr. Bobbi Pritt

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TX-fDlBRQns More areas in the United States are seeing human cases of Lyme disease. A recent report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows a significant increase in geographic areas — as much as 320 percent in the Northeast — determined as high risk for contracting the tick-borne illness. The Mayo Clinic Department of Laboratory Medicine and [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Wednesday 29 July 2015

Molecular survey of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodid ticks collected from hunted wild animals in Tuscany, Italy

Conclusions The results demonstrate the presence of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in the studied area, and underline the risk of exposure to infections for hunters not only during the outdoor activity, but also when they manipulate hunted animals infested by infected ticks. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine)


Tuesday 28 July 2015

Improving national surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark through electronic reporting of specific antibody index testing from 2010 to 2012.

Authors: Dessau RB, Espenhain L, Molbak K, Krause TG, Voldstedlund M PMID: 26212143 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)

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Tuesday 28 July 2015

Pediatric Acute Longitudinal Extensive Transverse Myelitis Secondary to Neuroborreliosis

We present the case of a 16-year-old male who developed acute left peripheral facial palsy and longitudinal extensive TM secondary to Lyme disease. Remarkably, the patient reported only mild symptoms with severe back pain in the absence of profound signs of myelopathy. We reviewed the medical literature and analyzed the clinical features of pediatric patients with Borrelia burgdorferi-related TM.Case Rep Neurol 2015;7:162-166 (Source: Case Reports in Neurology)


Tuesday 28 July 2015

Serological signature of tick-borne pathogens in Scandinavian brown bears over two decades

Conclusions: Our study is consistent with the view that ticks and tick-borne pathogens are expanding their abundance and prevalence in Scandinavia. Long-term serological monitoring of large mammals can provide insight into how anthropogenic disturbances are changing the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 28 July 2015

Lyme neuroborreliosis—epidemiology, diagnosis and management

Nature Reviews Neurology 11, 446 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2015.121 Authors: Uwe Koedel, Volker Fingerle & Hans-Walter Pfister Lyme disease, caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium, is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. The clinical presentation varies with disease stage, and neurological manifestations (often referred to as Lyme neuroborreliosis) are reported in up to 12% of patients with Lyme (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)


Monday 27 July 2015

Here's What You Need To Know About Ticks

Bad news: Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne illness, has more than doubled over the past 20 years. In 1995 there were just over 10,000 cases of Lyme disease reported. By 2013 there were over 25,000 confirmed cases and over 35,000 possible cases, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  While Lyme disease is curable with antibiotics when caught in early stages, if untreated, the illness can cause permanent and potentially devastating complications, from memory loss to chronic joint inflammation to heart arrhythmia. Know Your Risk While Lyme disease is the most famous illness ticks carry, it's far from the only one. Others include babesiosis, a disease caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells, ehrlichiosis, a general name for...


Monday 27 July 2015

The Neuroscience Report—Vol. 13 (July 27, 2015): Medical Illness or Mental Disorder?

The latest in neuroscience—sorted and summarized for you Welcome to the Neuroscience Report where each week we will highlight a specific topic in neuroscience and provide you with links to 5 journal articles, 5 news articles, and 5 wildcard picks. Brought to you by Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience—your source for peer-reviewed, evidence-based information. Volume 13 (July 27, 2015): Medical Illness or Mental Disorder? Journal Articles Hoarseness: A Sign of Self-induced Vomiting? Thiamine Deficiency and Delirium Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences Conversion Disorder— Mind Versus Body: A Review Differential Diagnosis of Hallucinations in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis   News Articles Childhood Trauma Can Lead to Adult Migraines Novel Drug Mechanism Addr...


Saturday 25 July 2015

Pathogenesis of Lyme Neuroborreliosis in an Animal Model of Infection

This Correspondence relates to the article by Ramesh et al (Inflammation in the pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Am J Pathol, 2015, 185:1344–1360). (Source: American Journal of Pathology)


Saturday 25 July 2015

Comparison of effectiveness of cefovecin, doxycycline, and amoxicillin for the treatment of experimentally induced early Lyme borreliosis in dogs

Conclusions: Convenia was efficacious against B. burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in dogs as determined by serological testing, PCR and histopathology results. Convenia provides an additional and effective treatment option for Lyme Disease in dogs. (Source: BMC Veterinary Research)


Friday 24 July 2015

Geographic Distribution and Expansion of Human Lyme Disease, United States.

We present a method for defining high-risk counties based on observed versus expected number of reported human Lyme disease cases. Applying this method to successive periods shows substantial geographic expansion of counties at high risk for Lyme disease. PMID: 26196670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)


Friday 24 July 2015

Identification of the minimal cytolytic unit for streptolysin S and an expansion of the toxin family

Conclusions: The mutagenesis data described herein indicate that the minimal cytolytic unit of SLS encompasses the NPH region of the core peptide. Interestingly, this region is found in all characterized TOMM cytolysins, as well as the novel putative TOMM cytolysins we discovered. We propose that this conserved region represents the defining feature of the SLS-like TOMM family. We demonstrate the cytolytic potential of a Bbsl SLS-like precursor peptide, which has a core region of similar length to the SLS minimal cytolytic unit, when modified with purified SLS biosynthetic enzymes. As such, we speculate that some Borrelia have the potential to produce a TOMM cytolysin, although the biological significance of this finding remains to be determined. In addition to providing new insight into t...

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Wednesday 22 July 2015

Lyme Disease: Why It's Spreading, How It Makes You Sick, and What To Do About It Barbour Alan G Lyme Disease: Why It's Spreading, How It Makes You Sick, and What To Do About It 330pp £15 Johns Hopkins University Press 978-1421417219 1421417219 [Formula: see text].

Authors: Abstract Lyme disease expert Alan Barbour has been involved in research into the disease since the 1982 discovery of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. PMID: 26198512 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)


Wednesday 22 July 2015

Application of multiplexing technology to the analysis of the intrathecally released immunoglobulins against B. burgdorferi antigens in neuroborreliosis.

Authors: Zajkowska J, Lelental N, Kulakowska A, Mroczko B, Pancewicz S, Bucki R, Kornhuber J, Lewczuk P Abstract Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is an infectious disease of the nervous system caused by the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The presence of Borrelia burgdorferi specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with evidence of intrathecal production, is the traditional diagnostic standard, although has limitations it such as low sensitivity in the very early phase. In the current study, 27 patients with possible neuroborreliosis suffered from clinically defined Bannwarth syndrome. The control group (CON) consisted of 6 patients. The analyses included function of the blood-CSF barrier (QAlb) as well as intrathecal synthesis of total IgG and IgM, (QIgG, and QIgM)...


Tuesday 21 July 2015

Lyme disease threat in the U.S. has spiked 320 percent

The CDC says the high-risk area for lyme disease is spreading (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Monday 20 July 2015

TGen and NAU developing accurate test to diagnose debilitating Lyme disease

(The Translational Genomics Research Institute) Focus On Lyme, an initiative sponsored by the Leadership Children's Foundation of Gilbert, Ariz., has donated $75,000 to the Translational Genomics Research Institute to support research into the development of a quick, affordable and accurate method of diagnosing Lyme disease. The most common vector-borne illness in the US, Lyme disease affects an estimated 300,000 Americans annually. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Monday 20 July 2015

Critical review of studies trying to evaluate the treatment of chronic Lyme disease.

Authors: Perronne C PMID: 26206701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Presse Medicale)


Monday 20 July 2015

[Lyme disease: Where is the controversy?]

Authors: Hansmann Y, Cazenave-Roblot F, Weinbreck P, Michelet C, Caumes E PMID: 26206702 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Presse Medicale)

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Friday 17 July 2015

The results are in: Inhalable Ebola vaccine, spread of Lyme disease

(Source: CNN.com - Health)


Friday 17 July 2015

Lyme Disease Cases Rising in Affected RegionsLyme Disease Cases Rising in Affected Regions

In a 20-year period, the number of high-incidence counties more than tripled in the northeastern states and more than doubled in north-central states. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Emergency Medicine Headlines)


Friday 17 July 2015

Erratum to: Physician reported incidence of early and late Lyme borreliosis

No description available (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Friday 17 July 2015

Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Adriana R. MarquesTeaser The majority of laboratory tests performed for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are based on detection of the antibody responses against B burgdorferi in serum. The sensitivity of antibody-based tests increases with the duration of the infection. Patients early in their illness are more likely to have a negative result. There is a need to simplify the testing algorithm for Lyme disease, improving sensitivity in early disease while still maintaining high specificity and providing information about the stage of infection. The development of a point of care assay and biomarkers for active infection would be major advances for the field. (Source: Infectious Dis...


Thursday 16 July 2015

U.S. High-Risk Areas for Lyme Disease Increasing

(Source: WebMD Health)



Thursday 16 July 2015

High-risk areas for Lyme disease growing, CDC says

Twice as many counties now have high Lyme disease risk, compared to a decade ago (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)



Thursday 16 July 2015

Lyme Disease Manifestations in the Foot and Ankle: A Retrospective Case Series

We present a retrospective case series of 11 cases of painful arthritis in the foot and ankle with confirmatory Lyme disease testing. (Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery)


Thursday 16 July 2015

Stroke-like Phenomena Revealing Multifocal Cerebral Vasculitis in Pediatric Lyme Neuroborreliosis

We report a previously healthy 12-year-old boy who presented with acute left hemiparesis and meningeal signs. Neuroimaging failed to reveal any cerebral infarction but demonstrated a multifocal cerebral vasculitis involving small, medium and large-sized vessels affecting both the anterior and posterior circulation. Concentric contrast enhancement of the basilar artery was also observed. Further investigations and laboratory findings were consistent with Lyme neuroborreliosis. A rapidly favorable clinical outcome was obtained with appropriate antibiotic treatment along with antiaggregants and steroids. Lyme neuroborreliosis should be considered in the diagnostic differential, not only in adults but also among children, especially in the context of an unexplained cerebral vasculitis. (Source...

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Thursday 16 July 2015

Uveitis in adults: What do rheumatologists need to know?

Publication date: Available online 14 July 2015 Source:Joint Bone Spine Author(s): Pascal Sève, Laurent Kodjikian, Léopold Adélaïde, Yvan Jamilloux Rheumatologists may need to establish the etiological diagnosis and handle the therapeutic management of adults with uveitis. To date, no diagnostic strategy for uveitis has been validated by prospective studies. Investigations are selected based on the clinical features and on the anatomic location of the ocular abnormalities. Infections such as syphilis, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, and Whipple's disease may cause uveitis, with concomitant joint inflammation in a few cases. In patients with a known history of chronic inflammatory joint disease, causes of uveitis include bisphosphonate therapy and immunodepression-related infections (...


Thursday 16 July 2015

Lyme Disease Manifestations in the Foot and Ankle: A Retrospective Case Series

Lyme disease is the result of Borrelia burgdorferi bacterial infection after exposure from a tick bite. A pathognomonic finding in early-stage Lyme disease is an expanding, red macular ring known as erythema migrans. Lyme arthritis is a late-stage manifestation of this disease, affecting the large, weightbearing joints with intermittent pain and swelling. The existing data on Lyme disease and subsequent arthritis have reported manifestations in the lower extremity, primarily in the knee and ankle and less commonly the small joints of the foot. (Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery)


Thursday 16 July 2015

A Dutch nationwide evaluation of serological assays for detection of antibodies in clinically well-defined patients

Numerous tests for the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi are commercially available. Manufacturer derived data invariably report a high sensitivity and specificity but comparative studies demonstrate large differences in clinical practice, especially with regard to specificity. We retrospectively collected data from validation studies for Borrelia burgdorferi antibody assays from eight laboratories in the Netherlands. The total number of samples was 809. Samples were selected based on clinical and laboratory parameters. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)


Wednesday 15 July 2015

Course and Outcome of Early Lyme Borreliosis in Patients With Hematological Malignancies

Patients with erythema migrans and underlying hematological malignancy more often had signs of disseminated Lyme borreliosis and more frequently needed antibiotic retreatment than sex-, age-, and antibiotic treatment–matched immunocompetent persons with erythema migrans. However, the outcome was excellent in both groups. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)

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Tuesday 14 July 2015

A novel duplex real-time PCR permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

Conclusion The duplex real-time PCR developed here represents a method that permits simultaneous detection and differentiation of B. burgdorferi s.l. and B. miyamotoi in environmental and potentially clinical samples. (Source: Infection)


Tuesday 14 July 2015

Annexin A2 Is a Target of Autoimmune T and B Cell Responses Associated with Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation in Patients with Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis.

In this study, autoantibody responses to annexin A2 were found in 11-15% of 278 patients with Lyme disease, including in those with erythema migrans (EM), an early sign of the illness, and in those with antibiotic-responsive or antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis (LA), a late disease manifestation. In contrast, robust T cell reactivity to annexin A2 peptides was found only in patients with responsive or refractory LA. In LA patients, annexin A2 protein levels, which were higher in the refractory group, correlated with annexin A2 antibody levels in sera and synovial fluid. In addition, in patients with antibiotic-refractory LA who had anti-annexin A2 antibodies, synovial tissue had intense staining for annexin A2 protein, greater synovial fibroblast proliferation and more tissue fibrosis. ...


Saturday 11 July 2015

An Examination of the Demographic and Environmental Variables Correlated with Lyme Disease Emergence in Virginia

This study used a Geographic Information System and a spatial Poisson regression model to examine correlations between demographic and land cover variables, and human Lyme disease from 2006 to 2010 in Virginia. Analysis indicated that herbaceous land cover is positively correlated with Lyme disease incidence rates. Areas with greater interspersion between herbaceous and forested land were also positively correlated with incidence rates. In addition, income and age were positively correlated with incidence rates. Levels of development, interspersion of herbaceous and developed land, and population density were negatively correlated with incidence rates. Abundance of forest fragments less than 2 hectares in area was not significantly correlated. Our results support some findings of previous ...


Friday 10 July 2015

Low risk of seroconversion or clinical disease in humans after a bite by an Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected tick

In this study we investigated the clinical and serological response in 30 humans bitten by ticks positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Group A), 30 humans bitten by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)-positive ticks (Group B), and 30 humans bitten by ticks negative for both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. (Group C). Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires were collected from tick-bitten humans at 34 primary healthcare centres in Sweden and in the Åland Islands, Finland, at the time of the tick bite and after three months. A total of 2 553 ticks detached from humans in 2007-2009 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction, and 31 (1.2%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 556 (21.8%) were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., and eight (0.3%) were co-infected by A. phagocytop...


Wednesday 8 July 2015

Mass. Residents Warned To Protect Against Ticks, Lyme Disease

BOSTON (CBS) — The State Department of Public Health is advising the public on how to avoid Lyme disease at a time when it’s been declared an epidemic in parts of the state. Deer ticks are thriving in the warm weather, especially south of Boston, where the growing deer population has brought an increased risk of ticks that spread Lyme disease. That’s why the Department of Public Health is posting videos reminding people to use insect repellent and check for ticks. “Just like you put on sunscreen, make it a habit to use an EPA-approved repellent anytime you are outdoors,” the video says. Early signs of Lyme disease are a rash followed by fever, chills and body aches, which can escalate to severe joint pain and neurological damage. WBZ NewsRadio 1030’s Carl Stevens ...

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Wednesday 8 July 2015

Interferon-α curbs production of interleukin-22 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to live Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Berner A, Bachmann M, Pfeilschifter J, Kraiczy P, Mühl H Abstract Cytokine networks initiated by means of innate immunity are regarded as a major determinant of host defence in response to acute infection by bacteria including Borrelia burgdorferi. Herein, we demonstrate that interferon (IFN)-α, either endogenously produced after exposure of cells to toll-like receptor-9-activating CpG oligonucleotides or provided as recombinant cytokine, weakens activation of the anti-bacterial interleukin (IL)-1/IL-22 axis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to viable B. burgdorferi. As IFN-α has been related to pathological dissemination of the spirochaete, data suggest an immunoregulatory role of type I IFN in this context that is able to significantly modify cytoki...


Wednesday 8 July 2015

Interferon‐α curbs production of interleukin‐22 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to live Borrelia burgdorferi

Abstract Cytokine networks initiated by means of innate immunity are regarded as a major determinant of host defence in response to acute infection by bacteria including Borrelia burgdorferi. Herein, we demonstrate that interferon (IFN)‐α, either endogenously produced after exposure of cells to toll‐like receptor‐9‐activating CpG oligonucleotides or provided as recombinant cytokine, weakens activation of the anti‐bacterial interleukin (IL)‐1/IL‐22 axis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to viable B. burgdorferi. As IFN‐α has been related to pathological dissemination of the spirochaete, data suggest an immunoregulatory role of type I IFN in this context that is able to significantly modify cytokine profiles thereby possibly determining early course of B....


Wednesday 8 July 2015

A Short-Term Borrelia burgdorferi Infection Model Identifies Tissue Tropisms and Bloodstream Survival Conferred by Adhesion Proteins [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is able to persist in the joint, heart, skin, and central nervous system for the lifetime of its mammalian host. Borrelia species achieve dissemination to distal sites in part by entry into and travel within the bloodstream. Much work has been performed in vitro describing the roles of many B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins in adhesion to host cell surface proteins and extracellular matrix components, although the biological relevance of these interactions is only beginning to be explored in vivo. A need exists in the field for an in vivo model to define the biological roles of B. burgdorferi adhesins in tissue-specific vascular interactions. We have developed an in vivo model of vascular interaction of B. ...


Wednesday 8 July 2015

Cyclic di-GMP Modulates Gene Expression in Lyme Disease Spirochetes at the Tick-Mammal Interface To Promote Spirochete Survival during the Blood Meal and Tick-to-Mammal Transmission [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, couples environmental sensing and gene regulation primarily via the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system (TCS) and Rrp2/RpoN/RpoS pathways. Beginning with acquisition, we reevaluated the contribution of these pathways to spirochete survival and gene regulation throughout the enzootic cycle. Live imaging of B. burgdorferi caught in the act of being acquired revealed that the absence of RpoS and the consequent derepression of tick-phase genes impart a Stay signal required for midgut colonization. In addition to the behavioral changes brought on by the RpoS-off state, acquisition requires activation of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthesis by the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS; B. burgdorferi lacking either component is destroyed during the blood meal. Prior studies att...


Tuesday 7 July 2015

The Mystery of Chronic Lyme Disease

After being treated for Lyme disease, some patients continue to have severe symptoms of the tick-borne disease for years. Experts are divided on what causes this and how to treat it. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)

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Monday 6 July 2015

How ticks that carry Lyme disease are spreading to new regions in the US

(Wiley) Lyme disease is currently estimated to affect 300,000 people in the US every year, and blacklegged ticks, the disease's main vector, have recently flourished in areas previously thought to be devoid of this arachnid. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Monday 6 July 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected Ixodes ricinus collected from vegetation near the Arctic Circle

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Dag Hvidsten , Frode Stordal , Malin Lager , Bjørg Rognerud , Bjørn-Erik Kristiansen , Andreas Matussek , Jeremy Gray , Snorre Stuen This is the first study to determine the density of questing Ixodes ricinus in northern Norway. It was performed at two sites in Brønnøy, which has been known for its tick permissive habitats for decades and is one of the northernmost habitats with an abundant I. ricinus population in the world. From April to November 2011, all stages of host-seeking I. ricinus were collected from the two sites. The overall prevalence of nymphs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 21% and that of adult ticks 46%. The rates of the genospecies B. afzelii, B. garinii...


Monday 6 July 2015

A man with cardiac Lyme borreliosis.

Authors: van Hattem JM, Keijer JT, Nijveldt R PMID: 26149700 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: cmaj)


Saturday 4 July 2015

Intestinal Pseudoobstruction Caused by Chronic Lyme Neuroborreliosis. A Case Report.

Authors: Schefte DF, Nordentoft T Abstract Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is often classified as idiopathic. The condition is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity, and treatment options are often unsatisfactory. A case of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction in a 66-year-old woman, presenting with back and abdominal pain, urinary retention and severe constipation is described. The patient lived in an area in which Lyme disease is endemic and had been bitten by ixodes ticks. Intrathecal synthesis of anti-borrelia IgM and IgG and lymphocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid was found, consistent with chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis since symptoms had lasted for more than six months. The patient's gastrointestinal function recovered and the pain subsided significant...

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Friday 3 July 2015

First report of Lyme neuroborreliosis in a returned Australian traveller.

Authors: Subedi S, Dickeson DJ, Branley JM PMID: 26126566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Med J Aust)


Friday 3 July 2015

Another Tick Threat?

I understand that there's a new danger from tick bites that is worse than Lyme disease, and that a virus transmitted by these bites can actually kill you. Can you tell me where these ticks are and how to avoid them? (Source: Dr. Weil Q and A)


Friday 3 July 2015

Lyme Disease: What the Wilderness Provider Needs to Know

Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015 Source:Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Author(s): Joseph D. Forrester , J. Priyanka Vakkalanka , Christopher P. Holstege , Paul S. Mead Lyme disease is a multisystem tickborne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most common vectorborne disease in the United States. Prognosis after initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is typically good if treated early. Wilderness providers caring for patients who live in or travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas should be aware of the basic biology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of Lyme disease. (Source: Wilderness and Environmental Medicine)


Friday 3 July 2015

Epidemiological situation of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium, 2003 to 2012

Conclusion Based on hospital records and laboratory results, no increasing trend in Lyme disease was observed over the 2003–2012 period in Belgium. These results are in line with the stable incidence of erythema migrans reported by a sentinel network of general practitionners between 2003 and 2009. Multi-source surveillance of vector-borne diseases should be further implemented. (Source: Archives of Public Health)


Wednesday 1 July 2015

Enhancing Lyme Disease Surveillance by Using Administrative Claims Data, Tennessee, USA

J. L. Clayton et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)

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Wednesday 1 July 2015

The increasing risk of Lyme disease in Canada.

The objectives of this article are to i) raise public awareness with the help of veterinarians on the emerging and expanding risk of Lyme disease across Canada, ii) review the key clinical features of Lyme disease in dogs, and iii) provide recommendations for veterinarians on the management of Lyme disease in dogs. PMID: 26130829 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Canadian Veterinary Journal)


Tuesday 30 June 2015

Morning Break: Ebola Back in Liberia, SCOTUS Redux, Lavigne's Lyme Lament

(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web, gathered by the MedPage Today staff. (Source: MedPage Today Public Health)


Tuesday 30 June 2015

Avril Lavigne 'doing a lot better' after Lyme disease treatment

(Source: CNN.com - Health)


Tuesday 30 June 2015

Tiny ticks could wreck your health for years says Lyme Disease Action

According to the NHS, in Britain around 3,000 people a year are diagnosed with Lyme disease. Six years ago, James, then aged ten, developed the condition. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Tuesday 30 June 2015

Patterns of tick infestation and their Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in Portugal

This study contributed to a better knowledge of the Ixodidae tick fauna parasitizing birds in Western Europe and to the assessment of the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. associated with birds and their ticks. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)

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Monday 29 June 2015

'I thought I was dying,' Avril Lavigne says of Lyme disease fight

When singer Avril Lavigne went missing from the music scene, there was tons of speculation. Was she pregnant? In rehab? Going through a split from her husband, Nickelback front man Chad Kroeger? (Source: CNN.com - Health)


Monday 29 June 2015

Avril Lavigne Breaks Down During Interview About Lyme Disease

Avril Lavigne made an emotional appearance on "Good Morning America" on Monday, as she opened up about her battle with Lyme disease. The 30-year-old singer broke down in tears as she revealed she was bedridden by the disease last October and frustrated as she saw specialist after specialist, each unable to properly diagnose her Lyme disease. "They would pull up their computer and be like, 'Chronic fatigue syndrome.' Or, 'Why don't you try to get out of bed, Avril, and just go play the piano?' It's like, 'Are you depressed?'" she explained to "GMA" special contributor Jesse Palmer. The singer added, "This is what they do to a lot of people who have Lyme disease. They don't have an answer for them so they tell them, like, 'You're crazy.'" The "Complicated" singer told "GMA" she's now abou...


Monday 29 June 2015

This Is the Weirdest Habit-Breaking Strategy

(Photo: Pablo Saldivia Salgado / EyeEm/Getty Images) By Melissa Dahl The latest episode of Psych Crunch, a new podcast hosted by Science of Us pal Christian Jarrett, is all about habits, and it includes a reference to what is maybe the weirdest habit-breaking strategy ever: Imagine your brain, say psychologists Kim Jenkins and Katy Tapper, is a city bus. Related: Changing a Habit Can Mess With Your Sense of Self This city bus is filled with noisy weirdos, as city buses often are; think of the noisy weirdos as your craving for chocolate, or the urge to bite your nails -- whatever habit you're trying to break. And you, they continue, are the driver of said bus. You can't help hearing the loud passengers, but you don't have to take direction from them; you are the one driving the bus. You'll...


Friday 26 June 2015

Save Wildlife, Save Yourself?

Protecting the environment may reduce many diseases, such as Lyme and West Nile, a study finds. The tantalizing idea suggests that conservation and human health may be more connected than we thought.» E-Mail This (Source: NPR Health and Science)


Thursday 25 June 2015

Alternative Lab Tests May Not Reliably Diagnose Lyme Disease Alternative Lab Tests May Not Reliably Diagnose Lyme Disease

Lyme disease diagnosed by alternative laboratory methods is indistinguishable by detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation from chronic fatigue syndrome, a case-control study suggests. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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Thursday 25 June 2015

Long-term Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Culture-Confirmed Early Lyme Disease

The health-related quality of life of 100 subjects with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease enrolled in a prospective study with annual follow-up visits was evaluated using the 36-Item Short Form General Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) questionnaire at 11–20 years after diagnosis. The mean summary scores of physical and mental health were similar to those of the general population. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 25 June 2015

Editorial Commentary: Life After Lyme Disease

(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 25 June 2015

Inhibition of the endosymbiont “Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii” during 16S rRNA gene profiling reveals potential pathogens in Ixodes ticks from Australia

Conclusions: Abundant bacterial endosymbionts, such as CMM, limit the effectiveness of next-generation 16S bacterial community profiling in arthropods by masking less abundant bacteria, including pathogens. Specific blocking primers that inhibit endosymbiont 16S amplification during PCR are an effective way of reducing this limitation. Here, this strategy provided the first evidence of a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. and of novel “Candidatus Neoehrlichia” spp. in Australia. Our results raise new questions about tick-borne pathogens in I. holocyclus ticks. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 23 June 2015

Parkinson disease: High infection burden in patients with Parkinson disease

Nature Reviews Neurology 11, 370 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2015.112 Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) were found to be more likely to have evidence of viral and bacterial infections than were controls. Bu and colleagues assessed serum samples for antibodies against cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori and other pathogens. Seropositivity for (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)


Friday 19 June 2015

Combination of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Nested PCR for Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Human Serum Samples

Publication date: April 2015 Source:Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, Volume 28, Issue 4 Author(s): Liu Li ZHANG , Xue Xia HOU , Zhen GENG , Yong Liang LOU , Kang Lin WAN , Qin HAO A set of universal loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers targeting the fla gene was designed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) in human samples. The sensitivity of LAMP was 20 copies/reaction, and the assay did not detect false positives among 11 other related bacteria. A positive LAMP result was obtained for 9 of the 24 confirmed cases and for 12 of 94 suspected cases. The positive rate of LAMP was the same as that of nested PCR. The LAMP is a useful diagnostic method that can be developed for rapid detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. in human sera. Combination ...

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Friday 19 June 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co‐infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany

Abstract To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe‐based quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borre...


Wednesday 17 June 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi clinical isolates induce human innate immune responses that are not dependent on genotype.

In conclusion, we demonstrate that the RST 1 and 3 isolates showed no distinction in their susceptibility to the various components of the human immune system studied here, suggesting that other factors are responsible for their differential invasiveness. PMID: 26093919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunobiology)


Wednesday 17 June 2015

The Putative Role of Viruses, Bacteria, and Chronic Fungal Biotoxin Exposure in the Genesis of Intractable Fatigue Accompanied by Cognitive and Physical Disability

Abstract Patients who present with severe intractable apparently idiopathic fatigue accompanied by profound physical and or cognitive disability present a significant therapeutic challenge. The effect of psychological counseling is limited, with significant but very slight improvements in psychometric measures of fatigue and disability but no improvement on scientific measures of physical impairment compared to controls. Similarly, exercise regimes either produce significant, but practically unimportant, benefit or provoke symptom exacerbation. Many such patients are afforded the exclusionary, non-specific diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome if rudimentary testing fails to discover the cause of their symptoms. More sophisticated investigations often reveal the presence of a rang...


Monday 15 June 2015

Macrophage Polarization during Murine Lyme Borreliosis [Host Response and Inflammation]

Infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, reliably produces an infectious arthritis and carditis that peak around 3 weeks postinfection and then spontaneously resolve. Macrophage polarization has been suggested to drive inflammation, the clearance of bacteria, and tissue repair and resolution in a variety of infectious disease models. During Lyme disease it is clear that macrophages are capable of clearing Borrelia spirochetes and exhausted neutrophils; however, the role of macrophage phenotype in disease development or resolution has not been studied. Using classical (NOS2) and alternative (CD206) macrophage subset-specific markers, we determined the phenotype of F4/80+ macrophages within the joints and heart throughout the infection time course...


Monday 15 June 2015

Infection of Interleukin 17 Receptor A-Deficient C3H Mice with Borrelia burgdorferi Does Not Affect Their Development of Lyme Arthritis and Carditis [Host Response and Inflammation]

Recently, a number of studies have reported the presence of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in patients with Lyme disease, and several murine studies have suggested a role for this cytokine in the development of Lyme arthritis. However, the role of IL-17 has not been studied using the experimental Lyme borreliosis model of infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. In the current study, we investigated the role of IL-17 in the development of experimental Lyme borreliosis by infecting C3H mice devoid of the common IL-17 receptor A subunit (IL-17RA) and thus deficient in most IL-17 signaling. Infection of both C3H and C3H IL-17RA–/– mice led to the production of high levels of IL-17 in the serum, low levels in the heart tissue, and no detectable IL-17 in the joint tissue. The develo...

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Friday 12 June 2015

Widespread Borrelia miyamotoi Tick-borne Fever Found in US Widespread Borrelia miyamotoi Tick-borne Fever Found in US

A new, and potentially more severe, infection transmitted by the same ticks that carry Lyme disease was much more common in the United States in 2013 than expected, especially in the Northeast. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)


Friday 12 June 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme disease in low-incidence states

Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Joseph D. Forrester , Meghan Brett , James Matthias , Danielle Stanek , Chasisity Brown Springs , Nicola Marsden-Haug , Hanna Oltean , JoDee Summers Baker , Kiersten J. Kugeler , Paul S. Mead , Alison Hinckley Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Surveillance data from four states with a low-incidence of Lyme disease was performed. Most cases occurred after travel to high-incidence Lyme disease areas. Cases without travel-related exposure in low-incidence states differed epidemiologically; misdiagnosis may be common in these areas. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Friday 12 June 2015

How far north are migrant birds transporting the tick Ixodes scapularis in Canada? Insights from stable hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers

Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): N.H. Ogden , I.K. Barker , C.A. Francis , A. Heagy , L.R. Lindsay , K.A. Hobson Lyme disease is emerging in Canada because of northward range expansion of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis. It is hypothesised that I. scapularis feeding on passerine birds migrating north in spring are important in founding new I. scapularis populations leading to northward range expansion. However, there are no studies on how far north I. scapularis may be carried, only inferences from passive tick surveillance. We used stable hydrogen isotope (δ2H) analysis of rectrices collected from northward migrating, I. scapularis-carrying, passerine birds captured in Canada to estimate how far north I. scapularis may be...


Friday 12 June 2015

Geographical and Temporal Correlations in the Incidence of Lyme Disease, RMSF, Ehrlichiosis, and Coccidioidomycosis with Search Data

Authors: Vladimir Ratushny & Gideon P Smith (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)


Thursday 11 June 2015

Teenager discovers new planet during work experience - video report

A Newcastle-under-Lyme school pupil has discovered a new planet while on a work placement. Tom Wagg, 17, was doing work experience with an astrophysics professor at Keele University when he spotted a minuscule dip in the light from a faraway star that he knew could be caused by a planet passing in front of it. Two years later the large gas form in the southern constellation of Hydra was confirmed as a planet Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)

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Thursday 11 June 2015

Schoolboy on work experience discovers planet

Newcastle-under-Lyme pupil Tom Wagg spotted dip in light which revealed existence of a planet while on placement at Keele University two years agoA schoolboy doing work experience with an astrophysics professor has discovered a new planet 1,000 light years from Earth.Newcastle-under-Lyme school pupil Tom Wagg was 15 when he went for his work placement at Keele University, where he spotted a minuscule dip in the light from a faraway star that he knew could be caused by a planet passing in front of it. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)


Thursday 11 June 2015

Ticks can transmit a new Lyme-like disease

There are several good reasons to keep ticks off your body. One is that they are creepy and suck your blood. Another is that they can transmit 14 different diseases—not just Lyme disease. A report published online this week in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine describes the newest tick-borne disease in North America, which is caused by a bacterium known as Borrelia miyamotoi. The microbe was first identified in Japan in 1995. The first report of it infecting humans came from Russia in 2011. Cases began appearing in the northeastern United States in 2013. Borrelia miyamotoi is a spiral-shaped bacterium that is related to the one that causes Lyme disease, another tick-borne infection. Infection with Borrelia miyamotoi often causes a recurring fever, as well as headache, muscle aches,...


Thursday 11 June 2015

Ticked Off--What We Don't Know About Lyme Disease

I didn’t see the tiny danger lurking in my own yard. Yet for Lyme disease awareness month, just ended, it seems I am learning experientially. I’ve had Lyme at least once before, and found three attached deer ticks on me just in 10 days. I may have had Lyme a second time, last year, but diagnostic tests are so poor that we don’t know. Here’s some of what I learned from my experience and for caring for others in my infectious disease practice. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)


Wednesday 10 June 2015

Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada

Authors: Manisha A Kulkarni, Lea Berrang-Ford, Peter A Buck, Michael A Drebot, L Robbin Lindsay & Nicholas H Ogden (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

The List Of Tick-Transmitted Diseases Is Growing

WASHINGTON (AP) — Lyme disease makes the headlines but there are plenty of additional reasons to avoid tick bites. New research highlights the latest in a growing list of tick-borne threats — a distant relative of Lyme that's easy to confuse with other illnesses. Monday's study suggests a kind of bacteria with an unwieldy name — Borrelia miyamotoi — should be on the radar when people in Lyme-endemic areas get otherwise unexplained summertime fevers. It's one of several recently discovered diseases linked to ticks in different parts of the country, a reminder to get tick-savvy no matter where you live. "People need to be aware of what tick-borne diseases are in their area," says Dr. Peter J. Krause of Yale University, a specialist who reviewed the research. "And they should know h...

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Tuesday 9 June 2015

APHA Releases New Version of Control of Communicable Diseases Manual for Mobile and Web

The American Public Health Association and Unbound Medicine have announced the release of an updated version of Control of Communicable Diseases Manual for Mobile and Web that includes up-to-date information about the occurrence, transmission, resistance and control of communicable diseases. Free previews are available of chapters on Ebola, listeriosis, Lyme Disease, Rift Valley Fever and meningitis. (Source: PHPartners.org)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Alabama Lyme Disease Association Has Representation on Commission...

Alabama Lyme Disease Association representative to serve on commission to study Lyme disease, and other tick-borne illnesses in Alabama(PRWeb June 09, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/06/prweb12775051.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Bay Area Lyme Foundation awards diagnostic grant to Harvard Medical School researchers

(DDC) Harvard Medical School research collaborators Nira Pollock, M.D., Ph.D., and John Branda, M.D. have just been awarded the 2015 Emerging Leader Award from Bay Area Lyme Foundation, the leading national nonprofit funder of innovative Lyme disease research. The $100,000 grant that accompanies this award will support research on a potential biomarker for Lyme disease, which may lead to the development of a novel urine test for early Lyme disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Tick season health warning

Summer is peak season for ticks and the diseases they can spread. Lyme disease is the most well-known tick-borne illness, but it's not the only one to watch out for. Marlie Hall has more on what you need to know. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Lyme disease not the only reason to avoid ticks

Researchers say a newly identified tick-borne disease may be on the rise in the northeastern U.S. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)

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Tuesday 9 June 2015

Prevent and manage Lyme disease with antibacterials based on patient characteristics, local causative species and disease manifestations

Abstract The optimal management of Lyme disease involves the use of antibacterials as prophylaxis and to treat manifestations of the disease. Treatment guidelines offer somewhat conflicting recommendations due to the absence of strong and compelling clinical evidence regarding the treatment of this disease. Ultimate treatment decisions should be made by the physician based on clinical judgement and the individual patient’s circumstances. (Source: Drugs and Therapy Perspectives)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

Response to Esteve-Gassent et al.: flaB sequences obtained from Texas PCR products are identical to the positive control strain Borrelia burgdorferi B31

Feria-Arroyo et al. had reported previously that, based on PCR analysis, 45 % of Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Texas and Mexico were infected with the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Parasit. Vectors 2014, 7:199). However, our analyses of their initial data (Parasit. Vectors 2014, 7:467) and a recent response by Esteve-Gassent et al. (Parasit. Vectors 2015, 8:129) provide evidence that the positive PCR results obtained from both ribosomal RNA intergenic sequences and the flagellin gene flaB are highly likely due to contamination by the B. burgdorferi B31 positive control strain. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 9 June 2015

New Tickborne Infection, More Common Than Once Believed, Circulating In Northeastern U.S.

While most of us are concerned about Lyme disease, a tickborne illness circulating during the spring and summertime in the Northeastern U.S, there is another, potentially more serious infection to be aware of as well. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)


Friday 5 June 2015

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the black‐legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, within southwestern Pennsylvania

ABSTRACT Prevalence studies of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been rare for ticks from southwestern Pennsylvania. We collected 325 Ixodes scapularis ticks between 2011 and 2012 from four counties in southwestern Pennsylvania. We tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using PCR. Of the ticks collected from Pennsylvania, B. burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease) was present in 114/325 (35%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis) was present in 48/325 (15%) as determined by PCR analysis. (Source: Journal of Vector Ecology)


Friday 5 June 2015

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in adult female ticks (Ixodes scapularis), Wisconsin 2010–2013

(Source: Journal of Vector Ecology)

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Thursday 4 June 2015

Lyme carditis--diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

CONCLUSION: Lyme carditis is among the rarer manifestations of Lyme borreliosis but must nevertheless be considered prominently in differential diagnosis because of the potentially severe cardiac arrhythmias that it can cause. PMID: 25838022 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Deutsches Arzteblatt International)


Thursday 4 June 2015

Bullying Borrelia: when the culture of science is under attack.

Authors: Auwaerter PG, Melia MT Abstract Although Lyme disease responds to short courses of antibiotics, tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi has been advanced by some as a frequent explanation for medically unexplained symptoms such as continual fatigue, musculoskeletal pains, and subjective neurocognitive dysfunction. Often called "chronic Lyme disease" by adherents of this philosophy, it is loosely defined, and practitioners liberally prescribe nostrums, including prolonged antimicrobial therapies, in a belief that this eradicates suspected infection. Perhaps due to the lack of supportive data, proponents of this theory have developed their own meetings, literature, activist groups, and substantial internet activities to advance their views. Forces motivating this movement are explor...


Wednesday 3 June 2015

The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in SW Poland.

Authors: Kiewra D, Zaleśny G, Czułowska A Abstract Ticks constitute important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides the Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis, other pathogens such as Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are of increasing public health interest. In Poland, as in other European countries, Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species responsible for the majority of tick bites in humans, is the main vector of A. phagocytophilum. The aim of the study was to estimate the infection level of I. ricinus with A. phagocytophilum in selected districts, not previously surveyed for the presence of this agent. Sampling of questing ticks was performed in 12 forested sites, located in four districts (Legnica, Milicz, Lubań, and Oława)...


Wednesday 3 June 2015

Cross-border surveillance differences: tick-borne encephalitis and lyme borreliosis in the Czech Republic and Poland, 1999-2008.

Authors: Stefanoff P, Orliková H, Príkazský V, Bene C, Rosińska M Abstract We compared neighbouring regions of the Czech Republic (CZ) and Poland (PL) situated within 100 km of the country border, in order to compare surveillance systems performance in measuring the burden of tick-borne diseases in both countries. We used routine surveillance notifications from 1999-2008 on tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB). We assessed the crude risk ratio (RR) across the country border, and its estimates adjusted for both population density and the expected epidemiological gradient across the region, using negative binomial regression. The crude RR between CZ and PL was 7.43 (95% Cl 6.20-8.90) for TBE, and 1.80 (1.76-1.83) for LB. The adjusted RR for TBE increased from 4...

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Wednesday 3 June 2015

[Epidemiology of Lyme disease in a healthcare area in north-west Spain].

CONCLUSIONS: Due to the increase of the disease in north-west Spain and the differences observed between the different areas, epidemiological studies are needed that increase the index of diagnostic suspicion and lead to the implementation of effective prevention measures. PMID: 25726250 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Gaceta Sanitaria)


Wednesday 3 June 2015

Recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

CONCLUSION: Targeted antibiotic treatment of Bb-related recent-onset DCM in addition to conventional heart failure therapy is associated with favorable cardiac remodeling and improvement of heart failure symptoms. PMID: 25939436 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Herz)


Wednesday 3 June 2015

Identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi from the NCI compound collection

Authors: Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang & Ying Zhang (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)


Tuesday 2 June 2015

Your NEJM Group Today: Disseminated Lyme Image, Sumatriptan & Migraine with Aura, Boston Hospitalist Opportunity (FREE)

By the Editors NEJM Group offers so many valuable resources for practicing clinicians. Here's what we chose for you today:NEJM Clinical Practice Center: Check out … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Monday 1 June 2015

My Daughter's Mysterious Illness -- And My Own

For TueNight.com by Allison Czarnecki (Photos: Courtesy Allison Czarnecki. Photos from left to right: Allison and her daughter as a baby, Allison's daughter in the hospital getting tests, Allison's daughter now; Photo collage: Helen Jane Hearn/TueNight.com) Exactly one year ago, my teenage daughter got sick. Really sick. One day, out of the blue, she woke up and couldn't get out of bed. Up to this point, my then 14-year-old daughter had been a wildly healthy, state-championship swimmer who played the cello in an honors orchestra, earned straight As in all her classes. She was heavily involved in leadership positions in our church and in an assortment of other extracurricular activities at school and in the community. She's beautiful, talented, smart, kind, friendly, and if you were to ...

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Monday 1 June 2015

Researchers' discovery may explain difficulty in treating Lyme disease

The bac­terium that causes Lyme dis­ease forms dor­mant per­sister cells, which are known to evade antibi­otics, researchers have discovered. This sig­nif­i­cant finding, they said, could help explain why it's so dif­fi­cult to treat the infec­tion in some patients. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 1 June 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co‐infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany

Abstract To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe‐based quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Bor...

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Monday 1 June 2015

Efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for acute Lyme neuroborreliosis – a systematic review

ConclusionsEvidence regarding pharmacological treatment of acute Lyme neuroborreliosis is scarce and therefore insufficient to recommend preference of beta‐lactam antibiotics over doxycycline or vice versa. However, due to considerable imprecision, relevant differences between treatments cannot be excluded. No evidence suggesting benefits of extended antibiotic treatments could be identified. Further well‐designed trials are needed. Individual treatment decisions should address patients' preferences and individual conditions like prior allergic reactions. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)


Monday 1 June 2015

Seroprevalence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis in Canada as determined by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Authors: Schvartz G, Epp T, Burgess HJ, Chilton NB, Pearl DL, Lohmann KL Abstract Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are an emerging concern in Canada. We estimated the seroprevalence of EGA and equine LB by testing 376 convenience serum samples from 3 provinces using a point-of-care SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) ELISA (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA), and investigated the agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and laboratory-based serologic tests. The estimated seroprevalence for EGA was 0.53% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 0.71% in Manitoba), while the estimated seroprevalence for LB was 1.6% overall (0.49% in Saskatchewan, 2.86% in Manitoba). There was limited agreement between the point-of-care ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test for ...


Monday 1 June 2015

Sinus Pause in Association with Lyme Carditis.

We report the unusual case of a 59-year-old man who presented with new-onset symptomatic sinus pauses one month after hiking in upstate New York. To our knowledge, this is the first case report from North America that describes the relationship between symptomatic sinus pause and Lyme carditis. PMID: 26175640 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Texas Heart Institute Journal)


Saturday 30 May 2015

Association between body size and reservoir competence of mammals bearing Borrelia burgdorferi at an endemic site in the northeastern United States

Conclusions: These empirical findings as well as inferences from modeling suggest that small mammals on the basis of their sizes are more competent as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in this environment than medium-to large-sized mammals. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Disseminated Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 372, Issue 22, Page 2136-2136, May 2015. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) – Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence

Publication date: Available online 27 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): V. Hönig , P. Svec , P. Halas , Z. Vavruskova , H. Tykalova , P. Kilian , V. Vetiskova , V. Dornakova , J. Sterbova , Z. Simonova , J. Erhart , J. Sterba , M. Golovchenko , N. Rudenko , L. Grubhoffer Spatial distribution of Ixodes ricinus tick host-seeking activity, as well as prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were studied in the TBE endemic area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic). High variability in tick abundance detected in a network of 30 study sites was most closely associated with characteristics of vegetation cover. Of 11,182 tested tick samples, 12% carried DNA of spirochete from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex. B. afzelii and B. garin...


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Tick-borne bacteria in Ixodes ricinus collected in southern Norway evaluated by a commercial kit and established real-time PCR protocols

Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): H. Quarsten , T. Skarpaas , L. Fajs , S. Noraas , V. Kjelland Ticks are important vectors of human pathogens. The knowledge of disease causing agents harboured by ticks in Norway is limited. The focus of this study was (a) to detect the bacteria of medical importance in ticks collected from the vegetation at locations in the southern part of the country and (b) to evaluate a novel commercially available multiplex PCR based method by comparing results with conventional established real-time PCR protocols. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was confirmed to be the most prevalent pathogen detected (31%) among one hundred individually analysed adult ticks. Borrelia miyamotoi, a spirochete associated...

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Wednesday 27 May 2015

Climate change influences on the annual onset of Lyme disease in the United States

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Andrew J. Monaghan , Sean M. Moore , Kevin M. Sampson , Charles B. Beard , Rebecca J. Eisen Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States. Lyme disease occurrence is highly seasonal and the annual springtime onset of cases is modulated by meteorological conditions in preceding months. A meteorological-based empirical model for Lyme disease onset week in the United States is driven with downscaled simulations from five global climate models and four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios to project the impacts of 21st century climate change on the annual onset week of Lyme disease. Projections are made individually and collectively for the 12 eastern States whe...


Wednesday 27 May 2015

Broad diversity of host responses of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus to Borrelia infection and antigens

Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Vanessa Cook , Alan G. Barbour Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse, is one of the more abundant mammals of North America and is a major reservoir host for at least five tickborne diseases of humans, including Lyme disease and a newly-recognized form of relapsing fever. In comparison to Mus musculus, which is not a natural reservoir for any of these infections, there has been little research on experimental infections in P. leucopus. With the aim of further characterizing the diversity of phenotypes of host responses, we studied a selection of quantitative traits in colony-bred and -reared outbred P. leucopus adults that were uninfected, infected with the relapsing fever agent Borrelia...


Monday 25 May 2015

Development of a Metabolic Biosignature for Detection of Early Lyme Disease

Conclusions. The data provide proof-of-concept that metabolic profiling for early Lyme disease can achieve significantly greater (P < .0001) diagnostic sensitivity than current 2-tier serology, while retaining high specificity. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Monday 25 May 2015

Unorthodox Alternative Therapies Marketed to Treat Lyme Disease

Conclusions. Providers of alternative therapies commonly target patients who believe they have Lyme disease. The efficacy of these unconventional treatments for Lyme disease is not supported by scientific evidence, and in many cases they are potentially harmful. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Monday 25 May 2015

Editorial Commentary: What Constitutes Appropriate Treatment of Post-Lyme Disease Symptoms and Other Pain and Fatigue Syndromes?

(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)

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Friday 22 May 2015

Oligoarthritis Caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

Authors: Markowicz M, Ladstatter S, Schotta AM, Reiter M, Pomberger G, Stanek G Abstract A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions. PMID: 25992945 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 21 May 2015

Delayed Onset of the Jarisch–Herxheimer Reaction in Doxycycline-Treated Disease: A Case Report and Review of its Histopathology and Implications for Pathogenesis

Abstract: The Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction (JHR) is a transient inflammatory syndrome triggered hours after the start of antibiotic treatment of spirochete infections, namely syphilis. Clinically, JHR manifests as an abrupt onset of constitutional symptoms and exacerbation of cutaneous lesions that resolve without intervention. JHR's pathogenesis is unclear and it is histopathologically rarely reported. Herein, the authors report a 47-year-old woman, with solitary erythema migrans and positive Lyme disease serology, who presented for medical care 14 days after commencement of doxycycline therapy. She complained of malaise, facial flushing, gingival erythema, and acquisition of additional plaques characterized by swelling, increased erythema, pruritus, and exfoliative scale. Punch biopsies...


Wednesday 20 May 2015

Changes in antibody reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi three months after a tick bite. A cohort of 1,886 persons.

In conclusion, 5.4% of people with tick bites developed a rise in borrelia-specific antibodies above the 2.5% percentile in either ELISA assay, but only 40 (2.1%) developed clinical Lyme borreliosis. PMID: 25994550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Erythema Migrans

Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common objective manifestation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Systemic symptoms are usually present. Most patients do not recall a preceding tick bite. Despite a characteristic appearance, EM is not pathognomonic for Lyme disease and must be distinguished from other similar appearing skin lesions. EM is a clinical diagnosis; serologic and PCR assays are unnecessary. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are indicative of either an alternative diagnosis, or coinfection with another tick-borne pathogen. When EM is promptly treated with appropriate antimicrobial agents, the prognosis is excellent. Persons in endemic areas should take measures to prevent tick bites. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Nervous System Lyme Disease

Lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis or radiculoneuritis occur in up to 15% of patients with untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Presentations of multifocal PNS involvement can range from painful monoradiculitis to confluent mononeuropathy multiplex. Serologic testing is highly accurate after 4 to 6 weeks of infection. In CNS infection, production of anti-B burgdorferi antibody is often demonstrable in CSF. Oral antimicrobials are microbiologically curative in virtually all patients, including acute European neuroborreliosis. Severe cases may require parenteral treatment. The fatigue and cognitive symptoms seen in some patients with extra-neurological disease are neither evidence of CNS infection nor specific to Lyme disease. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Carditis

Lyme disease is a common disease that uncommonly affects the heart. Because of the rarity of this diagnosis and the frequent absence of other concurrent clinical manifestations of early Lyme disease, consideration of Lyme carditis demands a high level of suspicion when patients in endemic areas come to attention with cardiovascular symptoms and evidence of higher-order heart block. A majority of cases manifest as atrioventricular block. A minority of Lyme carditis cases are associated with myopericarditis. Like other manifestations of Lyme disease, carditis can readily be managed with antibiotic therapy and supportive care measures, such that affected patients almost always completely recover. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Arthritis

This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of Lyme arthritis. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

The majority of laboratory tests performed for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are based on detection of the antibody responses against B burgdorferi in serum. The sensitivity of antibody-based tests increases with the duration of the infection. Patients early in their illness are more likely to have a negative result. There is a need to simplify the testing algorithm for Lyme disease, improving sensitivity in early disease while still maintaining high specificity and providing information about the stage of infection. The development of a point of care assay and biomarkers for active infection would be major advances for the field. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Chronic Lyme Disease

Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, a deer tick–transmitted rickettsial infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a common cause of undifferentiated fever in the northeast and upper Midwest United States. Patients are often initially diagnosed with a mild viral infection, and illness readily resolves in most cases. However, as many as 3% develop life-threatening complications and nearly 1% die from the infection. Although coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti occur, there is little evidence to suggest synergism of disease or a role for A phagocytophilum in chronic illness. No vaccine is available. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is transmitted to humans by certain species of Ixodes ticks, which are found widely in temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Clinical features are diverse, but death is rare. The risk of human infection is determined by the geographic distribution of vector tick species, ecologic factors that influence tick infection rates, and human behaviors that promote tick bite. Rates of infection are highest among children 5 to 15 years old and adults older than 50 years. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease in Children

The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children. (Source: Infe...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

The prognosis following appropriate antibiotic treatment of early or late Lyme disease is favorable but can be complicated by persistent symptoms of unknown cause termed posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), characterized by fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints that persist for 6 months or longer after completion of antibiotic therapy. Risk factors include delayed diagnosis, increased severity of symptoms, and presence of neurologic symptoms at time of initial treatment. Two-tier serologic testing is neither sensitive nor specific for diagnosis of PTLDS because of variability in convalescent serologic responses after treatment of early Lyme disease. Optimal treatment of PTLDS awaits more precise understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in this il...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease: Knowing Good Evidence to Help Inform Practice

Depending on the clinical situation and presence or absence of preconceived notions, evaluations for Lyme disease can range from efficient visits solved with a short course of antibiotic therapy to involved encounters that include a review of long-standing, nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue and pain that are less likely to represent an active infection. While the majority of patients with authentic Lyme disease improve with treatment, some have a slower resolution of symptoms and still others appear to have problems persisting beyond 6 months, which is called posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease and Other Infections Transmitted by

INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease Advances and Challenges

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Adriana R. MarquesTeaser The majority of laboratory tests performed for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are based on detection of the antibody responses against B burgdorferi in serum. The sensitivity of antibody-based tests increases with the duration of the infection. Patients early in their illness are more likely to have a negative result. There is a need to simplify the testing algorithm for Lyme disease, improving sensitivity in early disease while still maintaining high specificity and providing information about the stage of infection. The development of a point of care assay and biomarkers for active infection would be major advances for the field. (Source: Infectious Dise...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Chronic Lyme Disease

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul M. LantosTeaser Chronic Lyme disease is a poorly defined diagnosis that is usually given to patients with prolonged, unexplained symptoms or with alternative medical diagnoses. Data do not support the proposition that chronic, treatment-refractory infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is responsible for the many conditions that get labeled as chronic Lyme disease. Prolonged symptoms after successful treatment of Lyme disease are uncommon, but in rare cases may be severe. Prolonged courses of antibiotics neither prevent nor ameliorate these symptoms and are associated with considerable harm. (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Carditis

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Matthew L. Robinson , Takaaki Kobayashi , Yvonne Higgins , Hugh Calkins , Michael T. MeliaTeaser Lyme disease is a common disease that uncommonly affects the heart. Because of the rarity of this diagnosis and the frequent absence of other concurrent clinical manifestations of early Lyme disease, consideration of Lyme carditis demands a high level of suspicion when patients in endemic areas come to attention with cardiovascular symptoms and evidence of higher-order heart block. A majority of cases manifest as atrioventricular block. A minority of Lyme carditis cases are associated with myopericarditis. Like other manifestations of Lyme disease, carditis can readily be managed with...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Cerebrovascular Events in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Cerebrovascular events in neuroborreliosis are a rare condition described only in isolated or small case series. No specific clinical or radiological features have been identified, and diagnosis is based on very different criteria. (Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Nervous System Lyme Disease

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): John J. HalperinTeaser Lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuritis or radiculoneuritis occur in up to 15% of patients with untreated Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Presentations of multifocal PNS involvement can range from painful monoradiculitis to confluent mononeuropathy multiplex. Serologic testing is highly accurate after 4 to 6 weeks of infection. In CNS infection, production of anti-B burgdorferi antibody is often demonstrable in CSF. Oral antimicrobials are microbiologically curative in virtually all patients, including acute European neuroborreliosis. Severe cases may require parenteral treatment. The fatigue and cognitive symptoms seen in some patients with extra-neurolog...

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Erythema Migrans

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Robert B. NadelmanTeaser Erythema migrans (EM) is the most common objective manifestation of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Systemic symptoms are usually present. Most patients do not recall a preceding tick bite. Despite a characteristic appearance, EM is not pathognomonic for Lyme disease and must be distinguished from other similar appearing skin lesions. EM is a clinical diagnosis; serologic and PCR assays are unnecessary. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are indicative of either an alternative diagnosis, or coinfection with another tick-borne pathogen. When EM is promptly treated with appropriate antimicrobial agents, the prognosis is excellent. Persons in endemic areas shou...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Arthritis

This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of Lyme arthritis. (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease and Other Infections Transmitted by Ixodes scapularis

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul G. Auwaerter (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease: Knowing Good Evidence to Help Inform Practice

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul G. Auwaerter (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Posttreatment Lyme Disease Syndrome

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): John N. AucottTeaser The prognosis following appropriate antibiotic treatment of early or late Lyme disease is favorable but can be complicated by persistent symptoms of unknown cause termed posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), characterized by fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and cognitive complaints that persist for 6 months or longer after completion of antibiotic therapy. Risk factors include delayed diagnosis, increased severity of symptoms, and presence of neurologic symptoms at time of initial treatment. Two-tier serologic testing is neither sensitive nor specific for diagnosis of PTLDS because of variability in convalescent serologic responses after treatment of ea...

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Tuesday 19 May 2015

Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Paul S. MeadTeaser Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is transmitted to humans by certain species of Ixodes ticks, which are found widely in temperate regions of the Northern hemisphere. Clinical features are diverse, but death is rare. The risk of human infection is determined by the geographic distribution of vector tick species, ecologic factors that influence tick infection rates, and human behaviors that promote tick bite. Rates of infection are highest among children 5 to 15 years old and adults older than 50 years. (Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Johan S. Bakken , J. Stephen DumlerTeaser Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, a deer tick–transmitted rickettsial infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a common cause of undifferentiated fever in the northeast and upper Midwest United States. Patients are often initially diagnosed with a mild viral infection, and illness readily resolves in most cases. However, as many as 3% develop life-threatening complications and nearly 1% die from the infection. Although coinfections with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti occur, there is little evidence to suggest synergism of disease or a role for A phagocytophilum in chronic illness. No vaccine is available. (Source: Infe...


Tuesday 19 May 2015

Lyme Disease in Children

Publication date: June 2015 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Sunil K. SoodTeaser The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and f...


Monday 18 May 2015

[Correspondence] Infectious causes of stroke

We read with great interest the excellent Review by Jennifer Fugate and colleagues1 about the infectious causes of stroke. Their Review is useful for daily practice, since physicians often focus excessively on autoimmune causes of central nervous system vasculitis causing stroke, while forgetting about infectious causes. However, we think that apart from neurosyphilis, which is mentioned in great detail, an additional comment on stroke caused by another spirochetal disease, Lyme neuroborreliosis, is needed. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)


Friday 15 May 2015

The chemokine CXCL13 is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurosyphilis

Background: The chemokine CXCL13 has been discussed as a diagnostic parameter with high specificity for Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and as a marker of disease activity. Neurosyphilis and LNB share similar characteristics. We investigated retrospectively CXCL13 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurosyphilis at initial diagnosis and during treatment. Results: Five patients with neurosyphilis were identified retrospectively using an electronic database in a tertiary care hospital from 2005 to 2012. CXCL13 levels were measured using an ELISA. Five patients with definite LNB and 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) served as controls. Median CXCL13 levels at baseline were 972 pg/mL for neurosyphilis patients, 8,000 pg/mL for LNB patients, and 7.8 pg/mL ...


Friday 15 May 2015

Tick sialostatins L and L2 differentially influence dendritic cell responses to Borrelia spirochetes

Conclusions: This study shows that DC responses to Borrelia spirochetes are affected by tick cystatins. Sialo L influences the maturation of DC thus having impact on adaptive immune response. Sialo L2 affects the production of chemokines potentially engaged in the development of inflammatory response. The impact of cystatins on Borrelia growth in vivo is discussed. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Thursday 14 May 2015

Chronic Lyme disease

Halperin JJ (Source: Infection and Drug Resistance)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

First U.S. Center to Study Lyme Disease Launched at Johns Hopkins Medicine - 5/13/15

Fundamental research into the causes and cures of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome now has its first home base at a major U.S. medical research center with the launch of the Johns Hopkins Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center. (Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine News)

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Wednesday 13 May 2015

Space agency targets 'tick disease'

The European Space Agency gives financial backing to a Scottish project to use an app to map tick hotspots and tackle Lyme disease. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

TICKED (Calendula Officinalis, Phytolacca Decandra, Borrelia Burgdorferi, Adrenalinum, Ledum Palustre, Aconitum Napellus, Arnica Montana,) Liquid [Apotheca Company]

Updated Date: May 13, 2015 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Wednesday 13 May 2015

Mayo Clinic News Network Headline 5/13/15

In today's Mayo Clinic News Network Headline with Vivien Williams: Ticks: These disease-carrying parasites are responsible for more than 30,000 cases of Lyme disease each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mayo Clinic parasitologist Dr. Bobbi Pritt offers tips on how to prevent tick bites and what to do in case one embeds into [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

Deep Sequencing Analysis of the Ixodes ricinus Haemocytome

Conclusions/significance This is the first systems biology approach to describe the genes expressed in the haemocytes of this neglected disease vector. A total of 2,860 coding sequences were deposited to GenBank, increasing to 27,547 the number so far deposited by our previous transcriptome studies that serves as a discovery platform for studies with I. ricinus biochemistry and physiology. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

Vaccination with ospA-/ospB- Borrelia burgdorferi Strain 50772 Provides Significant Protection against Canine Lyme Disease.

Authors: Callister SM, LaFleur RL, Dant JC, Wasmoen TL, Jobe DA, Lovrich SD Abstract Beagles received placebo or ospA(-)/ospB(-) B. burgdorferi before tick-challenge. Twenty-eight (41%) ticks and skin from control dogs (n = 10) contained B. burgdorferi. In contrast, 12 (19%) ticks from 10 vaccine-recipients were infected (P = 0.0077) and 5 dogs yielded spirochetes from skin (P = 0.0325). In addition, 9 (90%) or 5 (50%) vaccine or placebo-recipients developed joint abnormalities, respectively (P = 0.0573). Therefore, vaccination with the ospA(-)/ospB(-) spirochete provided significant protection against Lyme disease. PMID: 25972405 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)


Wednesday 13 May 2015

Cross-reactive epitopes in Borrelia burgdorferi p66.

Authors: Arnaboldi PM, Dattwyler RJ Abstract Epitope mapping of the p66 outer membrane protein of Borrelia burgdorferi revealed that the protein contains numerous cross-reactive linear epitopes recognized by serum antibody in the majority of individuals tested, regardless of Lyme disease history, limiting the usefulness of this antigen in Lyme disease serodiagnostic assays. PMID: 25972406 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)

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Tuesday 12 May 2015

Molecular Dissection of a Borrelia burgdorferi In Vivo Essential Purine Transport System [Molecular Pathogenesis]

The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is dependent on purine salvage from the host environment for survival. The genes bbb22 and bbb23 encode purine permeases that are essential for B. burgdorferi mouse infectivity. We now demonstrate the unique contributions of each of these genes to purine transport and murine infection. The affinities of spirochetes carrying bbb22 alone for hypoxanthine and adenine were similar to those of spirochetes carrying both genes. Spirochetes carrying bbb22 alone were able to achieve wild-type levels of adenine saturation but not hypoxanthine saturation, suggesting that maximal hypoxanthine uptake requires the presence of bbb23. Moreover, the purine transport activity conferred by bbb22 was dependent on an additional distal transcriptional start site ...


Monday 11 May 2015

Long-term study on ticks reveals shifting migration patterns, disease risks

Over nearly 15 years spent studying ticks, a new study has found southern Indiana to be an oasis free from Lyme disease, the condition most associated with ticks -- the second most common parasitic disease vector on Earth. This low-risk environment is changing, however, both in Indiana and in other regions of the U.S., the study suggests. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 11 May 2015

Comprehensive surveillance of the antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China.

This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the serological distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in small ruminants in China. PMID: 26094509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Monday 11 May 2015

Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection - Case study.

Authors: Passamonti F, Veronesi F, Cappelli K, Capomaccio S, Reginato A, Miglio A, Vardi DM, Stefanetti V, Coletti M, Bazzica C, Pepe M Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectio...

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Saturday 9 May 2015

Toxic Turf? Movement Grows Against Synthetic Turf

The following story was reported by the New England Center for Investigative Reporting, an independent, nonprofit news center based at Boston University and WGBH News, and published here in collaboration with The Huffington Post. NECIR trains the next generation of journalists in investigative reporting with summer high school workshops in Boston. Click here to learn more and apply today. Artificial turf fields, cushioned with recycled crushed tires and increasingly in demand for US athletic complexes, are getting some serious pushback. In Swampscott last week, town meeting members approved plans to install a new synthetic field with silica sand, a more expensive product touted as a nontoxic alternative to the small rubber pellets known as crumb rubber ubiquitous on thousands of syntheti...


Friday 8 May 2015

Babesia spp. and other pathogens in ticks recovered from domestic dogs in Denmark

Conclusions: Our data are in support of endemic occurrence of potentially zoonotic Babesia in Denmark and confirms I. ricinus as a vector of multiple pathogens of public health concern. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 4 May 2015

Global Warming May Spread Lyme Disease

Scientists tackle the difficult problem of how climate change aids the spread of the tick-borne disease -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Sunday 3 May 2015

Warmer Weather Increases Risk for Lyme Disease, Cautions Best Friends Animal Hospital

(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))

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Saturday 2 May 2015

A serological survey on Borrelia burgdorferi infection among companion dogs in Ahvaz district, southwestern Iran

Abstract Canine Lyme borreliosis is one of the most common tick-transmitted diseases in the world. The infection is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia burgdorferi. The principal vectors are various species of slow-feeding hard ticks of the Ixodes complex. Dogs are the most infected animals among the pets. The status of infection due to Borrelia in dogs remains unknown in many areas of Iran. Few studies have been reported on the distribution of this disease in the Iran dog’s population, so the aim of this survey was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Borrelia infection in companion dogs in Ahvaz district (southwestern Iran), from October 2011 to August 2013. In the present survey, a total of 168 companion dogs with different ages were examined for serum antibod...


Friday 1 May 2015

New-onset panic, depression with suicidal thoughts, and somatic symptoms in a patient with a history of lyme disease.

We present a case of a 37-year-old man with no known psychiatric history who developed panic attacks, severe depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, and neuromuscular complaints including back spasms, joint pain, myalgias, and neuropathic pain. These symptoms began 2 years after being successfully treated for a positive Lyme test after receiving a tick bite. During inpatient psychiatric hospitalization his psychiatric and physical symptoms did not improve with antidepressant and anxiolytic treatments. The patient's panic attacks resolved after he was discharged and then, months later, treated with long-term antibiotics for suspected "chronic Lyme Disease" (CLD) despite having negative Lyme titers. He however continued to have subsyndromal depressive symptoms and chronic physical symptom...


Friday 1 May 2015

Announcements: Lyme Disease Awareness Month — May 2015

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)


Friday 1 May 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection pressure shapes innate immune gene evolution in natural rodent populations across Europe.

Authors: Tschirren B Abstract Although parasite-mediated selection is assumed to be the main driver of immune gene evolution, empirical evidence that parasites induce allele frequency changes at host immune genes in time and/or space remains scarce. Here, I show that the frequency of a protective gene variant of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 in natural bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations is positively associated with the strength of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection risk across the European continent. Thereby, this study provides rare evidence for the role of spatially variable infection pressures in moulding the vertebrate immune system. PMID: 26018834 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biology Letters)


Wednesday 29 April 2015

Lyme neuroborreliosis in a patient treated with TNF-alpha inhibitor

Abstract A 57-year-old woman, receiving TNF-alpha inhibitor adalimumab for psoriasis, presented with early Lyme neuroborreliosis (Bannwarth’s syndrome). Discontinuation of adalimumab and 14-day therapy with ceftriaxone resulted in a smooth course and favorable outcome of Lyme borreliosis. This is the first report on Lyme neuroborreliosis in a patient treated with TNF-alpha inhibitor. (Source: Infection)

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Tuesday 28 April 2015

Lyme disease bacterium does not affect attraction to rodent odour in the tick vector

Conclusion: Our study suggests that the tick, and not the pathogen, controls the early stages of host choice behaviour. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 28 April 2015

Hypercholesterolemia in Borrelia infection [Microbiology]

The Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and relapsing-fever (Borrelia hispanica) agents have distinct infection courses, but both require cholesterol for growth. They acquire cholesterol from the environment and process it to form cholesterol glycolipids that are incorporated onto their membranes. To determine whether higher levels of serum cholesterol could enhance the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)


Monday 27 April 2015

Time to move Lyme Disease Awareness Month to April?

(Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies) The month of May brings many things, among them Mother's Day, tulips, and Lyme Disease Awareness campaigns. But according to Dr. Richard S. Ostfeld, a disease ecologist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, N.Y., if we want to get a leg up on tick-borne illness we need to become vigilant earlier in the season. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Monday 27 April 2015

Interaction of spirochetes with the host fibrinolytic system and potential roles in pathogenesis.

Authors: Vieira ML, Nascimento AL Abstract The pathogenic spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, B. hermsii, B. recurrentis, Treponema denticola and Leptospira spp. are the etiologic agents of Lyme disease, relapsing fever, periodontitis and leptospirosis, respectively. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-systemic disorder and the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Tick-borne relapsing fever is persistent in endemic areas worldwide, representing a significant burden in some African regions. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that often leads to tooth loss, is caused by several potential pathogens found in the oral cavity including T. denticola. Leptospirosis is considered the most widespread zoonosis, and the predominant human disease in tropical, un...


Thursday 23 April 2015

The Lyme law.

Authors: Zubek E PMID: 25897168 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal)

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Thursday 23 April 2015

Big Tick Project to track rising threat of Lyme disease

Vets across the UK are set to take part in the Big Tick Project, the largest nationwide collection of ticks from dogs in a bid to help scientists, led by Professor Richard Wall at the University of Bristol, track what is feared to be a growing threat to people and their dogs from tick-borne zoonotic diseases such as Lyme disease (Borrelia). (Source: University of Bristol news)


Thursday 23 April 2015

Dog owners unaware their pets can transmit Lyme disease to them say vets

Vets are urging pet owners to check their animals for the pests, as a poll found half did not realise ticks can transmit deadly diseases to humans. The move is part of The Big Tick Project. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Wednesday 22 April 2015

Popliteal Cyst With Positive Antinuclear Antibodies as the Presentation of Lyme Disease

No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Saturday 18 April 2015

Comparative genetic diversity of Lyme disease bacteria in Northern Californian ticks and their vertebrate hosts

Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Andrea Swei , Verna C. Bowie , Rauri C.K. Bowie Vector-borne pathogens are transmitted between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors, two immensely different environments for the pathogen. There is further differentiation among vertebrate hosts that often have complex, species-specific immunological responses to the pathogen. All this presents a heterogeneous environmental and immunological landscape with possible consequences on the population genetic structure of the pathogen. We evaluated the differential genetic diversity of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi, in its vector, the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus), and in its mammal host community using the 5S–23S ...


Saturday 18 April 2015

U.S. public's experience with ticks and tick-borne diseases: Results from national HealthStyles surveys

The objective of this study was to gain a more complete understanding of the U.S. public's experience with TBDs using data from annual, nationally representative HealthStyles surveys. There were 4728 respondents in 2009, 4050 in 2011, and 3503 in 2012. Twenty-one percent of respondents reported that a household member found a tick on his or her body during the previous year; of these, 10.1% reported consultation with a health care provider as a result. Overall, 63.7% of respondents reported that Lyme disease (LD) occurs in the area where they live, including 49.4% of respondents from the West South Central and 51.1% from the Mountain regions where LD does not occur. Conversely, in the New England and Mid-Atlantic regions where LD, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis are common, 13.9% and 20.8% of...


Saturday 18 April 2015

New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia

Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Bersissa Kumsa , Cristina Socolovschi , Didier Raoult , Philippe Parola Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. var...


Saturday 18 April 2015

Vector potential and population dynamics for Amblyomma inornatum

Publication date: Available online 14 April 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Jennifer S. Medlin , James I. Cohen , David L. Beck We studied the natural life cycle of Amblyomma inornatum and its vector potential in South Texas. This tick is distributed throughout South Texas and most of Central America. A. inornatum represented 1.91% of the ticks collected by carbon dioxide traps during a study of free-living ticks in the Tamaulipan Biotic Province in South Texas. The life cycle of A. inornatum in South Texas showed a clear seasonal pattern consistent with one generation per year. Nymphs emerged in the spring with a peak in February through May. Adults emerged in the summer with a peak in July through September. Detection of A. inornatum larvae was negatively correlate...

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Thursday 16 April 2015

Harsh Northeast Winter No Hindrance To Hungry Ticks

http://media.boston.cbslocal.com/CBSBOS_1604201522190500000AA.mp4 ALBANY, N.Y. (AP) — Think you’re safe from ticks because the harsh winter froze them or because you haven’t been trekking through the woods? Think again. Researchers focused on ticks and the debilitating diseases they spread say the heavy snow that blanketed the Northeast this winter was like a cozy quilt for baby blacklegged ticks that are now questing for blood as the weather warms up. And a researcher at New York’s Binghamton University said Lyme disease-infected ticks aren’t just in forests and fields. “We’re finding plenty of infected ticks in built environments, places like city parks, playgrounds, work campuses, college campuses,” said Ralph Garruto, head of the sc...


Thursday 16 April 2015

Increasing evidence points to inflammation as source of nervous system manifestations of Lyme disease

(Elsevier Health Sciences) About 15 percent of patients with Lyme disease develop peripheral and central nervous system involvement, often accompanied by debilitating and painful symptoms. New research indicates that inflammation plays a causal role in the array of neurologic changes associated with Lyme disease, according to a study published in the American Journal of Pathology. The investigators at the Tulane National Primate Research Center and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center also showed that the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prevents many of these reactions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 16 April 2015

Borrelia burgdorferi Not Confirmed in Human-Biting Amblyomma americanum Ticks from the Southeastern United States [Bacteriology]

The predominant human-biting tick throughout the southeastern United States is Amblyomma americanum. Its ability to transmit pathogens causing Lyme disease-like illnesses is a subject of ongoing controversy. Results of previous testing by the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program and other laboratories indicated that it is highly unlikely that A. americanum transmits any pathogen that causes Lyme disease. In contrast, a recent publication by Clark and colleagues (K. L. Clark, B. Leydet, and S. Hartman, Int. J. Med. Sci. 10:915–931, 2013) reported detection of Lyme group Borrelia in A. americanum using a nested-flagellin-gene PCR. We evaluated this assay by using it and other assays to test 1,097 A. americanum ticks collected from humans. Using the Clark assay, in most sam...


Thursday 16 April 2015

Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, affects both peripheral and central nervous systems. We assessed a causal role for inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis by evaluating the induced inflammatory changes in the central nervous system, spinal nerves, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rhesus macaques that were inoculated intrathecally with live B. burgdorferi and either treated with dexamethasone or meloxicam (anti-inflammatory drugs) or left untreated. (Source: American Journal of Pathology)

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Thursday 16 April 2015

Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete.

Authors: Wagemakers A, Staarink PJ, Sprong H, Hovius JW Abstract Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete that has only recently been identified as a human pathogen. Borrelia miyamotoi is genetically and ecologically distinct from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, while both are present in Ixodes ticks. Over 50 patients with an acute febrile illness have been described with a B. miyamotoi infection, and two infected immunocompromised patients developed a meningoencephalitis. Seroprevalence studies indicate exposure in the general population and in specific risk groups, such as patients initially suspected of having human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here, we review the available literature on B. miyamotoi, describing its presence in ticks, reservoir hosts, and humans, and di...


Thursday 16 April 2015

Lyme disease presenting as multiple ischaemic strokes.

Authors: Li S, Vytopil M, Hreib K, Craven DE Abstract A 46-year-old man presented with recurrent left hemiparesis and headache. MRI of brain showed an acute right pontine and subacute right thalamic infarcts and MR angiogram showed multiple intracranial arterial stenoses, suggesting cerebral vasculopathy. There was a cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytic pleocytosis with Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. Central nervous system Lyme disease occasionally presents with ischaemic strokes; this case is unusual in showing vasculopathy on brain imaging, supporting meningovasculitis as the likely mechanism. PMID: 25882056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Practical Neurology)




Wednesday 15 April 2015

Anti-neural antibody response in patients with post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms versus those with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

Publication date: Available online 10 April 2015 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Mary Ajamian , Michael Cooperstock , Gary P. Wormser , Suzanne D. Vernon , Armin Alaedini (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)


Wednesday 15 April 2015

Motor Rotation Is Essential for the Formation of the Periplasmic Flagellar Ribbon, Cellular Morphology, and Borrelia burgdorferi Persistence within Ixodes scapularis Tick and Murine Hosts [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Borrelia burgdorferi must migrate within and between its arthropod and mammalian hosts in order to complete its natural enzootic cycle. During tick feeding, the spirochete transmits from the tick to the host dermis, eventually colonizing and persisting within multiple, distant tissues. This dissemination modality suggests that flagellar motor rotation and, by extension, motility are crucial for infection. We recently reported that a nonmotile flaB mutant that lacks periplasmic flagella is rod shaped and unable to infect mice by needle or tick bite. However, those studies could not differentiate whether motor rotation or merely the possession of the periplasmic flagella was crucial for cellular morphology and host persistence. Here, we constructed and characterized a motB mutant that is non...


Monday 13 April 2015

Inflammation in the Pathogenesis of Lyme Neuroborreliosis.

Authors: Ramesh G, Didier PJ, England JD, Santana-Gould L, Doyle-Meyers LA, Martin DS, Jacobs MB, Philipp MT Abstract Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, affects both peripheral and central nervous systems. We assessed a causal role for inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis pathogenesis by evaluating the induced inflammatory changes in the central nervous system, spinal nerves, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rhesus macaques that were inoculated intrathecally with live B. burgdorferi and either treated with dexamethasone or meloxicam (anti-inflammatory drugs) or left untreated. ELISA of cerebrospinal fluid showed significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, chemokine ligand 2, and CXCL13 and pleocytosis in all infected animals, except dexamethason...


Monday 13 April 2015

Monday's Housecall

THIS WEEK'S TOP STORIES Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition Going vegetarian means excluding certain foods. But you can still get the nutrients you need from other sources. Use this helpful guide. Lyme disease Grassy and heavily wooded areas can be home to ticks, which can carry Lyme disease. Get tips on prevention [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Monday 13 April 2015

Lyme neuroborreliosis: a treatable cause of acute ocular motor disturbances in children.

CONCLUSIONS: LNB can present as acute ocular motor disorders in conjunction with fatigue and other clinical manifestations. In endemic areas, children with unexplained, acquired ocular motor abnormalities should be evaluated for LNB, a treatable medical condition. PMID: 25868792 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology)

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Monday 13 April 2015

First record of autochthonous canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis in Romania

This report supports the geographical expansion of canine ehrlichiosis caused by E canis in nonendemic regions of Europe. (Source: Veterinary Clinical Pathology)


Friday 10 April 2015

Doctors warn about tick-borne Powassan virus

It's not as well known as Lyme disease, but the Powassan virus is also spread by ticks, and experts say it can be even more severe. WCBS's Tracee Carrasco reports. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Friday 10 April 2015

Painful blister‐free HSV‐type 1 reactivation on the site of acute Lyme borreliosis

(Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology)


Thursday 9 April 2015

Anti-Neural Antibody Response in Patients with Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Symptoms versus Those with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Authors: Ajamian M, Cooperstock M, Wormser GP, Vernon SD, Alaedini A PMID: 25866194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Treatment of North American Lyme Neuroborrelliosis with Oral Doxycycline and Intravenous Ceftriaxone: A comparative case series. (P6.309)

CONCLUSIONS: Oral Doxycycline may be a comparable alternative to treating North American Lyme Neuroborrellosls. Further systematic studies are needed.Disclosure: Dr. Alario has nothing to disclose. Dr. Baldwin has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Utility of Broad-Range PCR Testing in Suspected CNS Infections (P6.317)

CONCLUSIONS: In our series the most common reason for a positive broad-range PCR result was contamination. Unlike endocarditis, in suspected CNS infections broad-range PCR was not useful, probably because the etiologies are often viruses (which are not amenable to broad-range PCR) or non-infectious. CSF might not be the ideal specimen for intra parenchymal processes. Further research is needed to identify which syndromes and specimen source would be ideal for broad-range PCR in CNS infection.Disclosure: Dr. Koffman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bernatowicz has nothing to disclose. Dr. Shrestha has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bhimraj has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

Fulminant necrotizing encephalitis associated with malignant cerebral edema and transtentorial herniation in the setting of acute seasonal influenza pneumonia. (P6.315)

We describe the most severe neurological complication associated with seasonal influenza: necrotizing encephalitis with malignant cerebral edema. We review the pathogenesis surrounding this neurological manifestation.We suggest a monitoring approach in this particular setting. INTRODUCTION: Influenza-related neurological complications are rare and have variable presentation. Influenza-related necrotizing encephalitis with associated malignant cerebral edema represents the most severe manifestation of the spectrum of influenza-related neurological complications, and carries very high mortality. METHOD: This is a case report with review of previously described cases (Pubmed search). RESULTS: A previously healthy 43 year old woman presented with upper respiratory symptoms over 24-hourswas and...


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Neuropathic Pain Treatments and Quality of Life Results in Leprosy Patients (P6.313)

CONCLUSION: This study highlights the superiority of Group 1 compared to Group 2 when analyzing the results. Although Group 1 was statistically superior to Group 2, the Limitations by Emotional Aspects criteria showed no statistical difference in both. One might speculate as hypothesis for this finding, aspects that go beyond pharmacotherapy, such as the impact of stigma related to the presence of cutaneous manifestations.Disclosure: Dr. Dornas has nothing to disclose. Dr. Nascimento has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pupe has nothing to disclose. Dr. Araujo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Davidovich has nothing to disclose. Dr. Vianna has nothing to disclose. Dr. Coutinho has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bittar has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Clinical, Laboratory Findings and Complications of Scrub Typhus- Meningoencephalitis: Case Series (P6.311)

CONCLUSION: Scrub typhus is often underdiagnosed in India due to non-specific clinical features and lack of diagnostic facilities. Meningoencephalitis with altered LFT should raise suspicion for scrub typhus especially after ruling out TBM. Eschar may give a clue to diagnosis but it is present in only 20-30[percnt] and usually goes unnoticed in dark skinned people. It can mimic TB meningitis and starting ATT can worsen liver function. Early diagnosis and treatment with tetracycline is necessary to prevent life threatening complications.Disclosure: Dr. Eswaradass has nothing to disclose. Dr. Eswaradass has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Severe ascending muscle spasms associated with diffuse perineural Tarlov cysts. (P3.316)

CONCLUSION: Diffuse Tarlov cysts may cause episodic severe widespread, ascending muscle spasms.Disclosure: Dr. Safarpour has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mulukutla has nothing to disclose. Dr. Khokhar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Jabbari has received research support from Allergan Inc., Merz Pharma, and Ipsen. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

An unusual presentation of Neuro Lyme (P6.308)

CONCLUSIONS: Neuro-Lyme should be suspected with unexplained neurological symptoms and signs in endemic areas.Disclosure: Dr. Tom has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mohamed has nothing to disclose. Dr. Holloway has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with Laboratory Abnormalities of Unknown Significance (LAUS) --Where Does It Begin and Where Does It End? (P4.144)

CONCLUSIONS: Further detailed analysis of progression rate by site of onset, sex, age, treatment will require assimilation of clinic-based datasets of properly analyzed ALS-LAUS patients from multiple clinic sites. The appropriate role of IVIg in ALS-LAUS patients requires further study following explication of the natural history of these patients compared with non-ALS-LAUS patients. The determination as to whether auto-antibodies to additional antigens may play a role in the progression rate of ALS-LAUS compared with sporadic ALS needs to be systematically studied. Study Supported by: Carolinas ALS Research FundDisclosure: Dr. Brooks has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec, Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Acorda Therapeutics, Cytokinetics, Synapse, and the National Ins...


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Borrelia Hispanica: an Emerging Infectious Agent Causing Neuroborreliosis (P6.310)

CONCLUSIONS: BH infection uses as a vector the tick Ornithodoros erraticus and its clinical expression is relapsing fever. BH is located mainly in Morocco and recently its genome has been sequenced. After an extensive review of the literature (Pubmed) we did not find any cases of CNS involvement by BH. The case presented above was characterized by the virulent CNS involvement by BH, the neuroimaging findings and therapeutic management, which may help to identify similar cases. If new cases confirmed the settlement of this zoonosis in Spain, an epidemiological study and control in mammals would be required.Disclosure: Dr. cerdan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sánchez Martínez has nothing to disclose. Dr. Palazon Cabanes has nothing to disclose. Dr. Carreon Guarnizo has nothing t...


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Successful Treatment of Eastern Equine Encephalitis with Early, Empiric Initiation of Intravenous Immunoglobulin: A Case Report (P6.306)

CONCLUSIONS: We report the successful treatment of suspected EEE with early, empiric use of IVIG. Given the significant mortality and morbidity associated with untreated EEE, early use of IVIG prior to serologic diagnosis may be beneficial when clinical suspicion is high.Disclosure: Dr. Erkkinen has nothing to disclose. Dr. Srikanth has nothing to disclose. Dr. Lyons has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Current Infectious Disease Reports. Dr. Vaitkevicius has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

Subarachnoid hemorrhage: a rare complication of pyogenic bacterial meningitis (P6.312)

Conclusion: SAH in meningitis could be explained by vasculitis or undetected ruptured mycotic aneurysm induced by acute inflammation from meningitis. In conclusion, with supportive clinical features, we should consider meningitis as a differential diagnosis in patient with non-traumatic and non-aneurysmal SAH as these two conditions have totally different treatment.Disclosure: Dr. Julayanont has nothing to disclose. Dr. Wang has nothing to disclose. Dr. Laengvejkal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Tantikittichaikul has nothing to disclose. Dr. DeToledo has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

Risk Factors and Final Diagnoses of Patients first diagnosed as Infectious Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A single-center study (I4-3B)

CONCLUSIONS: A large minority [17[percnt]] of patients was ultimately diagnosed with other conditions than ADEM, which may change longterm prognoses for patients. Vaccination prior to ADEM diagnosis is rare.Disclosure: Dr. Koelman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Chitnis has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec and Alexion. Dr. Chitnis has received research support from Merck Serono and Novartis. Dr. Mateen has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 8 April 2015

First Reported Case of a Brain Abscess with Ustekinumab for Psoriatic Arthritis (P6.314)

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of a patient taking Ustekinumab that developed a brain abscess after a dental procedure. Considering the high prevalence of patients that are treated with immune-modulating medications for various medical conditions, and the higher risk of infections that they entail, it may be beneficial to recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for such patients when undergoing dental and minor surgical procedures.Disclosure: Dr. Rahman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Thomas has nothing to disclose. Dr. Rahman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Javed has nothing to disclose. Dr. Jovan has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Risk Factors and Final Diagnoses of Patients first diagnosed as Infectious Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A single-center study (P1.106)

CONCLUSIONS: A large minority [17[percnt]] of patients was ultimately diagnosed with other conditions than ADEM, which may change longterm prognoses for patients. Vaccination prior to ADEM diagnosis is rare.Disclosure: Dr. Koelman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Chitnis has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec and Alexion. Dr. Chitnis has received research support from Merck Serono and Novartis. Dr. Mateen has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

A unique case of leptomeningitis associated with rheumatoid-like arthritis and naegleria fowleri. (P6.316)

Conclusions NF in brain tissue coincided with new onset rheumatoid arthritis and leptomeningitis. These findings have not been previously documented.Disclosure: Dr. Rodriguez Alvarez has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mirchandani has nothing to disclose. Dr. Khan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Medin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Seidman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Madison-Antenucci has nothing to disclose. Dr. Espina has nothing to disclose. Dr. Teal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mergen has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Increased intracranial pressure as a presentation of Lyme disease in children: A case series. (P1.310)

Conclusion: The presence of fever, rash, cranial nerve enhancement on MRI, and lymphocytosis on CSF analysis is helpful in distinguishing between idiopathic PTC and PTC secondary to Lyme. Absence of rash does not exclude Lyme and remains a diagnostic consideration in Lyme endemic areas. Disclosure: Dr. Obeid has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ramgopal has nothing to disclose. Dr. Cleves has nothing to disclose. Dr. Nowak has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Neuroborreliosis Parkinsonism and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder (P7.292)

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case report to our knowledge of a patient developing RBD in addition to post-infectious parkinsonism due to neurodegeneration of the midbrain and basal ganglia from neuroborreliosis.Disclosure: Dr. Werbaneth has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zuzuarregui has nothing to disclose. Dr. Hohler has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 8 April 2015

Serum and CSF Cytokines in Patients with Active CNS Lyme Disease, other Inflammatory CNS Diseases, Encephalopathy Following Treated Lyme Disease, other Encephalopathies, and Normal Controls (S37.007)

Conclusions: Patients with neurobehavioral symptoms following treatment for Lyme disease do not show any evidence of nervous system infection or inflammation. Elevations in serum IL-7 and IL-17 in these patients may reflect T-cell dysregulation. Interestingly, such elevations were seen in symptomatic patients regardless of prior Lyme disease exposure. These results warrant further investigation, as IL-7 may represent a useful biomarker, and could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.Disclosure: Dr. Halperin has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for The Neurologist. Dr. Halperin holds stock and/or stock options in Abbott Labs, Bristol Myers Squib, Johnson & Johnson. Dr. Pacheco-Quinto has nothing to disclose. Dr. Herdt has nothing to disclose. Dr...


Monday 6 April 2015

An Association Between Morgellons Disease and Lyme Disease?An Association Between Morgellons Disease and Lyme Disease?

While Morgellons disease has sometimes been considered a delusional syndrome, this microscopic and molecular study suggests that it is an infectious illness associated with Borrelia spirochetes. BMC Dermatology (Source: Medscape Dermatology Headlines)


Monday 6 April 2015

A Gardener with a Fever for 2 Weeks

Dr. Margaret Greenwood-Erickson: Today's case is that of a 58-year-old man who was sent to the emergency department (ED) by his primary care physician (PCP) for evaluation of fevers and lightheadedness. He had been well until 2 weeks before ED presentation when he developed nonproductive cough, malaise, weakness, and daily subjective fevers. He was seen by his PCP 2 days before presentation and started on doxycycline for treatment of presumptive Lyme disease. Laboratory tests, including a Lyme titer, were sent. (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)


Friday 3 April 2015

Preventive Behaviors and Knowledge of Tick-Borne Illnesses: Results of a Survey From an Endemic Area

Conclusions: Public health interventions focusing on accurately communicating risk, improving knowledge both of LD symptoms and of ticks that carry the disease, as well as teaching preventive behaviors may help reduce tick-borne illness rates. (Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice)

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Friday 3 April 2015

Efficacy of a fixed combination of permethrin 54.5% and fipronil 6.1% (Effitix®) in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus

Conclusions: The study has shown under laboratory conditions, that Effitix® is a safe and an effective combination to treat and protect dogs from Ixodes ricinus up to 37 days after administration. The high immediate efficacy of 98% evaluated at 48 hours post-treatment was particularly interesting, meaning that Effitix has a curative effect against ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and provides a rapid control of existing Ixodes ricinus infestation on a dog at the time of treatment. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 2 April 2015

'I thought I was dying,' Avril Lavigne says of Lyme disease

(Source: CNN.com - Health)


Thursday 2 April 2015

Lyme disease: recent advances and perspectives

Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja and Catherine Ayn Brissette (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Avril Lavigne and Lyme Disease: Your Questions Answered

Singer Avril Lavigne revealed in the latest issue of People Magazine that she has been diagnosed with Lyme disease. (Source: ABC News: Health)


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Host cell heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans are ligands for OspF‐related proteins of the Lyme disease spirochete

Summary Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, spreads from the site of the tick bite to tissues such as heart, joints and the nervous system. Host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), highly modified repeating disaccharides that are present on cell surfaces and in extracellular matrix, are common targets of microbial pathogens during tissue colonization. While several dermatan sulfate‐binding B. burgdorferi adhesins have been identified, B. burgdorferi adhesins documented to promote spirochetal binding to heparan sulfate have not yet been identified. OspEF‐related proteins (Erps), a large family of plasmid‐encoded surface lipoproteins that are produced in the mammalian host, can be divided into the OspF‐related, OspEF leader peptide (Elp), and OspE‐related subfamilies. We show h...

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Wednesday 1 April 2015

Seroprevalence of lyme borreliosis in Scottish blood donors

(Source: Transfusion Medicine)


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Combination of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Nested PCR for Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Human Serum Samples.

Authors: Zhang LL, Hou XX, Geng Z, Lou YL, Wan KL, Hao Q Abstract A set of universal loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers targeting the fla gene was designed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) in human samples. The sensitivity of LAMP was 20 copies/reaction, and the assay did not detect false positives among 11 other related bacteria. A positive LAMP result was obtained for 9 of the 24 confirmed cases and for 12 of 94 suspected cases. The positive rate of LAMP was the same as that of nested PCR. The LAMP is a useful diagnostic method that can be developed for rapid detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. in human sera. Combination of the LAMP and nested PCR was more sensitive for detecting B. burgdorferi s.l. in human serum samples. PMID...


Wednesday 1 April 2015

Skin and arthropods: an effective interaction used by pathogens in vector-borne diseases

Abstract In the last years, the skin has been described as a major interface in arthropod borne diseases. Although it constitutes an efficient immune and physical barrier, pathogens have developed effective strategies to thwart the host. In this process, the arthropod plays a major role. For mosquitoes, the quick blood meal is made through an efficient inoculation process directly into the blood vessel. For the long lasting blood meal of hard ticks, the sophisticated biting pieces and the tick saliva provide potent tools to help pathogen transmission. Lyme borreliosis and leishmaniases have been particularly well investigated in this context. (Source: European Journal of Dermatology)


Tuesday 31 March 2015

New insights into Lyme disease

Publication date: August 2015 Source:Redox Biology, Volume 5 Author(s): Brandon N. Peacock , Teshome B. Gherezghiher , Jennifer D. Hilario , Gottfried H. Kellermann Lyme borreliosis is transmitted through the bite of a tick that is infected by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical manifestation of the disease can lead to heart conditions, neurological disorders, and inflammatory disorders. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of oxidative stress and intracellular communication in Lyme borreliosis patients. Mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic ionized calcium was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Lyme borreliosis patients and healthy controls. Mit...


Sunday 29 March 2015

20 pupils violently ill after schoolgirl smoking addict, 12, passed round prescription nicotine spray

The dispenser was passed around a group of Year Seven and Eight pupils at Wolstanton High School, in Newcastle-under-Lyme (Source: Telegraph Health)

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Sunday 29 March 2015

Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and pu...


Saturday 28 March 2015

Inflammatory mediator release from primary rhesus microglia in response to Borrelia burgdorferi results from the activation of several receptors and pathways

Conclusions: Several receptors and pathways, with both positive and negative effects, mediate inflammation of primary microglia in response to B. burgdorferi, resulting in a complex, tightly regulated immune network. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)


Friday 27 March 2015

Infection of Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) with Borrelia sp. reveals a low reservoir competence under experimental conditions

Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Sarah Bonnet , Valérie Choumet , Sébastien Masseglia , Martine Cote , Elisabeth Ferquel , Thomas Lilin , Maud Marsot , Jean-Louis Chapuis , Gwenaël Vourc’h Reservoir competence is a key parameter in understanding the role of host species in the epidemiology of multi-host—especially vector-borne—pathogens. With this aim in view, we studied the reservoir competence of the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi) recently introduced into Europe, for the multi-host tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sl, the agent of Lyme borreliosis. T. sibiricus were experimentally exposed to bites from Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii...


Friday 27 March 2015

NGS population genetics analyses reveal divergent evolution of a Lyme Borreliosis agent in Europe and Asia

Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Fanny Gatzmann , Dirk Metzler , Stefan Krebs , Helmut Blum , Andreas Sing , Ai Takano , Hiroki Kawabata , Volker Fingerle , Gabriele Margos , Noémie S. Becker Borrelia bavariensis is a recently described agent of Lyme disease within the B. burgdorferi sensu lato species complex and exhibits a strong capacity for human pathogenicity. B. bavariensis strains are widely distributed in Eurasia spanning the distribution range of the tick vectors Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus. It has been suggested that B. bavariensis forms two populations, one of which arose through vector adaptation and geographic expansion. We have performed phylogenetic and population genetic analyses with next-generation s...


Thursday 26 March 2015

Mother left with a paralysed face and in crippling pain after being bitten on the HIP by a tick while gardening

Claire Dean, 43, from Castle Douglas, Scotland, developed Lyme disease after being bitten by a tick in her garden. She suffered pain so bad she had to quit her job and is still receiving physiotherapy for her face. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Tuesday 24 March 2015

Characterization of the β-barrel assembly machine accessory lipoproteins from Borrelia burgdorferi

Conclusions: Combined structural studies, functional assays, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that BB0028 and BB0324 are the respective BamB and BamD orthologs in B. burgdorferi, and are important in membrane integrity and/or outer membrane protein localization. The borrelial BamB and BamD proteins both interact specifically and independently with BamA to form a tripartite BAM complex in B. burgdorferi. A working model has been developed to further analyze outer membrane biogenesis and outer membrane protein transport in this pathogenic spirochete. (Source: BMC Microbiology)


Monday 23 March 2015

Climate change 'might bring rise in UK mosquito-borne diseases'

Conclusion Overall, this review provides insights into how climate change might lead to the transmission of tropical diseases in what are currently temperate parts of the world, such as the UK. Predicting what may happen in the future can help countries make sure they are prepared for such an eventuality. This review was informed by a search for relevant literature, but may not have captured or included all relevant studies. Most of the studies were modelling studies, which are reliant on various assumptions that may or may not turn out to be correct. It's not possible to say with any certainty what will occur in the future. The authors also note that climate change is not the only factor affecting vector-borne diseases. Many other factors are equally important, such as socioeconomic de...


Monday 23 March 2015

Canine vector-borne infections in Mauritius

Conclusions: Infection with these pathogens had no significant effect on the packed cell volume (PCV), but high tick burdens were significantly associated with the presence of a tick-borne pathogen. This is the first study of its kind on the dog population in Mauritius and demonstrates the presence of previously undocumented canine vector-borne infections on the island. The relatively high proportion of infected dogs within the study should alert clinicians to the presence of canine vector-borne diseases on the island of Mauritius. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)


Monday 23 March 2015

[Review] Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK

During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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Monday 23 March 2015

Bacterial and protozoal agents of canine vector-borne diseases in the blood of domestic and stray dogs from southern Portugal

Conclusions: The molecular identification of CVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic concern, reinforces the importance to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities to prevent the risk of transmission of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and to other vertebrate hosts including humans. The prevalence of the selected pathogens was lower than that previously found in cats from the same region, probably because veterinarians and owners are more aware of them in the canine population and control measures are used more often. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)


Saturday 21 March 2015

Lyme disease: A case report of a 17-year old male with fatal Lyme carditis

We describe a case of a 17-year-old adolescent who died unexpectedly after a 2-week viral-like syndrome. Postmortem examination was remarkable for diffuse pancarditis characterized by extensive infiltrates of lymphocytes and focal interstitial fibrosis. (Source: Cardiovascular Pathology)


Saturday 21 March 2015

Lyme disease: a case report of a 17-year-old male with fatal Lyme carditis

We describe a case of a 17-year-old adolescent who died unexpectedly after a 3-week viral-like syndrome. Postmortem examination was remarkable for diffuse pancarditis characterized by extensive infiltrates of lymphocytes and focal interstitial fibrosis. (Source: Cardiovascular Pathology)


Wednesday 18 March 2015

An investigation of binding ability of Ixodes persulcatus Schulze Salp15 with Lyme disease spirochetes.

Authors: Murase Y, Konnai S, Yamada S, Githaka N, Isezaki M, Ito T, Takano A, Ando S, Kawabata H, Murata S, Ohashi K Abstract Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, has several suppressive modes of activity against host immunity and plays a critical role in the transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes in Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus, major vectors of Lyme disease in North America and Western Europe. Salp15 adheres to Borrelia burgdorferi and specifically interacts with its outer surface protein C (OspC), protecting the spirochete from antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and facilitating infection in the mice. Recently, we identified two Salp15 homologues, IperSalp15-1 and IperSalp15-2, in I. persulcatus, a vector for Lyme disease in Japan. Here we describe the function of Ipe...


Tuesday 17 March 2015

Apparent Role for Borrelia burgdorferi LuxS during Mammalian Infection [Bacterial Infections]

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, controls protein expression patterns during its tick-mammal infection cycle. Earlier studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi synthesizes 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (autoinducer-2 [AI-2]) and responds to AI-2 by measurably changing production of several infection-associated proteins. luxS mutants, which are unable to produce AI-2, exhibit altered production of several proteins. B. burgdorferi cannot utilize the other product of LuxS, homocysteine, indicating that phenotypes of luxS mutants are not due to the absence of that molecule. Although a previous study found that a luxS mutant was capable of infecting mice, a critical caveat to those results is that bacterial loads were not quantified. To more precisely determine whether LuxS se...


Monday 16 March 2015

Lyme: inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction

Publication date: Available online 16 March 2015 Source:Redox Biology Author(s): Brandon N. Peacock , Teshome B. Gherezghiher , Jennifer D. Hilario , Gottfried H. Kellermann Lyme borreliosis is transmitted through the bite of a tick that is infected by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical manifestation of the disease can lead to heart conditions, neurological disorders, and inflammatory disorders. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of oxidative stress and intracellular communication in Lyme borreliosis patients. Mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic ionized calcium was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Lyme borreliosis patients and healthy cont...

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Sunday 15 March 2015

Physician reported incidence of early and late Lyme borreliosis

Conclusions: This is the first reported nationwide physician survey on the incidence of tick bites and the whole range of manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, including persisting symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis. This is crucial for complete assessment of the public health impact of Lyme borreliosis. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Saturday 14 March 2015

Association of Toll-like Receptor 2 Arg753Gln and Toll-like Receptor 1 Ile602Ser Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Leptospirosis in an Argentine Population.

In conclusion, the present data suggest that the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR1 Ile602Ser SNPs influence the risk of developing leptospirosis and its severity. PMID: 25784560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)


Friday 13 March 2015

RNA-Seq-based analysis of changes in Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression linked to pathogenicity

Our objectives aimed at the differentially expressed genes that contribute to Borrelia-specific disease diversity. The results indicated a total of 731 genes were differentially expressed between B. burgdorferi B31 and B. garinii SZ isolates, including those encoding lipoproteins and purine transport proteins. The findings also provide an empirical basis for studying the mechanism of action of specific genes as well as their potential usefulness for the diagnosis and management of Lyme disease. Image: Giemsa-stained Borrelia isolate. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 12 March 2015

Neuromyelitis optica phenotype associated with therapy-responsive acute peripheral neuropathy

A 51-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of Churg-Strauss syndrome (in remission for 20 years)–associated mesangial glomerulonephritis and end-stage renal disease with a recent renal transplant and previously cured cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection who was on a tapering dose of tacrolimus presented with sudden onset of lower extremity numbness. Symptoms progressed to complete paraplegia and sensory loss over 24 hours. The following day, ascending paresis extended to bilateral upper extremities, with high thoracic sensory level and complete blindness. Initial MRI revealed contrast enhancement of bilateral prechiasmatic optic nerve as well as T2 hyperintensities involving the central gray matter of the entire spinal cord with associated edema. CSF analysis documented neutrophilic pleo...


Tuesday 10 March 2015

Treatment of Menière’s Disease

Opinion statement Diagnosis of Menière’s disease is made with a characteristic patient history, including discrete episodes of vertigo lasting 20 min or longer, accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss, which is typically low frequency at first, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Workup includes audiometry, a contrast enhanced MRI of the internal auditory canals, and exclusion of other diseases that can produce similar symptoms, like otosyphilis, autoimmune inner ear disease, perilymphatic fistula, superior semicircular canal syndrome, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, vestibular paroxysmia, and temporal bone tumors. A history of migraine should be sought as well because of a high rate of co-occurrence (Rauch, Otolaryngol Clin North Am 43:1011–1017, 2010). Treatment begins with...

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Tuesday 10 March 2015

Evolution and population genomics of the Lyme borreliosis pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi

Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015 Source:Trends in Genetics Author(s): Stephanie N. Seifert , Camilo E. Khatchikian , Wei Zhou , Dustin Brisson Population genomic studies have the potential to address many unresolved questions about microbial pathogens by facilitating the identification of genes underlying ecologically important traits, such as novel virulence factors and adaptations to humans or other host species. Additionally, this framework improves estimations of population demography and evolutionary history to accurately reconstruct recent epidemics and identify the molecular and environmental factors that resulted in the outbreak. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, exemplifies the power and promise of the application of population genomics to microbia...


Monday 9 March 2015

Evolution and population genomics of the Lyme borreliosis pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Seifert SN, Khatchikian CE, Zhou W, Brisson D Abstract Population genomic studies have the potential to address many unresolved questions about microbial pathogens by facilitating the identification of genes underlying ecologically important traits, such as novel virulence factors and adaptations to humans or other host species. Additionally, this framework improves estimations of population demography and evolutionary history to accurately reconstruct recent epidemics and identify the molecular and environmental factors that resulted in the outbreak. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, exemplifies the power and promise of the application of population genomics to microbial pathogens. We discuss here the future of evolutionary studies in B. burgdorferi, focus...


Saturday 7 March 2015

First arrived takes all: inhibitory priority effects dominate competition between co-infecting Borrelia burgdorferi strains

Different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, induce a strong inhibitory priority effect in the mouse host and help the most infective bacterial strains to become more prevalent. (Source: BMC Microbiology)


Friday 6 March 2015

Lyme CNS Infection Mimics Stroke in TeenagerLyme CNS Infection Mimics Stroke in Teenager

Lyme neuroborreliosis can mimic stroke or epilepsy and should be ruled out in some cases of sudden-onset meningoencephalitis with neuropsychiatric symptoms, researchers reported. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Thursday 5 March 2015

Human seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two comparable regions of the eastern Alps is not correlated to vector infection rates

This study describes occurrence and geographic dispersion of Borrelia spp. in the Tyrols, discusses possible reasons for significant differences in human seroprevalence, and indicates that prevalence of Borrelia in vector ticks is not a direct predictive factor for the local seroprevalence in humans. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Thursday 5 March 2015

Genetic variation in transmission success of the Lyme borreliosis pathogen Borrelia afzelii

Publication date: Available online 4 March 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Nicolas Tonetti , Maarten J. Voordouw , Jonas Durand , Séverine Monnier , Lise Gern The vector-to-host and host-to-vector transmission steps are the two critical events that define the life cycle of any vector-borne pathogen. We expect negative genetic correlations between these two transmission phenotypes, if parasite genotypes specialized at invading the vector are less effective at infecting the vertebrate host and vice versa. We used the tick-borne bacterium Borrelia afzelii, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in Europe, to test whether genetic trade-offs exist between tick-to-host, systemic (host-to-tick), and a third mode of co-feeding (tick-to-tick) transmission. We worked with six ...

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Wednesday 4 March 2015

Management of Pediatric Patients with Synovial Fluid White Blood-Cell Counts of 25,000 to 75,000 Cells/mm3 After Aspiration of the Hip

Conclusions: Septic arthritis of the hip is the most common ultimate diagnosis in children with synovial fluid WBC values of 25,000 to 75,000 cells/mm3 (25 to 75 x 109 cells/L) following hip aspiration, and it should be high on the differential diagnosis, even in cases with synovial fluid WBC values of <50,000 cells/mm3 (<50 x 109 cells/L). Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. (Source: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery)


Wednesday 4 March 2015

Molecular and pharmacological characterization of the Chelicerata pyrokinin receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

Authors: Yang Y, Nachman RJ, Pietrantonio PV Abstract We identified the first pyrokinin receptor (Rhimi-PKR) in Chelicerata and analyzed structure-activity relationships of cognate ligand neuropeptides and their analogs. Based on comparative and phylogenetic analyses, this receptor, which we cloned from larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is the ortholog of the insect pyrokinin (PK)/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN)/diapause hormone (DH) neuropeptide family receptor. Rhimi-PKR functional analyses using calcium bioluminescence were performed with a developed stable recombinant CHO-K1 cell line. Rhimi-PKR was activated by four endogenous PKs from the Lyme disease vector, the tick Ixodes scapularis (EC50s range: 85.4 nM-546 nM), a...


Tuesday 3 March 2015

Provider Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Lyme Disease in Arkansas

Abstract Lyme disease (LD), a vector-borne disease, causes illness for many individuals in the United States. All of the conditions for the promulgation of LD are present in one Southern state in the United States; yet this state reports lower numbers of LD than adjacent states. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between this Southern state’s primary care providers’ knowledge and attitudes regarding the diagnosis and reporting of LD. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted via a mailed questionnaire by the Arkansas Department of Health to 2,693 primary care providers. Respondents were 660 primary care providers from all regions of this state. Secondary data were analyzed using descriptive, Chi square, and logistic regression techniques. Analys...


Monday 2 March 2015

Teenager with stroke symptoms actually had Lyme disease

(American College of Emergency Physicians) A Swiss teenager, recently returned home from a discotheque, came to the emergency department with classic sudden symptoms of stroke, only to be diagnosed with Lyme disease. The highly unusual case presentation was published online last Thursday in Annals of Emergency Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)

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Monday 2 March 2015

Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis With Transient Hemiparesis and Aphasia

We report a case of a female teenager presenting with sudden-onset aphasia and transient right-sided faciobrachial hemiplegia, along with headache and agitation. Ischemia, vasculitis, or another structural lesion was excluded by brain imaging. Toxicologic evaluation results were negative. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography and electroencephalography showed left parietotemporal brain dysfunction. Lumbar puncture result, although atypical, suggested bacterial infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was initiated. Finally, microbiological cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed Lyme neuroborreliosis, showing specific intrathecal antibody production and high level of C-X-C motif chemokine 13. The patient rapidly recovered. To our knowledge, this report for the first time illustrates that acute...


Sunday 1 March 2015

First Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Serum of the Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) in Northern Portugal by Nested-PCR

In this study, Borrelia DNA was detected for the first time by nested-PCR in three different sera, suggesting that the wild boar may be a potential reservoir for this spirochete. Sequencing results show 100% similarity with Borrelia afzelii. Further studies are needed to evaluate the public health risks associated with boar hunting. (Source: EcoHealth)


Sunday 1 March 2015

In patients with defects in Toll‐like and Interleukin‐1 receptor (TIR)‐dependent signalling septic arthritis may present like Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology)


Sunday 1 March 2015

Characteristics of seroconversion and implications for diagnosis of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: acute and convalescent serology among a prospective cohort of early Lyme disease patients

Abstract Two-tier serology is often used to confirm a diagnosis of Lyme disease. One hundred and four patients with physician diagnosed erythema migrans rashes had blood samples taken before and after 3 weeks of doxycycline treatment for early Lyme disease. Acute and convalescent serologies for Borrelia burgdorferi were interpreted according to the 2-tier antibody testing criteria proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Serostatus was compared across several clinical and demographic variables both pre- and post-treatment. Forty-one patients (39.4 %) were seronegative both before and after treatment. The majority of seropositive individuals on both acute and convalescent serology had a positive IgM western blot and a negative IgG western blot. IgG seroconvers...


Friday 27 February 2015

In Northeast, Weather Changes May Mean More Ticks, Earlier

Warming trend could affect the spread of Lyme disease, research suggests Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Climate Change, Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)

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Friday 27 February 2015

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi -infected ticks from wildlife hosts, a response to Norris et al .

In a recent Letter to the Editor, Norris et al. questioned the validity of some of our data reported by Feria-Arroyo et al. The main issue investigated by us was the potential impact of climate change on the probable distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region,. As an ancillary issue, an analysis of sequence data for the intergenic spacer of Borrelia burgdorferi was conducted.. In the present letter, we provide further evidence supporting our original results, and advocate that extensive study of the population genetics of B. burgdorferi is needed in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Many California bird species host Lyme disease bacteria, study finds

Ticks carrying the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease are infesting Northern California’s birds and may be hitching rides on them into suburban settings, according to a new UC Berkeley study. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Repeat or persistent Lyme disease: persistence, recrudescence or reinfection with Borrelia Burgdorferi?

Authors: Shapiro ED Abstract Whether or not Borrelia burgdorferi can persist after conventional treatment with antimicrobials has been a very controversial issue. Two recent studies took different approaches to try to answer this question. In one, investigators showed that, in each of 22 instances in 17 patients with two consecutive episodes of culture-proved erythema migrans, the strains of B. burgdorferi were different based on their genotypes. This indicated that the repeat episodes were due to new infections rather than recrudescence of the original infection. In another study, in which persistence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by using xenodiagnosis, no viable B. burgdorferi were cultured from ticks fed on any of the patients. There continues to be no evidence that viable B. ...


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers

Publication date: February 2015 Source:Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Volume 38 Author(s): Naouelle Azzag , Elisabeth Petit , Christelle Gandoin , Corinne Bouillin , Farida Ghalmi , Nadia Haddad , Henri-Jean Boulouis Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly ...


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Brief Report: Long‐Term Assessment of Fibromyalgia in Patients With Culture‐Confirmed Lyme Disease

ConclusionFibromyalgia was observed in only 1% of 100 patients with culture‐confirmed early Lyme disease; this frequency is consistent with that observed in the general population. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 25 February 2015

Factors associated with preventive behaviors regarding Lyme disease in Canada and Switzerland: a comparative study

Conclusions: These results strongly suggest that social and contextual factors such as the epidemiological status of a region are important considerations to take into account when designing effective prevention campaigns for Lyme disease. It furthermore underlines the importance for public health authorities to better understand and monitor these factors in targeted populations in order to be able to implement preventive programs that are well adapted to a population and the epidemiological contexts therein. (Source: BMC Public Health)

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Tuesday 24 February 2015

Your NEJM Group Today: Groin Hernia in Adults, Late Lyme & Fatigue, Wisconsin IM Opportunities (FREE)

By The Editors NEJM Group offers so many valuable resources for practicing clinicians. Here's what we chose for you today: … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Tuesday 24 February 2015

Discovery and targeted proteomics on cutaneous biopsies infected by Borrelia to investigate Lyme disease.

This study thus shows that a targeted SRM approach is a promising tool for the early direct diagnosis of Lyme disease with high sensitivity (<10 fmol OspC per mg of human skin biopsy). PMID: 25713121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics : MCP)


Tuesday 24 February 2015

Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers - Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis in Europe.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences of these three zoonotic diseases are not negligible and information targeting the public is needed. Moreover, the results highlight the lack of standardised surveys among different European countries. It was also noted that epidemiological data on leptospirosis are very scarce. PMID: 25780827 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Friday 20 February 2015

Increasing Residential Proximity of Lyme Borreliosis Cases to High-Risk Habitats: A Retrospective Study in Central Bohemia, the Czech Republic, 1987–2010

Abstract An analysis of historical data on Lyme borreliosis in Central Bohemia between 1987–2010 has revealed that the rate of peri-domestic exposure, the proximity of patients’ residences to high-risk habitats, and the number of disease cases have been interdependent variables and that their common upturn can be dated back to the start of the 1990s or earlier. The data indicate that the disease rise is attributable to translocation of part of the at-risk population nearer to natural environments, rather than to mere intensification of people’s peri-domestic exposure at existing residential locations, or changes in the natural environment itself. (Source: EcoHealth)

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Thursday 19 February 2015

Structural Mechanisms Underlying Sequence-Dependent Variations in GAG Affinities of Decorin Binding Protein A, a Borrelia burgdorferi Adhesin

Decorin binding protein A (DBPA) is an important surface adhesin of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPA facilitates the bacteria’s colonization of human tissue by adhering to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a sulfated polysaccharide. Interestingly, DBPA sequence variation among different strains of Borrelia spirochetes is high, resulting in significant differences in their GAG affinities. However, the structural mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. We determined the solution structures of DBPAs from strain N40 of Borrelia burgdorferi and strain PBr of Borrelia gariini, two DBPA variants whose GAG affinities deviate significantly from strain B31, the most well studied version of DBPA. Our structures revealed that significant dif...


Thursday 19 February 2015

Structural Mechanisms Underlying Sequence-Dependent Variations in GAG Affinities of Decorin Binding Protein A, a Borrelia burgdorferi Adhesin.

Authors: Morgan AM, Wang X Abstract Decorin binding protein A (DBPA) is an important surface adhesin of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPA facilitates the bacteria's colonization of human tissue by adhering to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a sulfated polysaccharide. Interestingly, DBPA sequence variation among different strains of Borrelia spirochetes is high, resulting in significant differences in their GAG affinities. However, the structural mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. We determined the solution structures of DBPAs from strain N40 of Borrelia burgdorferi and strain PBr of Borrelia gariini, two DBPA variants whose GAG affinities deviate significantly from strain B31, the most well studied version of DBPA. Our str...


Wednesday 18 February 2015

In a warmer world, ticks that spread disease are arriving earlier, expanding their ranges

In the northeastern United States, warmer spring temperatures are leading to shifts in the emergence of the blacklegged ticks that carry Lyme disease and other tick-borne pathogens. At the same time, milder weather is allowing ticks to spread into new geographic regions. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 16 February 2015

Integrin binding by Borrelia burgdorferi P66 facilitates dissemination but is not required for infectivity

Summary P66, a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein with porin and integrin‐binding activities, is essential for murine infection. The role of P66 integrin‐binding activity in B. burgdorferi infection was investigated and found to affect transendothelial migration. The role of integrin binding, specifically, was tested by mutation of two amino acids (D205A,D207A) or deletion of seven amino acids (Del202–208). Neither change affected surface localization or channel‐forming activity of P66, but both significantly reduced binding to αvβ3. Integrin‐binding deficient B. burgdorferi strains caused disseminated infection in mice at 4 weeks post‐subcutaneous inoculation, but bacterial burdens were significantly reduced in some tissues. Following intravenous inoculation, the Del20...

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Thursday 12 February 2015

BORRELIA BABESIA REMEDY (Babesia Microti, Borrelia Burgdorferi Nosode) Liquid [Deseret Biologicals, Inc.]

Updated Date: Feb 12, 2015 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Thursday 12 February 2015

Exploring the association between Morgellons disease and Lyme disease: identification of Borrelia burgdorferi in Morgellons disease patients

Conclusions: Our study using multiple detection methods confirms that MD is a true somatic illness associated with Borrelia spirochetes that cause Lyme disease. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment for this spirochete-associated dermopathy. (Source: BMC Dermatology)


Tuesday 10 February 2015

Forthcoming Issues

Lyme Disease (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)


Tuesday 10 February 2015

Immunization with a recombinant subunit OspA vaccine markedly impacts the rate of newly acquired Borrelia burgdorferi infections in client-owned dogs living in a coastal community in Maine, USA

Background: In North America, Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative bacterial agent of canine Lyme borreliosis and is transmitted following prolonged attachment and feeding of vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis or Ixodes pacificus. Its prevention is predicated upon tick-avoidance, effective on-animal tick control and effective immunization strategies. The purpose of this study is to characterize dogs that are newly seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in relation to compliant use of a recombinant OspA canine Lyme borreliosis vaccine. Specifically, Preventive Fractions (PF) and Risk Ratios (RR) associated with the degree of vaccine compliancy (complete versus incomplete) are determined. Methods: 6,202 dogs were tested over a five year period in a single veterinary hospital utilizing...


Sunday 8 February 2015

Management of the marginal zone lymphomas.

Authors: Vannata B, Stathis A, Zucca E Abstract Marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) represent around 8 % of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. During the last decades a number of studies have addressed the mechanisms underlying the disease development. Extranodal MZL lymphoma usually arises in mucosal sites where lymphocytes are not normally present from a background of either autoimmune processes, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis or Sjögren syndrome or chronic infectious conditions. In the context of a persistent antigenic stimulation, successive genetic abnormalities can progressively hit a B-cell clone among the reactive B-cells of the chronic inflammatory tissue and give rise to a MALT lymphoma. The best evidence of an etiopathogenetic link is available for the association between Helicobacter...

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Friday 6 February 2015

The high cost of Lyme disease

The U.S. spends more than a billion dollars caring for patients who contract this tick-borne illness (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Friday 6 February 2015

Lyme Disease More Serious, Costly Than Believed: Study

Prolonged illness in infected Americans costs up to $1.3 billion a year in treatments, researchers find (Source: WebMD Health)


Thursday 5 February 2015

Lyme Disease Costs Up to $1.3 Billion Per Year to Treat, Study Finds

New research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests that a prolonged illness associated with Lyme disease in some patients is more widespread and serious than previously understood. (Source: Public Health News Headlines from Johns Hopkins)

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Thursday 5 February 2015

Lyme disease costs up to $1. 3 billion per year to treat, study finds

New research suggests that a prolonged illness associated with Lyme disease is more widespread and serious in some patients than previously understood. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Thursday 5 February 2015

T2 Biosystems, Canon to develop Lyme disease test

T2 Biosystems and Canon U.S. Life Sciences team up to develop a diagnostic test panel for the rapid detection of Lyme disease. T2 Biosystems (NSDQ:TTOO) and Canon U.S. Life Sciences are teaming up to develop a diagnostic test panel for the rapid detection of Lyme disease. Canon, T2 Biosystems Inc.News Well, Diagnostics, Lyme diseaseread more (Source: Mass Device)


Thursday 5 February 2015

Lyme disease costs up to $1.3 billion per year to treat, study finds

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Lyme disease, transmitted by a bite from a tick infected by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, had long been considered easy to treat, usually requiring a single doctor's visit and a few weeks of antibiotics for most people. But new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests that a prolonged illness associated with the disease in some patients is more widespread and serious than previously understood. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 5 February 2015

T2 Biosystems And Canon U.S. Life Sciences Announce Joint Collaboration To Develop Novel Test Panel To Rapidly Detect Lyme Disease

T2 Biosystems, Inc. (Nasdaq:TTOO) a company developing innovative diagnostic products to improve patient health today announced that the company has entered into a multi-year, strategic agreement with Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc. to jointly develop a novel diagnostic test panel to rapidly detect Lyme disease, a tick-borne bacterial infection that, if left untreated, can cause chronic joint inflammation, neurological disorders and cognitive defects. (Source: Medical Design Online News)


Wednesday 4 February 2015

Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease

This study utilizes retrospective data on medical claims and member enrollment for persons aged 0-64 years who were enrolled in commercial health insurance plans in the United States between 2006-2010. 52,795 individuals treated for Lyme disease were compared to 263,975 matched controls with no evidence of Lyme disease exposure. Results Lyme disease is associated with $2,968 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 2,807-3,128, p (Source: PLoS One)

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Wednesday 4 February 2015

Tick-borne infections in horses from Tuscany, Italy

To estimate the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in horses living in areas of Tuscany (Italy) with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 160 clinically healthy grazing horses were tested by PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Coxiella burnetii, Babesia caballi, and Theileria equi. Tick-borne infections were detected in 70 (43.75%) horses, in particular 43 animals (26.87%) resulted positive for T. equi, 41 (25.62%) for A. phagocytophilum, 6 (3.75%) for C. (Source: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science)


Tuesday 3 February 2015

Co-feeding transmission in Lyme disease pathogens

Review Articles MAARTEN J. VOORDOUW, Parasitology, Volume 142 Issue 02, pp 290-302Abstract (Source: Parasitology)


Sunday 1 February 2015

Diseases from North America: focus on tick-borne infections.

Authors: Nathavitharana RR, Mitty JA Abstract Tick-borne infections are seen throughout the United States, with varying geographical locations. Many of these infections are also increasingly seen in Europe. Certain ticks (eg Ixodes) can transmit more than one infection. Diagnosis, particularly in early infection, can be challenging and therefore knowledge of the distinguishing clinical features and epidemiology of these diseases is important. Testing for Lyme disease often causes confusion for patients and medical providers, as serological tests may be negative in early infection and conversely may be positive for years after infection. Newer tests, such as the C6 ELISA, may play a role in Lyme diagnosis. Additionally, the value of a simple blood film should not be underestimated f...


Wednesday 28 January 2015

Severe babesiosis and Borrelia burgdorferi co-infection

(Source: QJM)


Wednesday 28 January 2015

Opening a Window Into Lyme [Technology Corner]

(Source: Clinical Chemistry)

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Monday 26 January 2015

Strange New Tattoo Discovered On 'Ötzi The Iceman' Mummy

Researchers in Italy announced this week that they had discovered a strange new tattoo on the ribcage of the 5,300-year-old mummy known as Ötzi the Iceman. The find raises to 61 the number of Ötzi's known tattoos, and it came as a big surprise. "We didn't expect to find a tattoo on the thoracic, as all the other tattoos are mainly close to joints and on his lower back and legs," Dr. Albert Zink, director of the Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano and one of the scientists behind the discovery, told The Huffington Post in an email. (Story continues below image.) Ötzi's newly discovered tattoo, on the lower right side of the mummy's chest. Ötzi was discovered in 1991 by a pair of German hikers in the Otztal Alps, near the border between Austria and Italy. Since then, re...


Saturday 24 January 2015

Investigation of tick-borne bacteria ( Rickettsia spp. , Anaplasma spp. , Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador

Conclusions: This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Friday 23 January 2015

[Protection against tick bites.]

Authors: Boulanger N, Lipsker D Abstract There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an...


Wednesday 21 January 2015

Integrin binding by Borrelia burgdorferi P66 facilitates dissemination but is not required for infectivity

Summary P66, a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein with porin and integrin binding activities, is essential for murine infection. The role of P66 integrin binding activity in B. burgdorferi infection was investigated and found to affect transendothelial migration. The role of integrin binding, specifically, was tested by mutation of two amino acids (D205A,D207A) or deletion of seven amino acids (Del202‐208). Neither change affected surface localization or channel forming activity of P66, but both significantly reduced binding to αvβ3. Integrin binding deficient B. burgdorferi strains caused disseminated infection in mice at four weeks post‐subcutaneous inoculation, but bacterial burdens were significantly reduced in some tissues. Following intravenous inoculation, the Del202‐208 b...


Tuesday 20 January 2015

Lyme borreliosis in southern United Kingdom and a case for a new syndrome, chronic arthropod-borne neuropathy

Research Articles M. S. DRYDEN, K. SAEED, S. OGBORN, P. SWALES, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 03, pp 561-572Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)

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Tuesday 20 January 2015

γδ T Cells and dendritic cells in refractory Lyme arthritis.

Authors: Divan A, Budd RC, Tobin RP, Newell-Rogers MK Abstract Lyme disease is a multisystem infection transmitted by tick vectors with an incidence of up to 300,000 individuals/yr in the United States. The primary treatments are oral or i.v. antibiotics. Despite treatment, some individuals do not recover and have prolonged symptoms affecting multiple organs, including the nervous system and connective tissues. Inflammatory arthritis is a common symptom associated with Lyme pathology. In the past decades, γδ T cells have emerged as candidates that contribute to the transition from innate to adaptive responses. These cells are also differentially regulated within the synovia of patients affected by RLA. Here, we review and discuss potential cellular mechanisms involving γδ T cel...


Monday 19 January 2015

Yolanda Foster Blogs About Her Battle With Lyme Disease: 'I Have Lost the Ability to Read'

"Real Housewives of Beverly Hills" star Yolanda Foster spoke up about her struggle with Lyme disease in a new blog post on BravoTV.com. She used to post regularly on the site, but started this letter with an apology to fans: "I would like to apologize for my lousy participation in the blogging department at the moment. Although writing is usually my favorite thing to do, I unfortunately have lost the ability to do so in an intelligent matter at this time." She then described her struggle to do everyday tasks: "I have lost the ability to read, write, or even watch TV, because I can't process information or any stimulation for that matter. It feels like someone came in and confiscated my brain and tied my hands behind my back to just watch and see life go by without me participating in it."...


Thursday 15 January 2015

Synanthropic rodents and their ectoparasites as carriers of a novel haemoplasma and vector-borne, zoonotic pathogens indoors

Rodents (mainly house mice, brown rats) were caught in buildings. Their spleen and blood-sucking ectoparasites were molecularly analysed. Key findings include a novel haemoplasma genotype and the sporadic occurrence of Rickettsia helvetica, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Bartonella sp. Image: The European mouse flea (Leptopsylla segnis). (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 15 January 2015

Lyme Disease Update for the General Dermatologist

Abstract Lyme disease is an Ixodes tick–borne illness that may arise from different species of the Borrelia spirochete and may be propagated in various hosts. Humans are considered dead-end hosts in this propagation cycle but may have a range of Lyme disease characteristics as a result of borrelial infection. Lyme disease has varied cutaneous manifestations, and the approach to diagnosis and treatment is based on the patient, the region, and suspected coinfection with another tick-borne illness. An understanding of the distribution of the Ixodes tick, its vectors, and the most likely dermatologic presentation based on these factors allows the dermatologist to make appropriate testing and treatment recommendations. Our aim is to simplify this approach for the treating practitione...


Wednesday 14 January 2015

Prevalence of select vector-borne pathogens in stray and client-owned dogs from Algiers.

Authors: Azzag N, Petit E, Gandoin C, Bouillin C, Ghalmi F, Haddad N, Boulouis HJ Abstract Data on the prevalence of vector-borne diseases agents infecting canines in Algeria is currently lacking. The purpose of this study is to assess by serological and molecular methods the prevalence of select arthropod borne-bacterial infections in client-owned and stray dogs. Antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were the most prevalent at 47.7%, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. at 37.6%, Ehrlichia canis at 30.0%, Bartonella henselae at 32.4% and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii at 27%. Seroprevalence was statistically significantly higher in stray dogs than those owned by clients. Seropositivity was not associated with health status, except for E. canis. Molecular evaluation indic...


Wednesday 14 January 2015

Lyme Disease Symptoms Can Mimic Bipolar Disorder

Lyme disease is one of several medical conditions with symptoms that can mimic those of bipolar disorder. Here's a story about one such incident. (Source: About.com Bipolar Disorder)


Wednesday 14 January 2015

Tick-borne pathogens and the vector potential of ticks in China

Ticks, as obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites, attack a broad range of vertebrates and transmit a great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. They are considered second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, and the most important vector of pathogens of domestic and wild animals. Of the 117 described species in the Chinese tick fauna, 60 are known to transmit one or more diseases: 36 species isolated within China and 24 species isolated outside China. Moreover, 38 of these species carry multiple pathogens, indicating the potentially vast role of these vectors in transmitting pathogens. Spotted fever is the most common tick-borne disease, and is carried by at least 27 tick species, with Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis ranked as the second and third most widespre...

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Tuesday 13 January 2015

Effects of Borrelia on host immune system: Possible consequences for diagnostics

Conclusions The immune status of the borreliosis patient needs to be considered, especially in Stage 3 in conjunction with clinical symptoms in the diagnosis. Borrelia has the ability to manipulate both the innate and active immunity and alter the cytokines secreted hence alter the path of the immune response. Immune parameters such as IFN-gamma/IL-10, lymphocyte markers, complement C3a, C4a, and total immunoglobulin levels may help to discriminate between stages and monitor treatment outcomes. The level of immune dysfunction in Stage 3 may depend on the number of co-infections delivered by a tick bite, such as Babesia, and Rickettsia, the genospecies of Borrelia, other pathogens, the patients’ biome and immunogenetics. (Source: Advances in Integrative Medicine)


Tuesday 13 January 2015

Multiplex assay (Mikrogen recomBead) for detection of serum IgG and IgM antibodies to 13 recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with neuroborreliosis. The more the better?

Authors: Dessau RB, Møller JK, Kolmos B, Henningsson AJ Abstract A multiplex bead based assay for the detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was evaluated. The assay contains 13 different antigens in both the IgG and the IgM assay, thus a total of 26 measurement results were available from each sample. 49 Danish patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), 218 blood donor controls, a set of 61 Swedish patients with LNB and 139 non-LNB patients investigated for suspected LNB were used. There are four parts developed in the study: A characterization of the sero-epidemiological antibody response pattern, the construction of a diagnostic score, evaluation of the scoring method using an independent dataset and an assessment of the analytical quality of the multi...


Saturday 10 January 2015

Peripheral facial palsy as an initial symptom of Lyme neuroborreliosis in an Austrian endemic area.

CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of our study, we recommend CSF testing in any case for patients with facial palsy in an endemic area from June to October especially if additional radicular symptoms are present. To establish recommendations for a diagnostic workup in patients with facial palsy in areas endemic for Borrelia, the seasonal clustering of LNB as well as specific clinical features should also be confirmed in a future prospective trial. PMID: 25576332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)

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Friday 9 January 2015

[Obituary] Willy Burgdorfer

Medical entomologist who discovered the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. Born on June 27, 1925, in Basel, Switzerland, he died from complications of Parkinson's disease on Nov 17, 2014, in Hamilton, MT, USA, aged 89 years. (Source: LANCET)


Friday 9 January 2015

'My parents kicked me out when I was depressed. I thank them for it'

Deeply depressed in her early thirties, Porochista Khakpour regressed to a state of childlike helplessness - until her parents kicked her out (Source: Telegraph Health)


Friday 9 January 2015

Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H

Publication date: Available online 9 January 2015 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics Author(s): Kalvis Brangulis , Ivars Petrovskis , Andris Kazaks , Inara Akopjana , Kaspars Tars Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some C...


Friday 9 January 2015

Crystal structures of the Erp protein family members ErpP and ErpC from Borrelia burgdorferi reveal the reason for different affinities for complement regulator factor H.

Authors: Brangulis K, Petrovskis I, Kazaks A, Akopjana I, Tars K Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, which can be acquired after the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. As a strategy to resist the innate immunity and to successfully spread and proliferate, B. burgdorferi expresses a set of outer membrane proteins that are capable of binding complement regulator factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (CFHL-1) and factor H-related proteins (CFHR) to avoid complement-mediated killing. B. burgdorferi B31 contains three proteins that belong to the Erp (OspE/F-related) protein family and are capable of binding CFH and some CFHRs, namely ErpA, ErpC and ErpP. We have determined the crystal structure of ErpP at 2.53Å resolution and the crystal structure of E...


Thursday 8 January 2015

Update on persistent symptoms associated with Lyme disease

Purpose of reviewLyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The pathogenesis, ecology, and epidemiology of Lyme disease have been well described, and antimicrobial treatment is very effective. There has been controversy about whether infection can persist and cause chronic symptoms despite treatment with antimicrobials. This review summarizes recent studies that have addressed this issue. Recent findingsThe pathogenesis of persistent nonspecific symptoms in patients who were treated for Lyme disease is poorly understood, and the validity of results of attempts to demonstrate persistent infection with B. burgdorferi has not been established. One study attempted to use xenodiagnosis to detect B. burgdorferi in patients who have...

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Tuesday 6 January 2015

Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms.

Authors: Meriläinen L, Herranen A, Schwarzbach A, Gilbert L Abstract Spirochete bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the Northern hemisphere. There is a long-standing debate regarding the role of pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis, while very little is known about the characteristics of these morphological variants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic formation in different culturing conditions at physiological temperature. Interestingly, human serum induced the bacteria to change its morphology to round bodies. In addition, biofilm-like colonies in suspension were found to be part of B. burgdorferi's normal in vitro growth. Further studies provided e...


Tuesday 6 January 2015

BB0323 and Novel Virulence Determinant BB0238: Borrelia burgdorferi Proteins That Interact With and Stabilize Each Other and Are Critical for Infectivity

We have shown that Borrelia burgdorferi gene product BB0323 is essential for cell fission and pathogen persistence in vivo. Here we describe characterization of a conserved hypothetical protein annotated as BB0238, which specifically interacts with the N-terminal region of BB0323. We show that BB0238 is a subsurface protein, and similar to BB0323, exists in the periplasm and as a membrane-bound protein. Deletion of bb0238 in infectious B. burgdorferi did not affect microbial growth in vitro or survival in ticks, but the mutant was unable to persist in mice or transmit from ticks—defects that are restored on genetic complementation. Remarkably, BB0238 and BB0323 contribute to mutual posttranslational stability, because deletion of one causes dramatic reduction in the protein level of ...


Tuesday 6 January 2015

Search for blood or water is influenced by Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ricinus

Finding a host and maintaining its water balance are two crucial needs for Ixodes ricinus that are not compatible with each other. Ticks benefit from the infection by Borrelia burgdorferi by better survival (more fat and more resistance to desiccation) and by an increased questing period (lower need to rehydrate), leading to more opportunities to find a host and to transmit Borrelia. Image: Host-finding behaviour that is not compatible with maintaining water balance in Ixodes ricinus is influenced Borrelia burgdorferi. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Lyme Disease in Athletes

This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, with focus on the athletic population. (Source: Current Sports Medicine Reports)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Laboratory Testing for Lyme Neuroborreliosis

To the Editor In their Viewpoint published in JAMA Neurology, Melia et al discussed diagnosis of Lyme disease, a tick-borne infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, focusing primarily on the disease’s affliction of the central nervous system, which is a condition commonly referred to as neuroborreliosis. (Source: JAMA Neurology)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Evaluation of two commercially available rapid diagnostic tests for Lyme borreliosis

Abstract The diagnosis of Lyme disease is very complicated and a single diagnostic method cannot exclude infection. We assessed the performance of two commercially available Borrelia burgdorferi rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in comparison to multiple laboratory-based diagnostic assays using specimens with a gradually increasing probability of Borrelia infection. Based on 200 specimens, the analytical sensitivities for IgG and IgM were 18 and 23 % for the Lyme RDT and 24 and 32 % for the Borreliose Complete RDT. The sensitivity for detecting diagnosed Lyme borreliosis cases was low (26 % Lyme RDT and 32 % with the Borreliose Complete RDT respectively), whereas the specificity was good (85 % Lyme RDT and 88 % Borreliose Complete). Based on this evaluation, the performance of R...

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Thursday 1 January 2015

The BBA33 lipoprotein binds collagen and impacts Borrelia burgdorferi pathogenesis

Summary Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, adapts to the mammalian hosts by differentially expressing several genes in the BosR and Rrp2‐RpoN‐RpoS dependent pathways, resulting in a distinct protein profile relative to that seen for survival in the Ixodes spp. tick. Previous studies indicate that a putative lipoprotein, BBA33, is produced in an RpoS‐dependent manner under conditions that mimic the mammalian component of the borrelial lifecycle. However, the significance and function for BBA33 is not known. Given its linkage to the BosR/Rrp2‐RpoN‐RpoS regulatory cascade, we hypothesized that BBA33 facilitates B. burgdorferi infection in the mammalian host. The deletion of bba33 eliminated B. burgdorferi infectivity in C3H mice, which was rescued by genetic ...


Thursday 1 January 2015

Lyme disease in athletes.

This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, with focus on the athletic population. PMID: 25574885 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Sports Medicine Reports)

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Thursday 1 January 2015

Laboratory Testing for Lyme Neuroborreliosis—Reply

In Reply We agree with Lautner and colleagues that, in addition to the ratio of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, tests, such as CSF white blood cell count, can be useful in the assessment of neuroborreliosis. Indeed, CSF analysis is a pivotal tool in making a diagnosis of meningitis. However, whether liberal use of CSF testing to assess for possible neuroborreliosis among patients not suspected to have meningitis would be practiced (given barriers to obtaining samples) or aid in enhancing diagnosis is uncertain. (Source: JAMA Neurology)


Thursday 1 January 2015

Lyme Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment Guidelines, and Controversy

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 30,000 people per year are diagnosed with Lyme disease (LD) in the United States. LD can be effectively treated if diagnosed early in the course of disease. A more difficult disease path may follow if early symptoms go unnoticed and untreated. Complicating this clinical situation is the controversy over LD serologic diagnostic reliability and the terminology and treatment approaches to later stage LD. Nurse practitioners should have a working knowledge of the clinical presentation of LD at various stages and the diagnostic testing and treatment regimen guidelines recommended. (Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners)


Wednesday 31 December 2014

Lyme Helps Spread Other Tick Infections

Mice infected with Lyme and the Babesia parasite are more likely to pass on babesiosis than mice infected with babesiosis alone. Christopher Intagliata reports -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 29 December 2014

Lyme disease enhances spread of emerging tick infection

Mice that are already infected with the pathogen that causes Lyme disease appear to facilitate the spread of a lesser-known but emerging disease, babesiosis, into new areas. The finding provides a possible answer as to why human babesiosis is only emerging in areas where Lyme disease is well established. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 29 December 2014

Putting Heart Block Back in the “Lyme Light”

We report a case of syncope in a young patient who presented with high-degree, variable atrioventricular heart block. Despite having no other classic manifestations of Lyme disease, she was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for Lyme carditis on high clinical suspicion due to geographic location. The heart block resolved within 24h of treatment. Although rare, we demonstrate the importance of considering Lyme carditis in patients who present with new-onset heart block and a history of living in an endemic area. Initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy can lead to rapid resolution of this condition. <Learning objective: Although uncommon, Lyme carditis may present without any other classic signs or symptoms of Lyme disease. It should be considered in any patient who presents with n...


Monday 29 December 2014

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks from Eastern China.

Authors: Hou J, Ling F, Chai C, Lu Y, Yu X, Lin J, Sun J, Chang Y, Ye X, Gu S, Pang W, Wang C, Zheng X, Jiang J, Chen Z, Gong Z Abstract To explore the tick distribution and prevalence of Borrelia in Zhejiang Province, we performed a survey in nine sites. A total of 447 adult ticks of 11 species were captured and the dominant tick species were Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes sinensis and the abundance of tick species in different areas varied significantly. Overall, 4.70% of the ticks were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Borrelia. The average PCR positive rates were 5.19% for H. longicornis, 3.45% for Amblyomma testudinarium, 1.06% for I. sinensis, 5.00% for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and 19.44% for Ixodes granulatus, respectively. No Borrelia DNA was de...

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Thursday 25 December 2014

Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011.

Authors: Wilking H, Fingerle V, Klier C, Thamm M, Stark K Abstract To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008-2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed. PMID: 25531140 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 25 December 2014

Soluble cysteine-rich tick saliva proteins Salp15 and Iric-1 from E. coli

Publication date: Available online 24 December 2014 Source:FEBS Open Bio Author(s): Philipp Kolb , Jolanta Vorreiter , Jüri Habicht , Detlef Bentrop , Reinhard Wallich , Michael Nassal Ticks transmit numerous pathogens, including borreliae, which cause Lyme disease. Tick saliva contains a complex mix of anti-host defense factors, including the immunosuppressive cysteine-rich secretory glycoprotein Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis ticks and orthologs like Iric-1 from I. ricinus. All tick-borne microbes benefit from the immunosuppression at the tick bite site; in addition, borreliae exploit the binding of Salp15 to their outer surface protein C (OspC) for enhanced transmission. Hence, Salp15 proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that also target borreliae. However, recombina...


Wednesday 24 December 2014

New Tick-Borne 'Bourbon Virus' Is Deadly And Unlike Anything Previously Seen In U.S.

Researchers have identified the cause of a Kansas farmer's mysterious death this summer as Bourbon virus. Thought to be transmitted by ticks, the virus "was fast-moving and severe, causing lung and kidney failure, and shock," The New York Times reported, killing the previously healthy man after only 10 days in the hospital. Together, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and University of Kansas Hospital researchers identified the virus as a thogotovirus, part of a larger type of viruses called orthomyxoviruses, Dana Hawkinson, M.D., an infectious disease specialist at The University of Kansas Hospital said in the video statement above. Bourbon virus, named after Bourbon County, Kansas, where the only known patient lived, is similar to viruses seen previously in Eastern Europ...


Wednesday 24 December 2014

BORRELIA BURGDORFERI (Borrelia Burgdorferi) Liquid [Newton Laboratories, Inc.]

Updated Date: Dec 24, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))

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Wednesday 24 December 2014

Myocarditis in dogs: etiology, clinical and histopathological features (11 cases: 2007–2013)

Conclusions Although the clinical pattern in patients with myocarditis is diverse, the definitive morphological diagnosis is made based on the histopathological examination. This examination can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of myocarditis combined with the presence of spore forms of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the heart specimens of dogs. (Source: Irish Veterinary Journal)


Tuesday 23 December 2014

Increased expression of Fas receptor and Fas ligand in the culture of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

Publication date: Available online 22 December 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Sambor Grygorczuk , Joanna Osada , Anna Moniuszko , Renata Świerzbińska , Maciej Kondrusik , Joanna Zajkowska , Justyna Dunaj , Milena Dąbrowska , Sławomir Pancewicz Apoptosis of the lymphocytes plays an essential role in the regulation of inflammatory/immune responses and its abnormalities may contribute to a chronic infection, persistent inflammation and autoimmunity. Its role in the pathogenesis of the late Lyme borreliosis manifestations has not been studied so far. We have measured Th lymphocyte apoptosis rate, membrane expression of pro-apoptotic Fas receptor, and supernatant concentrations of selected soluble pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in cultures of peripheral blood mono...


Friday 19 December 2014

Fencing and mowing as effective methods for reducing tick abundance on very small, infested plots

Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Simone Del Fabbro The tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) transmits a large variety of pathogens to humans and is therefore a matter of concern for public health. Different strategies for reducing the risk of tick bite, and thus of infection, have been developed and vary according to the kind of exposure (occupational, recreational, peridomestic). The present study (carried out in an endemic region for both Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis) aimed to assess the efficacy of two simple and cheap interventions for reducing I. ricinus abundance around residential properties surrounded by wooded areas. The immediate impact of exclosures (host-targeted control methods) and mowing (vegetation man...


Thursday 18 December 2014

Panuveitis Caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi Sensu Lato Infection

A 13-year-old boy who presented with a red left eye, painful eye movement, blurred vision, photophobia and increased lacrimation, was diagnosed with 1-sided panuveitis with optic disk edema. Diagnostic work-up revealed borrelial antibodies in serum. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis was substantiated by demonstration of lymphocytic pleocytosis, intrathecal borrelial antibody synthesis, improvement after treatment with ceftriaxone and exclusion of other causes. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)


Thursday 18 December 2014

Ebola 3.0

By Susan J. Blumenthal, M.D., and Jennifer Sherwood, M.P.H. The doctors, nurses and other health care workers who responded to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa were recently named Time magazine's "Person of the Year." The courageous individuals who dedicate their careers and risk their lives to help in times of global public health emergencies such as Ebola deserve this recognition. A new report shows that health care workers have more than 100 times the risk of being infected with Ebola in Sierra Leone as the general public there. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 622 health care workers have acquired the virus and 346 of them have died in the affected countries. The recent death of a physician in the United States, who had been working in Sierra Leone and had tested ne...

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Thursday 18 December 2014

From Lyme disease emergence to endemicity: a cross sectional comparative study of risk perceptions in different populations

Conclusion: This study suggests that risk perception of LD differs between populations and regional experts living in different epidemiological situations. Monitoring of knowledge and risk perception in local populations may help to better target LD communication efforts in accordance with population specific attributes thereby enhancing prevention efficacy. (Source: BMC Public Health)


Tuesday 16 December 2014

Mechanisms of Borrelia burgdorferi internalization and intracellular innate immune signaling

Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja and Aurelie Kern (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)


Tuesday 16 December 2014

Diagnosis not to be missed: Lyme carditis, rare but reversible cause of complete atrioventricular block

We present a 43-year-old male who presented with complete heart block and also illsustained ventricular tachycardia due to Lyme carditis that reversed completely with antibiotic therapy. (Source: Indian Heart Journal)


Tuesday 16 December 2014

CD4+ T Cells Promote Antibody Production but Not Sustained Affinity Maturation during Borrelia burgdorferi Infection [Host Response and Inflammation]

We report that CD4 T cells were effectively primed and TFH cells induced after B. burgdorferi infection. These CD4 T cells contributed to the control of B. burgdorferi burden and supported the induction of B. burgdorferi-specific IgG responses. However, while affinity maturation of antibodies against a prototypic T-dependent B. burgdorferi protein, Arthritis-related protein (Arp), were initiated, these increases were reversed later, coinciding with the previously observed involution of germinal centers. The cessation of affinity maturation was not due to the appearance of inhibitory or exhausted CD4 T cells or a strong induction of regulatory T cells. In vitro T-B cocultures demonstrated that T cells isolated from B. burgdorferi-infected but not B. burgdorferi-immunized mice supported the ...


Monday 15 December 2014

NY Governor Must Decide Today On Shielding Doctors Who Use Unproven Lyme Disease Treatments

NY legislators passed a law to protect doctors who treat "Chronic Lyme Disease," a non-existent condition that has spurred a raft of quack treatments. Some doctors have built their entire practices around offering expensive treatments to patients who are convinced they have Chronic Lyme. These patients and their doctors are lobbying for NY Governor Cuomo to sign the law, which he must sign or veto today, December 15. If this becomes law, doctors will be protected from any investigation into their questionable treatments. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)

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Sunday 14 December 2014

Lyme Disease, Fibromylagia Link Evaporates

(MedPage Today) -- Earlier studies may have included patients who did not have Lyme disease. (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)


Thursday 11 December 2014

Threat of attacks of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Lyme borreliosis within urban heat islands in south-western Poland

Urban heat islands may exert an impact on tick abundance and activity within cities e.g. city parks where the risk of human infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes is very high. Image: Ixodes ricinus female. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Tuesday 9 December 2014

Lyme disease: diagnostic issues and controversies

Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, Ahead of Print. (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)


Tuesday 9 December 2014

Glycosaminoglycan binding by Borrelia burgdorferi adhesin BBK32 specifically and uniquely promotes joint colonization

Summary Microbial pathogens that colonize multiple tissues commonly produce adhesive surface proteins that mediate attachment to cells and/or extracellular matrix in target organs. Many of these ‘adhesins’ bind to multiple ligands, complicating efforts to understand the role of each ligand‐binding activity. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, produces BBK32, first identified as a fibronectin‐binding adhesin that promotes skin and joint colonization. BBK32 also binds to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which, like fibronectin is ubiquitously present on cell surfaces. To determine which binding activity is relevant for BBK32‐promoted infectivity, we generated a panel of BBK32 truncation and internal deletion mutants, and identified variants specifically defective for...


Monday 8 December 2014

Posterior spinal cord infarctions due to neurosyphilis

An 86-year-old patient with multiple vascular risk factors including 3 previous strokes woke up with a sensation of wet lower limbs, with bilateral loss of proprioception in legs on examination. Cervical MRI showed 2 acute medullary ischemic lesions in the posterior columns at level C3 and C4 (figure 1, A–D). Biological screening including HIV serology, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL), and Lyme disease serology showed an increased TPHA titer of 1:320, with a negative VDRL. (Source: Nature Clinical Practice)


Monday 8 December 2014

Clinical Reasoning: A 28-year-old man with progressive gait disturbance and encephalopathy

A 28-year-old man with sickle cell disease presented with 7 months of difficulty walking. Initial examination 3 months prior to admission to our hospital was thought to be consistent with a polyneuropathy. He was areflexic, was unable to stand on toes or heels with decreased sensation on the left foot to light touch and vibration, had difficulty with heel to shin, and was unable to perform tandem gait. Laboratory tests revealed anemia (hemoglobin 7.2 g/dL) and elevated creatinine (1.49 g/dL). HIV, antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, hepatitis serologies, rapid plasma reagin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, copper, SSA/B, and Lyme titers were unremarkable. B12 deficiency (B12 188 pg/mL) and a mildly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 24 mm/hour were fou...

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Sunday 7 December 2014

Epidemiology and cost of hospital care for Lyme borreliosis in Germany: Lessons from a health care utilization database analysis

Publication date: February 2015 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 6, Issue 1 Author(s): B. Lohr , I. Müller , M. Mai , D.E. Norris , O. Schöffski , K.-P. Hunfeld To date, relatively little is known about the economic and medical impact of Lyme borreliosis (LB) on European health care systems, especially for the inpatient sector. This retrospective analysis is based on data provided for the years 2007–2011 by a German statutory health insurance company (DAK-Gesundheit) covering approximately 6 million insured. Total cost was calculated for a 1-year period both from the third-party payers and from the societal perspective, respectively. In our cohort the incident diagnosis of LB was coded for 2163 inpatient cases during the years 2008–2011. The median inpatient time was 9 ...


Sunday 7 December 2014

Occurrence of ticks and prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in three types of urban biotopes: Forests, parks and cemeteries

In conclusion, risks associated with the presence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens may be high in a city, but this depends on biotope types, due to habitat-related differences in the vegetation, as well as in the availability of tick hosts and pathogen reservoirs. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)

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Sunday 7 December 2014

Borrelia spirochetes in Russia: Genospecies differentiation by real-time PCR

Publication date: October 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 6 Author(s): T.A. Mukhacheva , S.Y. Kovalev Spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis which is widespread in Russia. Nowadays, three clinically important B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. bavariensis sp. nov., can be found in Russia, as well as B. miyamotoi, which belongs to the tick-borne relapsing fever group of spirochetes. Several techniques have been developed to differentiate Borrelia genospecies. However, most of them do not allow detection of all of these genospecies simultaneously. Also, no method based on the RT-PCR TaqMan approach has been proposed to differentiate the genetically closely related species B. ...


Sunday 7 December 2014

Continuing increase of tick bites and Lyme disease between 1994 and 2009

Conclusions Our observation of increases in GP consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans diagnoses between 1994 and 2009 are confirmed by the parallel increase of tick bites reported by the general population, although consultation rates slightly increased. For every sixty tick bites in the general population in 2007, we observed one GP consult for erythema migrans. The increase in tick bites poses a progressive threat to public health. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)


Saturday 6 December 2014

Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Tick-Borne Disease Cases among Humans and Canines in Illinois (2000-2009).

Authors: Herrmann JA, Dahm NM, Ruiz MO, Brown WM Abstract Four tick-borne diseases (TBDs), anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease (LD), and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), are endemic in Illinois. The prevalence of human and canine cases of all four TBDs rose over the study period with significant differences in geographic distribution within the state. Among human cases, there were associations between cases of RMSF and LD and total forest cover, seasonal precipitation, average mean temperature, racial-ethnic groups, and gender. Estimated annual prevalence of three canine TBDs exceeded human TBD cases significantly in each region. There was concordance in the number of human and canine cases by county of residence, in annual prevalence trends, and in time of year at which t...


Friday 5 December 2014

[Comment] Chikungunya virus control: is a vaccine on the horizon?

Vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue are among the most prevalent and important infectious diseases in the world. For example, WHO estimated that 40% of the world's population is at risk of dengue virus infection and up to 100 million infections might occur annually. West Nile virus and Lyme disease are prominent examples of vector-borne diseases, with over 5600 and 31 000 human cases estimated, respectively, in 2012 in the USA alone. (Source: LANCET)


Friday 5 December 2014

Proteomic analysis of three Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato native species and disseminating clones: Relevance for Lyme vaccine design

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics)


Thursday 4 December 2014

Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011

H. Wilking et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)


Tuesday 2 December 2014

Potential Infectious Etiology of Behçet's Disease.

Authors: Galeone M, Colucci R, D'Erme AM, Moretti S, Lotti T Abstract Behçet's disease is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, uveitis, and skin lesions. The cause of Behçet's disease remains unknown, but epidemiologic findings suggest that an autoimmune process is triggered by an environmental agent in a genetically predisposed individual. An infectious agent could operate through molecular mimicry, and subsequently the disease could be perpetuated by an abnormal immune response to an autoantigen in the absence of ongoing infection. Potentia bacterial are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mycobacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma fermentans, but the most...

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Tuesday 2 December 2014

Bull's-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans.

Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient's appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis. PMID: 23133445 [PubMed] (Source: Dermatology Research and Practice)


Tuesday 2 December 2014

Long‐Term Assessment of Fibromyalgia in Patients with Culture‐Confirmed Lyme Disease

Conclusions: Fibromyalgia was observed in only 1% of 100 patients with culture‐confirmed early Lyme disease, a frequency consistent with that found for the general population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Monday 1 December 2014

Chronic neuroborreliosis by B. garinii: an unusual case presenting with epilepsy and multifocal brain MRI lesions.

Authors: Matera G, Labate A, Quirino A, Lamberti AG, Borzà G, Barreca GS, Mumoli L, Peronace C, Giancotti A, Gambardella A, Focà A, Quattrone A Abstract Late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) represents a challenging entity whose diagnosis requires a combination of clinical and laboratory findings, surrounded by much controversy. Here we describe a patient who had a peculiar form of late LNB with CNS lesions shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and epileptic seizures, etiologically diagnosed by conventional and molecular methods. The current case provides evidence that patients presenting with epileptic seizures and MRI-detected multifocal lesions, particularly when a facial palsy has also occurred, should raise the suspicion of LNB, as this diagnosis has important implic...


Monday 1 December 2014

Deciphering the interface between a CD40 receptor and borrelial ligand OspA

Publication date: Available online 19 September 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Patrik Mlynarcik , Lucia Pulzova , Elena Bencurova , Andrej Kovac , Miguel A. Dominguez , Stanislav Hresko , Mangesh R. Bhide Neuroborreliosis is serious sequelae of Lyme borreliosis. Neuroinvasion is largely relied on successful translocation of Borrelia across the blood–brain barrier. Adherence of Borrelia to brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) seems to be critical for translocation. Here we unfold the interface between OspA and CD40 molecules, major ligand and receptor, that are involved in adhesion of Borrelia to BMECs. We found that a region between Asn127 and Asp205 of OspA forms the CD40-receptor binding site. This region encompasses human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVE...


Monday 1 December 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)

(Source: Pediatrics in Review)

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Friday 28 November 2014

Update on Lyme Carditis and Associated Sudden Cardiac DeathUpdate on Lyme Carditis and Associated Sudden Cardiac Death

This report on Lyme carditis reminds clinicians that Lyme disease should be considered as a cause of cardiac symptoms in patients who live in or have visited a high-incidence Lyme disease region. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Friday 28 November 2014

Impact of Biodiversity and Seasonality on Lyme Pathogen Transmission

Lyme disease imposes increasing global public health challenges. To better understand the joint effects of seasonal temperature variation and host community composition on the pathogen transmission, a stage-structured periodic model is proposed by integrating seasonal tick development and activity, multiple host species and complex pathogen transmission routes between ticks and reservoirs. Two thresholds, one for tick population dynamics and the other for Lyme-pathogen transmission dynamics, are identified and shown to fully classify the long-term outcomes of the tick invasion and disease persistence. Seeding with the realistic parameters, the tick reproduction threshold and Lyme disease spread threshold are estimated to illustrate the joint effects of the climate change and host community...


Friday 28 November 2014

Impact of biodiversity and seasonality on Lyme-pathogen transmission

Lyme disease imposes increasing global public health challenges. To better understand the joint effects of seasonal temperature variation and host community composition on the pathogen transmission, a stage-structured periodic model is proposed by integrating seasonal tick development and activity, multiple host species and complex pathogen transmission routes between ticks and reservoirs. Two thresholds, one for tick population dynamics and the other for Lyme-pathogen transmission dynamics, are identified and shown to fully classify the long-term outcomes of the tick invasion and disease persistence. Seeding with the realistic parameters, the tick reproduction threshold and Lyme disease spread threshold are estimated to illustrate the joint effects of the climate change and host community...

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Friday 28 November 2014

Invasive potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospC type L strains increases the possible disease risk to humans in the regions of their distribution

Borrelia burgdorferi ospC type L strains disseminate into host like strains responsible for Lyme disease worldwide, increasing the risk of LD in the southeastern USA, where strains are distributed. Image: Scanning electron microscopy image of low-passage culture of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 26 November 2014

What ticks do under your skin: two-photon intravital imaging of Ixodes scapularis feeding in the presence of the lyme disease spirochete.

Authors: Bockenstedt LK, Gonzalez D, Mao J, Li M, Belperron AA, Haberman A Abstract Lyme disease, due to infection with the Ixodes-tick transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common tick-transmitted disease in the northern hemisphere. Our understanding of the tick-pathogen-vertebrate host interactions that sustain an enzootic cycle for B. burgdorferi is incomplete. In this article, we describe a method for imaging the feeding of Ixodes scapularis nymphs in real-time using two-photon intravital microscopy and show how this technology can be applied to view the response of Lyme borrelia in the skin of an infected host to tick feeding. PMID: 24600332 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

The association of lyme disease with loss of sexual libido and the role of urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggested an association between Lyme disease and loss of libido. Moreover, this loss of libido did not seem to be associated with urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. Given these results, we recommend further studies to confirm the association. PMID: 24987563 [PubMed] (Source: International Neurourology Journal)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction symptoms in lyme disease.

CONCLUSIONS: This first systematic controlled study confirms that Lyme disease is associated with urinary bladder detrusor dysfunction. Further evaluation of detrusor function is warranted in this disease. PMID: 24143291 [PubMed] (Source: International Neurourology Journal)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Neurogenic bladder in lyme disease.

Authors: Kim MH, Kim WC, Park DS Abstract Lyme disease is a multi-systemic, tick-borne infectious disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Various urologic symptoms are associated with Lyme disease, which can be primary or late manifestations of the disease. Although voiding dysfunction is a rarely reported symptom in patients with Lyme disease, it is one of the most disabling complications of Lyme disease. Korea is not an endemic area of Lyme disease, thus, fewer cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of a 32-year-old man with rapidly progressive bilateral ptosis, dysphagia, spastic paraparesis, and voiding difficulty in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed through serologic tests for antibodies and Western blot testing. A urodynamic study demonstrated detrusor...


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Editorial Commentary: Comparison of Lyme Disease Serologic Assays and Lyme Specialty Laboratories

(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Nervous System Lyme Disease

Abstract Lyme disease, a multisystem spirochetal infection, continues to be the subject of considerable debate, but not controversy. Recent years have seen improvements in diagnostic tools, better understanding of pathophysiology, and increasing evidence of efficacy of standard treatment regimens. Nervous system involvement is particularly confusing to patients and many physicians. A rational approach based on objective findings can clarify the cause and dictate the best treatment of patients’ difficulties. Diagnosis for all but the earliest cases rests on the combination of likely contact with infected Ixodes ticks and laboratory confirmation of exposure to the causative organism, Borrelia burgdorferi (two-tier serology, combining ELISA with a confirmatory Western blot). Treat...

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Tuesday 25 November 2014

A Comparison of Lyme Disease Serologic Test Results From 4 Laboratories in Patients With Persistent Symptoms After Antibiotic Treatment

Conclusions. Although there was surprisingly little difference among the laboratories in percentage of positive results on most assays using CDC criteria, interlaboratory variability was considerable and remains a problem in LD testing. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Variability in results from negative binomial models for lyme disease measured at different spatial scales.

This study seeks to explore how sensitive/consistent negative binomial models are when they are used to study Lyme disease at different spatial scales (at the regional and sub-regional levels). The study area includes the thirteen states in the Northeastern United States with the highest Lyme disease incidence during the 2002-2006 period. Lyme disease incidence at county level for the period of 2002-2006 was linked with several previously identified key landscape and climatic variables in a negative binomial regression model for the Northeastern region and two smaller sub-regions (the New England sub-region and the Mid-Atlantic sub-region). This study found that negative binomial models, indeed, were sensitive/inconsistent when used at different spatial scales. We discuss various plausible...


Tuesday 25 November 2014

Stage‐Specific Global Alterations in the Transcriptomes of Lyme Disease Spirochetes During Tick Feeding and Following Mammalian Host‐Adaptation

Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in nature within an enzootic cycle involving a mammalian reservoir and an Ixodes sp. tick vector. The transmission, survival and pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi depend on the bacterium's ability to modulate its transcriptome as it transits between vector and reservoir host. Herein, we employed an amplification‐microarray approach to define the B. burgdorferi transcriptomes in fed larvae, fed nymphs and in mammalian host‐adapted organisms cultivated in dialysis membrane chambers. The results show clearly that spirochetes exhibit unique expression profiles during each tick stage and during cultivation within the mammal; importantly, none of these profiles resembles that exhibited by in vitro‐grown organisms....


Monday 24 November 2014

Evaluating the need for a specialist service on Lyme disease in Australia.

Authors: Janakiraman R, Wan A PMID: 25414457 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Australasian Psychiatry)

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Monday 24 November 2014

Many animals steal defenses from bacteria: Microbe toxin genes have jumped to ticks, mites and other animals

Bacteria compete for resources in the environment by injecting deadly toxins into their rivals. Researcher have now discovered that many animals steal toxins from bacteria to fight unwanted microbes growing on them. Genes for these toxins have jumped from bacterial to animals. These genes are now permanently incorporated into the genomes of these animals. Deer ticks, which can carry Lyme disease, are one of the many diverse organisms in which toxin gene transfers from bacteria to animal has occurred. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 24 November 2014

Animals steal defenses from bacteria

(University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine) Bacteria compete for resources in the environment by injecting deadly toxins into their rivals. Researcher have now discovered that many animals steal toxins from bacteria to fight unwanted microbes growing on them. Genes for these toxins have jumped from bacterial to animals. These genes are now permanently incorporated into the genomes of these animals. Deer ticks, which can carry Lyme disease, are one of the many diverse organisms in which toxin gene transfers from bacteria to animal has occurred. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Monday 24 November 2014

The degree of damage in the peripheral facial nerve palsy in children depending on the cause: The role of Lyme neuroborreliosis

Conclusions The role of neuroborreliosis among the infectious factors ought to be emphasized. It seems significant that in patients with confirmed Lyme disease the stage of facial nerve damage was considerably deeper and the recovery was slower. (Source: Polish Annals of Medicine)


Monday 24 November 2014

Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function

Nature advance online publication 24 November 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13965 Authors: Seemay Chou, Matthew D. Daugherty, S. Brook Peterson, Jacob Biboy, Youyun Yang, Brandon L. Jutras, Lillian K. Fritz-Laylin, Michael A. Ferrin, Brittany N. Harding, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, X. Frank Yang, Waldemar Vollmer, Harmit S. Malik & Joseph D. Mougous Horizontal gene transfer allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits. Although documented instances of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce antibacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial ...


Monday 24 November 2014

Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function

Authors: Seemay Chou, Matthew D. Daugherty, S. Brook Peterson, Jacob Biboy, Youyun Yang, Brandon L. Jutras, Lillian K. Fritz-Laylin, Michael A. Ferrin, Brittany N. Harding, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, X. Frank Yang, Waldemar Vollmer, Harmit S. Malik & Joseph D. Mougous Horizontal gene transfer allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits. Although documented instances of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce antibacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial competition. The type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) proteins are p...


Monday 24 November 2014

Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by Borrelia burgdorferi in human immune cells correlates with pathogenic potential.

Authors: Love AC, Schwartz I, Petzke MM Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial agent of Lyme disease, induces the production of type I IFNs by human DCs through TLR7 and TLR9 signaling. This type I IFN response occurs in a genotype-dependent manner, with significantly higher levels of IFN-α elicited by B. burgdorferi strains that have a greater capacity for causing disseminated infection. A B. burgdorferi strain that was previously shown to induce IFN-α was found to elicit significantly higher levels of IDO1 protein and its downstream metabolite, kynurenine, compared with a B. burgdorferi mutant that lacks a single linear plasmid (lp36); this mutant is unable to induce IFN-α and is severely attenuated for infectivity in mice. Production of IDO by mDC and pDC populations, p...

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Thursday 20 November 2014

Willy Burgdorfer, Who Found Bacteria That Cause Lyme Disease, Is Dead at 89

Dr. Burgdorfer’s familiar finding while conducting tick surgery solved the mysteries of an ailment that had affected scores of people. (Source: NYT Health)


Thursday 20 November 2014

Landscape risk factors for Lyme disease in the eastern broadleaf forest province of the Hudson River valley and the effect of explanatory data classification resolution

This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity) and aggregate classes (e.g., forest, developed). Percent of each landcover type, median income, and centroid coordinates were calculated by census tract. Regression results from individual and aggregate variable models were compared with the dispersion parameter-based R 2 ( R α 2 ) and AIC. The maximum R α 2 was 0.82 and 0.83 for the best aggregate and individual model, respectively. The AICs for the best models differed by less than 0.5%. The aggregate model variables included forest, developed, agric...


Tuesday 18 November 2014

Go for a walk – you could discover the meaning of life

If you have a burning question about yourself, the answer might be all around you – that’s the theory behind Street Wisdom“The street is an invisible university, if you know how to look.” I am intrigued. This is the promise of Street Wisdom, a walking group with a twist, who offer something pretty ambitious, if not downright mystical. It’s free to take part, the website advises, and all I’ll need are warm clothes and a question I want answering. Feeling curious and a bit confused, I book myself in to the next event.A week later, I join seven other people seeking exercise and answers, on a hill in the Dorset coastal town of Lyme Regis. Leading the session is the founder Chris Baréz-Brown, a long-haired, twinkly eyed cross between Richard Branson and a wizard. I greet him,...


Monday 17 November 2014

Lyme law uses "junk science" says expert.

Lyme law uses "junk science" says expert. CMAJ. 2014 Nov 17; Authors: Brown C PMID: 25404395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: cmaj)

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Saturday 15 November 2014

Uveitis: The Collaborative Diagnostic Evaluation.

Authors: Harman LE, Margo CE, Roetzheim RG Abstract Uveitis, or inflammation of the uveal tract (i.e., iris, ciliary body, and choroid), results from a heterogeneous collection of disorders of varying etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms. Uveitis is caused by a systemic disease in 30% to 45% of patients. Primary care physicians may be asked to evaluate patients with uveitis when an underlying systemic diagnosis is suspected but not apparent from eye examination or history. If the history, physical examination, and basic laboratory studies do not suggest an underlying cause, serologic tests for syphilis and chest radiography for sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are recommended. Typing for human leukocyte antigen-B27 is appropriate for patients with recurrent anterior uveitis. Because th...


Friday 14 November 2014

Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnosis of cutaneous infections in dermatopathology.

Authors: Swick BL Abstract Conventional methods, including microscopy, culture, and serologic studies, are a mainstay in the diagnosis of cutaneous infection. However, owing to limitations associated with these techniques, such as low sensitivity for standard microscopy and in the case of culture delay in diagnosis, polymerase chain-reaction based molecular techniques have taken on an expanding role in the diagnosis of infectious processes in dermatopathology. In particular, these assays are a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infection, leprosy, Lyme disease, syphilis, rickettsioses, leishmaniasis, and some fungal and viral infections. Already in the case of tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial infection, standardized polymerase c...


Wednesday 12 November 2014

Molecular Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from Case of Autochthonous Lyme Arthritis

S. I. Brummitt et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)


Tuesday 11 November 2014

Evaluation of Borrelia real time PCR DNA targeting OspA, FlaB and 5S–23S IGS and Borrelia 16S rRNA RT-qPCR

Publication date: December 2014 Source:Journal of Microbiological Methods, Volume 107 Author(s): Bertie H.C.G.M. de Leeuw , Boulos Maraha , Leonie Hollemans , Hein Sprong , Afke H. Brandenburg , Pieter J. Westenend , Johannes G. Kusters Borrelia burgdorferi non-sensu lato (s.l.) strains occurred in the Netherlands. A multiplex OspA, FlaB, IGS real time PCR was compared to 16S rRNA/rDNA RT-qPCR with lower average Cycle threshold (Ct) and LOD on strain dilutions. Multiplexing increased sensitivity on CSF samples (n=74), distinguishing B. burgdorferi s.l. from non-s.l. strains. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods)


Monday 10 November 2014

Skylar’s story: My heart surgery scar makes me appreciate life

About the blogger: Skylar Bayer, 28, is a PhD student at the University of Maine. When she was one day old, she had open-heart surgery for transposition of the great arteries, a congenital heart defect where the heart’s two main arteries are physically swapped. But her heart defect didn’t keep her from being a kid like any other and hasn’t stopped her from following her passions. If anything, it’s made her appreciate life all the more.  I can still recall being a five-year-old girl in the women’s locker room of the swim and tennis club my family attended in the summer. I’m peering around the room at all the other girls’ and women’s chests, and I notice for the first time that no one else has the same six-inch scar down the middle of their chests that ...

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Monday 10 November 2014

pncA and bptA Are Not Sufficient To Complement Ixodes scapularis Colonization and Persistence by Borrelia burgdorferi in a Linear Plasmid lp25-Deficient Background [Molecular Pathogenesis]

In this study, we complemented an lp25-deficient borrelial strain with pncA alone or pncA accompanied by bptA to evaluate the ability of the complemented strains to restore larval colonization and persistence through transstadial transmission relative to that of wild-type B. burgdorferi. The acquisition of the complemented strains by tick larvae from infected mice and/or the survival of these strains was significantly decreased when assayed by cultivation and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Only 10% of the pncA-complemented strain organisms were found by culture to survive 17 days following larval feeding, while 45% of the pncA- and bptA-complemented strain organisms survived, with similar results by PCR. However, neither of the complemented B. burgdorferi strains was capable of persisting throug...


Sunday 9 November 2014

Lyme Borreliosis-associated Risk Factors in Residents of Beijing Suburbs: a Preliminary Case-control Study

Publication date: October 2014 Source:Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 10 Author(s): Xiang Feng DOU , Yan Ning LYU , Yi JIANG , Chang Ying LIN , Li Li TIAN , Quan WANG Yi , Yu Song YANG , Chao LI , Yu Lan SUN , Zeng Zhi GUAN , Xiu Chun ZHANG , Xin Yu LI (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences)


Sunday 9 November 2014

Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China

Conclusion The MLVA protocol esytablished in this study is easy and can show strains' phylogenetic relationships to distinguish the strains of Borrelia species. It is useful for further phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses of Borrelia strains. (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences)


Friday 7 November 2014

It's free! QB3 inks equipment donation deal for biomed startups

One of the lures of the University of California's QB3 incubator network for life sciences startups is access to the same core facilities — centralized sites with million-dollar pieces of equipment — used by top-flight medical researchers. Now QB3 and partner American Laboratory Trading Inc. believe they've found a way to help young biotech and medical device companies find more commonly used equipment without paying a penny more. It's part of a push by ALT, an East Lyme, Conn.-based pre-owned… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)


Friday 7 November 2014

Coinfection of tick cell lines has variable effects on replication of intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens

Publication date: June 2014 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 4 Author(s): Anna Moniuszko , Claudia Rückert , M. Pilar Alberdi , Gerald Barry , Brian Stevenson , John K. Fazakerley , Alain Kohl , Lesley Bell-Sakyi Ticks transmit various human and animal microbial pathogens and may harbour more than one pathogen simultaneously. Both viruses and bacteria can trigger, and may subsequently suppress, vertebrate host and arthropod vector anti-microbial responses. Microbial coinfection of ticks could lead to an advantage or disadvantage for one or more of the microorganisms. In this preliminary study, cell lines derived from the ticks Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus were infected sequentially with 2 arthropod-borne pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Ehrlichia rumina...

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Thursday 6 November 2014

Neoplasms Misdiagnosed as “Chronic Lyme Disease”

Clinical features of Lyme disease include erythema migrans rash, facial palsy, arthritis, and peripheral neuropathy. In endemic areas, patients with erythema migrans can be diagnosed clinically. Otherwise, diagnosis is based on the history of possible exposure, compatible clinical features, and … Continued (Source: JAMA Oncology)


Thursday 6 November 2014

LYME PLUS (Not Applicable) Liquid [Deseret Biologicals, Inc.]

Updated Date: Nov 6, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Tuesday 4 November 2014

That's Not Chronic Lyme, It's Cancer

(MedPage Today) -- Three case reports demonstrate the risks of "assuming that patients have chronic Lyme disease." (Source: MedPage Today Hematology/Oncology)


Tuesday 4 November 2014

Lyme Misdiagnosis Can Divert Patients From Correct TreatmentLyme Misdiagnosis Can Divert Patients From Correct Treatment

In three cases Lyme misdiagnosis led to delayed diagnosis and treatment for cancers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Tuesday 4 November 2014

The Clinical Spectrum of Skin Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis in 204 Children in Austria.

In conclusion, erythema migrans with multiple lesions and borrelial lymphocytoma appear to be more frequent in children than in adults, whereas acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is a rarity in childhood. The outcome after antibiotic therapy was excellent in children, and appears to be better than in adults. PMID: 25366035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Dermato-Venereologica)

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Monday 3 November 2014

New test shows promise in identifying new drugs to treat lyme disease

A test has been developed by researchers which they say will allow them to test thousands of FDA-approved drugs to see if they will work against the bacteria that causes tick-borne Lyme disease. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Monday 3 November 2014

New Test Shows Promise in Identifying New Drugs to Treat Lyme Disease

Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have developed a test they say will allow them to test thousands of FDA-approved drugs to see if they will work against the bacteria that causes tick-borne Lyme disease. (Source: Public Health News Headlines from Johns Hopkins)


Monday 3 November 2014

New test shows promise in identifying new drugs to treat Lyme disease

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have developed a test they say will allow them to test thousands of FDA-approved drugs to see if they will work against the bacteria that causes tick-borne Lyme disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Monday 3 November 2014

Case report of rare chronic myelogenous leukemia related multibacterial splenic abscess presenting with scrotal swelling

CONCLUSION This case illustrated an unusual presentation of CML because the patient presented with splenomegaly, a multibacterial splenic abscess, and scrotal swelling. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)


Saturday 1 November 2014

Lyme disease

The multisystemic inflammatory condition Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried on ticks and transmitted via their bite. The facts about this disease are useful to dentists who may be called on to manage oral manifestations (Table 1). (Source: Dental Abstracts)


Saturday 1 November 2014

Disseminated Lyme Disease Presenting With Nonsexual Acute Genital Ulcers

Conclusions and RelevanceAlthough the etiology of NAGU is unknown, the vulvar ulcers may result from an exuberant immune response to infection. Most patients with NAGU exhibit nonspecific symptoms such as myalgias and fever, suggesting an infectious agent, but the majority have no identifiable pathogen. In addition to previously reported associations with systemic infection, which are reviewed herein, Lyme disease should be considered in women presenting with acute-onset genital ulcers. (Source: JAMA Dermatology)


Saturday 1 November 2014

Bilateral vocal cord paralysis requiring tracheostomy due to neuroborreliosis.

We report the case of a 90-year-old man who presented with dysphonia and right upper and lower extremity weakness. His course was complicated by bilateral vocal cord paralysis and respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy. The diagnosis of borreliosis was made by detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi on enzyme immunoassay and Western blot. The patient received IV ceftriaxone for 2 weeks, followed by complete recovery of motor and vocal function over 2 months. Our case is the third report of bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the literature, and the first one, to our knowledge, presenting with respiratory failure requiring an artificial airway. Physicians should be aware of this unusual complication of neuroborreliosis. PMID: 25367481 [PubMed - in process] (S...

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Saturday 1 November 2014

[In Process Citation].

We present the case of a 26 year old man reporting to the family doctor due to swelling and redness of the foot. After thrombosis and a tumorous mass could be excluded, the suspicion fell on an acrodermatitis chronica atrophican which could be confirmed by laboratory tests. During therapy there was a significant regression of the cutaneous lesion. The treatment of the Lyme disease was taken over by the casualty insurer. PMID: 25391746 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Praxis)


Friday 31 October 2014

Lyme Carditis Can Cause Sudden Cardiac Death Lyme Carditis Can Cause Sudden Cardiac Death

Lyme disease might be a cause of cardiac symptoms in patients living in or visiting high-incidence areas and might contribute to sudden cardiac death, the CDC has warned healthcare providers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Friday 31 October 2014

CDC Reports Two New Suspected Cases of Sudden Death Linked to Lyme Carditis (FREE)

By Cara Adler Edited by André Sofair, MD, MPH, and William E. Chavey, MD, MS Lyme carditis occurs in about 1% of patients with Lyme disease and rarely is associated with death, according to an MMWR … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

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Friday 31 October 2014

Notes from the field: update on lyme carditis, groups at high risk, and frequency of associated sudden cardiac death - United States.

Authors: Forrester JD, Meiman J, Mullins J, Nelson R, Ertel SH, Cartter M, Brown CM, Lijewski V, Schiffman E, Neitzel D, Daly ER, Mathewson AA, Howe W, Lowe LA, Kratz NR, Semple S, Backenson PB, White JL, Kurpiel PM, Rockwell R, Waller K, Johnson DH, Steward C, Batten B, Blau D, DeLeon-Carnes M, Drew C, Muehlenbachs A, Ritter J, Sanders J, Zaki SR, Molins C, Schriefer M, Perea A, Kugeler K, Nelson C, Hinckley A, Mead P Abstract On December 13, 2013, MMWR published a report describing three cases of sudden cardiac death associated with Lyme carditis. State public health departments and CDC conducted a follow-up investigation to determine 1) whether carditis was disproportionately common among certain demographic groups of patients diagnosed with Lyme disease, 2) the frequency of dea...



Thursday 30 October 2014

Borrelial lymphocytoma cutis: A diagnostic dilemma

Rajat Kandhari, Sanjiv Kandhari, Sudhir JainIndian Journal of Dermatology 2014 59(6):595-597Lymphocytoma cutis (LC) is one of the most common types of cutaneous B cell pseudolymphoma. Borrelial LC occurs most commonly in areas endemic for Ixodes ricinus tick in Europe, and it is rare in North America. The disease is rarely seen in India and may cause diagnostic difficulties for dermatologist residing in parts of the world that are not endemic for Lyme disease. The diagnosis is critical as LC may present as the only early manifestation of Lyme disease. Herein, we have presented a case of borrelial LC in an 11-year-old boy of German descent, residing in India. (Source: Indian Journal of Dermatology)


Wednesday 29 October 2014

LYME HP (Not Applicable) Liquid [Energique, Inc.]

Updated Date: Oct 29, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Wednesday 29 October 2014

Performance evaluation of the Elecsys® Syphilis assay for detecting total antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

Authors: Enders M, Hunjet A, Gleich M, Imdahl R, Mühlbacher A, Schennach H, Chaiwong K, Sakuldamrongpanich T, Turhan A, Sertöz R, Wolf E, Mayer W, Tao C, Wang LL, Semprini S, Sambri V Abstract Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if it is not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard and diagnosis usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study we evaluate the treponemal Elecsys® Syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples i.e. when syphilis is suspected, or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys® Syphilis assay was compared he...


Wednesday 29 October 2014

A Concise Critical Analysis of Serologic Testing for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

Abstract Diagnostic testing for Lyme disease in the clinical setting primarily relies on assessment of serologic responses to infection, with the exception of the early localized phase of disease, in which the diagnosis must be made clinically, due to the recognized insensitivity of serologic testing at this phase of disease. For the diagnosis of early disseminated and late disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a two-tiered approach to testing consisting of initial IgM and IgG quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by confirmation of all indeterminate or positive ELISA tests with separate IgG and IgM Western blots. This critical analysis addresses the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of serologic testing f...


Saturday 25 October 2014

Evaluating the Child with Acute Hip Pain (“Irritable Hip”) in a Lyme Endemic Region

To estimate the prevalence of Lyme infection among children presenting with acute, nontraumatic hip pain in a Lyme endemic region and to investigate predictors of Lyme disease among children with suspected transient synovitis. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)


Friday 24 October 2014

Vasculitis and stroke due to Lyme neuroborreliosis – a review

Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Ahead of Print. (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Friday 24 October 2014

Cerebral sinuvenous thrombosis: a rare complication of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

We present a case of a patient with cerebral sinuvenous thrombosis who was first treated for neuroborreliosis. PMID: 25341456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)


Tuesday 21 October 2014

Efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for neuroborreliosis--protocol for a systematic review

DiscussionThis systematic review will summarize the available evidence from RCTs and non-randomized studies regarding pharmacological treatment of neuroborreliosis. The available evidence will be summarized and discussed to provide a basis for decision-making for patients and healthcare professionals.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014008839 (Source: BioMed Central)


Tuesday 21 October 2014

Efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for neuroborreliosis—protocol for a systematic review

Discussion This systematic review will summarize the available evidence from RCTs and non-randomized studies regarding pharmacological treatment of neuroborreliosis. The available evidence will be summarized and discussed to provide a basis for decision-making for patients and healthcare professionals. Systematic review registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014008839 (Source: Systematic Reviews)


Monday 20 October 2014

Spatial and Temporal Emergence Pattern of Lyme Disease in Virginia.

In this study, we analyze spatial patterns of the disease using a statistical smoothing analysis based on areal (census tract level) count data of Lyme disease cases in Virginia from 1998 to 2011. We also use space and space-time scan statistics to reveal the presence of clusters in the spatial and spatiotemporal distribution of Lyme disease. Our results confirm and quantify the continued emergence of Lyme disease to the south and west in states along the eastern coast of the United States. The results also highlight areas where education and surveillance needs are highest. PMID: 25331806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)


Sunday 19 October 2014

Lyme Disease Activists Protest at IDWeekLyme Disease Activists Protest at IDWeek

Lyme disease advocates registered as attendees at the infectious diseases conference are calling for physicians to update their guidelines. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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Sunday 19 October 2014

Natural Foci Diseases as a Stable Biological Threat

Abstract The key aspects of the natural foci of especially dangerous diseases as a type of biological threats are presented. Approaches to epidemiological surveillance and control to the spread of the agents of especially dangerous diseases on endemic areas are described for zoonosis that has a medical value. The knowledge of specific design of tools for the implementation of epidemiological surveillance, monitoring and evaluation of natural foci diseases in developing countries is low; accordingly, little is known on the ecology and transmission dynamics for the agents of especially dangerous diseases. Important is to know the effectiveness of serological monitoring of the indigenous population to determine the activity of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, ti...


Thursday 16 October 2014

Lyme disease: A rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and treatment.

Authors: Borchers AT, Keen CL, Huntley AC, Gershwin ME Abstract Lyme disease was originally identified in Lyme, Connecticut, based upon an unusual cluster of what appeared to be patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. It was subsequently identified as a new clinical entity originally called Lyme arthritis based on the observation that arthritis was a major clinical feature. However, Lyme arthritis is now called Lyme disease based upon the understanding that the clinical features include not only arthritis, but also potential cardiac, dermatologic and neurologic findings. Lyme disease typically begins with an erythematous rash called erythema migrans (EM). Approximately 4-8% of patients develop cardiac, 11% develop neurologic and 45-60% of patients manifest arthritis. The disea...


Thursday 16 October 2014

Persistent Lyme Empiric Antibiotic Study Europe (PLEASE) - design of a randomized controlled trial of prolonged antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis

This article describes the background and design issues of the PLEASE study protocol. The results of this study may provide evidence for prescribing or withholding prolonged antibiotic treatment.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01207739, Netherlands Trial Register: NTR2469 (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)


Thursday 16 October 2014

Homozygous hemoglobin S (HbSS) presenting with bilateral facial nerve palsy: a case report

Conclusion: Bilateral facial nerve palsy may be an initial presentation of sickle cell anemia patients in the absence of other overt clinical presentations. Therefore sickle cell anemia should be considered among others, in the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve palsy. Furthermore, this case report has highlighted the important role of physiotherapy in the management of bilateral facial nerve palsy. (Source: BMC Research Notes)


Thursday 16 October 2014

Center For Salivary Diagnostics Could ‘Revolutionize’ Health Care Landscape

CAMBRIDGE (CBS) – There was a ribbon cutting ceremony in Cambridge at the Forsyth Institute’s new Center for Salivary Diagnostics. WBZ NewsRadio’s Mary Blake reports the research there is cutting edge. Dr. Phil Stashenko, President and CEO of the Forsyth Institute, says the institute partnered with the Massachusetts Life Sciences Center, obtaining a $4.2 million development grant. He says over the past year, they have built out some core facilities and renovated space in their Cambridge research facility. He predicts the work there will be groundbreaking “We think that the center has the potential to revolutionize the health care landscape by creating new opportunities for early disease prevention and detection,” Dr. Stashenko said. “The mouth is the portal to the bod...

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Wednesday 15 October 2014

A Unique Case of Adolescent Neuroborreliosis Presenting with Multiple Cranial Neuritis and Cochlear Inflammation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, and is caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In children, neuroborreliosis usually presents as peripheral facial nerve palsy and lymphocytic meningitis, and only rarely is associated with cranial polyneuritis. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)


Tuesday 14 October 2014

Long-Term Assessment of Fatigue in Patients with Culture-Confirmed Lyme Disease

Fatigue is a common symptom with numerous causes. Severe fatigue is thought to be an important manifestation of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The frequency with which severe fatigue occurs as a long-term sequela in prospectively followed Lyme disease patients, however, is unknown. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Tuesday 14 October 2014

Selective Whole Genome Amplification for Resequencing Target Microbial Species from Complex Natural Samples [Methods, Technology, and Resources]

Population genomic analyses have demonstrated power to address major questions in evolutionary and molecular microbiology. Collecting populations of genomes is hindered in many microbial species by the absence of a cost effective and practical method to collect ample quantities of sufficiently pure genomic DNA for next-generation sequencing. Here we present a simple method to amplify genomes of a target microbial species present in a complex, natural sample. The selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) technique amplifies target genomes using nucleotide sequence motifs that are common in the target microbe genome, but rare in the background genomes, to prime the highly processive phi29 polymerase. SWGA thus selectively amplifies the target genome from samples in which it originally repr...


Sunday 12 October 2014

Lyme and other Stealth Infections

Publication date: January 2014 Source:Advances in Integrative Medicine, Volume 1, Issue 1 Author(s): Gull Herzberg (Source: Advances in Integrative Medicine)


Saturday 11 October 2014

Antibodies to decorin-binding protein B (DbpB) in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis in children

(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Thursday 9 October 2014

Assessing the Contribution of Songbirds to the Movement of Ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi in the Midwestern United States During Fall Migration

Abstract The geographic distributions of Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick) and the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (the causative agent of Lyme disease) are expanding in the USA. To assess the role of migratory songbirds in the spread of this tick and pathogen, we captured passerines in central Illinois during the fall of 2012. We compared forested sites in regions where I. scapularis populations were either previously or not yet established. Ticks were removed from birds and blood samples were taken from select avian species. Ticks were identified by morphology and molecular techniques were used to detect B. burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks and avian blood samples. Ixodes spp. were detected on 10 of 196 migrants (5.1%), with I. scapularis larvae found on 2 i...


Saturday 4 October 2014

Disease Risk in a Dynamic Environment: The Spread of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Minnesota, USA

Abstract As humans and climate change alter the landscape, novel disease risk scenarios emerge. Understanding the complexities of pathogen emergence and subsequent spread as shaped by landscape heterogeneity is crucial to understanding disease emergence, pinpointing high-risk areas, and mitigating emerging disease threats in a dynamic environment. Tick-borne diseases present an important public health concern and incidence of many of these diseases are increasing in the United States. The complex epidemiology of tick-borne diseases includes strong ties with environmental factors that influence host availability, vector abundance, and pathogen transmission. Here, we used 16 years of case data from the Minnesota Department of Health to report spatial and temporal trends in Lyme dis...


Friday 3 October 2014

Well: Think Like a Doctor: Mirror, Mirror Solved!

Readers solve the case of a 62-year-old man with fatigue, neck and arm pain, and a droopy face. (Source: NYT)


Wednesday 1 October 2014

Lyme Borreliosis-associated Risk Factors in Residents of Beijing Suburbs: a Preliminary Case-control Study.

Authors: Dou XF, Lyu YN, Jiang Y, Lin CY, Tian LL, Wang QY, Yang YS, Li C, Sun YL, Guan ZZ, Zhang XC, Li XY Abstract A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relative factors in the environments, agricultural works, outdoor activities, and the effectiveness of Lyme borreliosis (LB)- associated personal protective measures in Beijing. Thirty-four cases and 272 controls were personally interviewed by well-trained interviewers. Venous blood samples were taken from each subject. Sowing or harvesting in summer (OR=2.571, 95% CI: 1.109-5.962), living in house with weeding in the yard (OR=2.247, 95% CI: 1.062-4.755), and residence at the plain area (OR=2.630, 95% CI: 1.050-6.588) were the independent relative factors for seropositive LB. Wearing long pants and c...


Wednesday 1 October 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato serology in the Netherlands: guidelines versus daily practice

Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare guideline recommendations and day-to-day practice of serological testing for Lyme borreliosis (LB) in a laboratory located in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, serving both regional hospitals and primary care physicians. By telephone interview, we obtained clinical information regarding 488 requests for LB serology. Screening for LB was performed with a C6-peptide EIA and confirmed by recombinant immunoblot. A total of 82 % of the requests were not supported by guideline’s recommendations and either originated from patients with atypical symptoms and a low a priori chance for LB or from patients for which testing on LB was not recommended for other reasons. C6-EIA screening was positive in 5 % of patients with atypical symptoms, com...


Wednesday 1 October 2014

Co-infections with Borrelia species , Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in patients with tick-borne encephalitis

Conclusions were such that differential diagnosis in patients after the tick bite, presenting with acute symptoms, should include not only TBE and Lyme disease, but also other diseases transmitted by ticks. In patients with low parasitemia in suspicion of Babesia spp. infection PCR seems to be a more sensitive method than blood smear. Co-infection with various tick-borne pathogens must be always considered, especially in endemic regions. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 30 September 2014

Lyme arthritis: Immune surveillance stops joint-invading Borrelia in mice

Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 638 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.172 Author: Sarah Onuora Why don't mice get lyme arthritis? New research led by Paul Kubes suggests immune surveillance by invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are more abundant in the joints of mice than humans, blocks the Lyme-disease inducing pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi from entering the joints. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)


Saturday 27 September 2014

Generic Drug Prices On The Rise

BOSTON (CBS) — Generic drugs are the workhorses of health care. They are safe, effective, and affordable and they treat everything from migraines to life-threatening illnesses. But in the past few years, pharmacists and their patients have noticed a significant cost increase in some medicines. The prices are so high in some cases that patients are choosing to go without. Ron Nadir of Chelmsford takes 16 different medications for a number of different health issues. “Diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and a few others,” he said. All those health problems make it impossible to work full time so he is happy he has Medicaid help to pay for his meds. “I’m grateful for that,” he said. But even with that help, Ron may have trouble covering the cost of his medications ...

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Thursday 25 September 2014

Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis is influenced by the test used: Comparison of two ELISAs, immunoblot and CXCL13 testing

To compare Borrelia-specific intrathecal antibodies by two different ELISAs, an immunoblot (IB) and CXCL13. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)


Wednesday 24 September 2014

Tick-Borne Diseases on the Rise Thanks to Global Warming

Lyme disease is bad enough. But it's just the beginning of a host of odd and ugly diseases ticks transmit, public health officials are finding -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Wednesday 24 September 2014

Tick-Borne Diseases on the Rise, Thanks to Global Warming

Lyme disease is bad enough. But it's just the beginning of a host of odd and ugly diseases ticks transmit, public health officials are finding -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Wednesday 24 September 2014

Lyme Disease Surges North

One of the clearest signs of health risks in a warming world has emerged in one of the world’s most advanced economies, as Canada belatedly struggles to cope with Lyme disease's migration in... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Tuesday 23 September 2014

Blood transfusion transmission of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in mice.

CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that transfusion transmission of B. miyamotoi can occur in mice and suggest that it also may occur in humans. PMID: 25251880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transfusion)

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Monday 22 September 2014

Mothers May Pass Lyme Disease to Children in the Womb

Doctors treating Lyme see evidence that pregnant women can transmit the disease to their children. But public health experts say the science isn't so clear -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 22 September 2014

Has Climate Change Made Lyme Disease Worse?

As Lyme disease spreads across the U.S., those in its path cope with a debilitating, bewildering array of maladies, misery and afflictions -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 22 September 2014

Tick Bite Prophylaxis: Results From a 2012 Survey of Healthcare Providers

Summary In a recent national survey, over 30% of healthcare providers (HCPs) reported prescribing tick bite prophylaxis in the previous year. To clarify provider practices, we surveyed HCPs to determine how frequently and for what reasons they prescribed tick bite prophylaxis. We included four questions regarding tick bite prophylaxis in the DocStyles 2012 survey, a computer‐administered questionnaire of 2205 US primary care physicians, paediatricians and nurse practitioners. Responses in 14 states with high Lyme disease incidence (high LDI) were compared with responses from other states (low LDI). Overall, 56.4% of 1485 providers reported prescribing tick bite prophylaxis at least once in the previous year, including 73.9% of HCPs in high LDI and 48.2% in low LDI states. The reasons giv...


Friday 19 September 2014

Natural killer T cells: Lyme scaled back

Nature Reviews Immunology 14, 648 (2014). doi:10.1038/nri3748 Author: Yvonne Bordon Invariant natural killer T cells can directly limit bacterial dissemination into the joints. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)


Thursday 18 September 2014

Small, fast, and crowded: Mammal traits amplify tick-borne illness

In the U.S., some 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease annually. Thousands also suffer from babesiosis and anaplasmosis, tick-borne ailments that can occur alone or as co-infections with Lyme disease. In our struggle to manage the ever-growing list of tick-borne diseases, we need to understand which animals magnify human disease risk. New results suggest when generalist pathogens emerge, small mammals with large populations and a fast pace of life warrant careful monitoring. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

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Thursday 18 September 2014

Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID: 25239124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)


Thursday 18 September 2014

First Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in Serum of the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Northern Portugal by Nested-PCR

In this study, Borrelia DNA was detected for the first time by nested-PCR in three different sera, suggesting that the wild boar may be a potential reservoir for this spirochete. Sequencing results show 100% similarity with Borrelia afzelii. Further studies are needed to evaluate the public health risks associated with boar hunting. (Source: EcoHealth)


Thursday 18 September 2014

Revisited: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections in hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus) in the city of Hanover (Germany)

The overall B. burgdorferi sl infection rate of I. ricinus ticks in the city of Hanover, Germany, was 22.7% with B. afzelii as the most frequent genospecies. Significant seasonal fluctuations as well as local differences were observed. Comparing results with data from 2005, an increase of infected larvae was noted, whereas the other stages revealed no significant differences. Image: Adult female Ixodes ricinus. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Thursday 11 September 2014

Ticks that vector Lyme disease move west into North Dakota

Ixodes scapularis, also known as the blacklegged tick or deer tick -- is moving westward, and for the first time has been found to be established in North Dakota. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Tuesday 9 September 2014

Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012.

Authors: Vandenesch A, Turbelin C, Couturier E, Arena C, Jaulhac B, Ferquel E, Choumet V, Saugeon C, Coffinieres E, Blanchon T, Vaillant V, Hanslik T PMID: 25188613 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)


Tuesday 9 September 2014

Neuroborelliosis in south west england

Lyme disease is a zoonotic infection transmitted to humans by the bite of Ixodes ticks infected with Borellia spp. Recorded incidence in the UK has increased threefold over the last decade (0.5 to 1.5 reports per 100,000)–due in part to improvement in and standardisation of serological testing but also likely with increased recognition of the wide spectrum of presentation. We assessed all Lyme serology requests between 2006 and 2011 from the Royal Devon and Exeter catchment area - one of the UK's hotspots for Lyme disease. Testing peaked in 2008 and has since fallen. Of 206 positives, 21 attended the hospital with their illness and of those: 50% were paediatric, 56% presented with facial nerve palsy and 17% had meningitis. 72% in total had a neurological manifestation. Compared to pu...


Tuesday 9 September 2014

Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome: the neglected disease in our own backyard

A survey was developed to assess experience and opinions about Lyme disease and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) among faculties in public health. No previous surveys of public health faculties have been found in the literature. (Source: Public Health)


Friday 5 September 2014

Be Aware of Ticks and Lyme Disease

. To learn more, visit the MedlinePlus Lyme Disease health topic page. Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick... (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)


Thursday 4 September 2014

American neuroborreliosis presenting as cranial polyneuritis and radiculoneuritis

We report a case of LNB with simultaneous involvement of the third, fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves in addition to cervical and thoracic radiculoneuritis. (Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation)

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Thursday 4 September 2014

Exposure to ticks and seroprevalence of [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]among a healthy young population living in the area of southern Podlasie, Poland.

Conclusion. Evaluation of the actual infection with Borrelia spp. using serologic tests is difficult due to a certain non-specificity of the ELISA test, especially in IgM class antibodies, and difficulties with performance of a wide scope of specific Western blot tests. The variety of methods of tick removal declared by adolescents suggests that a wider education of society concerning appropriate methods of removing the tick should become an especially important element of prophylactic actions in the area of borreliosis. PMID: 25292120 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Wednesday 3 September 2014

A Novel Multivalent OspA Vaccine against Lyme Borreliosis is Safe and Immunogenic in an Adult Population Previously Infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01504347.). PMID: 25185574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology)


Wednesday 3 September 2014

Recognising and understanding Lyme disease.

Authors: Pearson S Abstract Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere and its incidence is rising, leading to increased public health concerns. It is important to understand the nature of the disease because this defines the limitations of current understanding and knowledge. Significant uncertainties in diagnostics and treatment remain. There is an important role for the nurse in raising awareness, giving advice on prevention and correct tick removal, and in recognising signs of Lyme disease to assist access to prompt medical attention. Increased awareness, further research, improved diagnostics and advances in therapeutics are urgently required. PMID: 25182921 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)


Monday 1 September 2014

Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China.

CONCLUSION: The MLVA protocol esytablished in this study is easy and can show strains' phylogenetic relationships to distinguish the strains of Borrelia species. It is useful for further phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses of Borrelia strains. PMID: 25256856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)

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Monday 1 September 2014

Comparison of different diagnostic assays for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi‐specific antibodies in dogs

ConclusionsBoth IFAs had very low sensitivity and specificity and cannot be recommended for screening purposes. In contrast, KELA showed excellent sensitivity, but positive results always need to be confirmed by WB to differentiate the source of antibody formation. The SNAP4Dx had a high sensitivity and specificity, and thus can potentially replace the more labor‐intensive WB, at least in untreated dogs. (Source: Veterinary Clinical Pathology)


Monday 1 September 2014

Lyme arthritis of the pediatric ankle.

Authors: Aiyer A, Walrath J, Hennrikus W Abstract Lyme arthritis results from acute inflammation caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The number of cases per year has been rising since 2006, with a majority of patients being affected in the northeastern United States. Development of Lyme arthritis is of particular importance to the orthopedic surgeon because Lyme arthritis often presents as an acute episode of joint swelling and tenderness and may be confused with bacterial septic arthritis. Considering the vast difference in treatment management between these 2 pathologies, differentiating between them is of critical importance. Septic arthritis often needs to be addressed surgically, whereas Lyme arthritis can be treated with oral antibiotics alone. Laboratory testing f...


Monday 1 September 2014

Detection of Invasive Borrelia burgdorferi Strains in North‐Eastern Piedmont, Italy

Summary Following reports of human cases of Lyme borreliosis from the Ossola Valley, a mountainous area of Piemonte, north‐western Italy, the abundance and altitudinal distribution of ticks, and infection of these vectors with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were evaluated. A total of 1662 host‐seeking Ixodes ricinus were collected by dragging from April to September 2011 at locations between 400 and 1450 m above sea level. Additional 104 I. ricinus were collected from 35 hunted wild animals (4 chamois, 8 roe deer, 23 red deer). Tick density, expressed as the number of ticks per 100 m2, resulted highly variable among different areas, ranging from 0 to 105 larvae and from 0 to 22 nymphs. A sample of 352 ticks (327 from dragging and 25 from wild animals) was screened by a PCR assay ta...


Friday 29 August 2014

Prioritizing dermatoses: rationally selecting guideline topics

ConclusionDermatological professional organizations worldwide succeeded in developing guidelines for all top 20 topics. Respondents mostly agree with (inter)national guideline programmes and literature concerning the criteria important to selecting guideline topics. (Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology)


Thursday 28 August 2014

Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012

(Source: Eurosurveillance latest news)


Wednesday 27 August 2014

Genotyping of Borrelia from formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded skin biopsies of cutaneous borreliosis and tick bite reactions by assays targeting the intergenic spacer region, ospA and ospC genes

ConclusionsGenotyping of Borrelia can be easily implemented in a routine dermatopathology setting, especially as a fast method to confirm early cutaneous borreliosis. Genotyping could also enable earlier treatment of patients infected with invasive strains. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)

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Tuesday 26 August 2014

Review: Unraveling Lyme Disease

(Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Tuesday 26 August 2014

Heart block and Lyme carditis

(Source: QJM)


Tuesday 26 August 2014

Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions

Lyme borreliosis is more prevalent in the northern than the southern U.S. Northern Ixodes scapularis ticks did not consistently survive longer than southern ticks in laboratory trials. Both northern and southern ticks survived longer under northern than under southern conditions. Image: Ixodes scapularis nymph (courtesy Graham J. Hickling) (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 25 August 2014

Case of tick‐associated rash illness caused by Amblyomma testudinarium

We report a case of tick‐associated rash illness (TARI), a new clinical entity of erythema migrans associated with a tick bite without infection of Lyme borreliosis agent. The patient, a 53‐year‐old man, went hiking in a mountainous area of Minoh City, Osaka Prefecture in October 2012. An erythematous macule with itching and a biting tick was found on his left thigh 2 days later, which gradually expanded. On the first visit to our department at the fifth day after hiking, an erythematous macule of 10 cm was recognized around the bite site. He had no systemic symptoms, and laboratory data were within normal limits. The tick was identified as a nymph of Amblyomma testudinarium. Histopathologically, perivascular infiltrates, mainly consisting of T lymphocytes, were seen in the dermis....


Sunday 24 August 2014

Risk of Lyme Disease Anytime in Northwest California

Researchers from CDPH and UC-Berkeley publish findings in peer-review journal, Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. (Source: Disabled World)

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Wednesday 20 August 2014

Lyme disease risk is year-round in Northwest California, according to new study

(DDC) Ticks that carry Lyme disease are active throughout the year in Northwest California, making the threat of Lyme disease year-round, according to new research conducted by researchers at California Department of Public Health Vector-borne Disease Section and University of California, Berkeley. Data will be published in an upcoming issue of the Elsevier peer review journal Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. More information about Lyme disease is available from Bay Area Lyme Foundation, www.bayarealyme.org. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Tuesday 19 August 2014

Scoop on Lyme disease and progress

(NaturalNews) On May 22 and May 23 members from the Lyme disease community held a protest at the headquarters of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) in Arlington, Virginia. Members from the chronic Lyme community held a sign of 722 names of those who wished to have been... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Wednesday 13 August 2014

Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 7, Page 683-684, August 2014. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)


Wednesday 13 August 2014

UCSF Genomics Diagnostics Team Uses Next-Gen Sequencing as a ‘Laboratory-Developed Test’ to Reveal an Elusive Pathogen’s DNA and Save a Teen’s Life

It took UCSF physicians just 48 hours to identify the bacteria in cerebrospinal fluid that was causing fourteen-year-old Joshua Osborn’s hydrocephalus and status epilepticus There’s rich irony in the FDA’s  recent announcement that it would move forward with plans to regulate “laboratory-developed tests ” (LDTs) just weeks after the national media published stories about how innovative […] (Source: Dark Daily)


Wednesday 13 August 2014

Decorin binding proteins A and B in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease in North America.

Authors: Arnaboldi PM, Sambir M, Dattwyler RJ Abstract The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is based upon the detection of antibodies generated against B. burgdorferi using a two-tier assay, consisting, typically, of an ELISA followed by a western blot. This system, put into place to address nonspecificity associated with standalone first tier assays, is insensitive in the diagnosis of early infection, when most people seek care. The use of bacterial lysates or whole protein antigens as first tier assay targets contributes to nonspecificity due, in part, to the presence of 'cross-reactive' epitopes that are also found in other bacteria. This precludes their use as sensitive standalone assays. The use of peptides containing linear epitopes that are highly specific for B. burgdor...

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Saturday 9 August 2014

Repel ticks with this natural oil

(NaturalNews) With summer in full bloom and more and more cases of Lyme disease being reported, many are searching for ways to repel ticks without having to resort to harsh chemicals. Luckily, there is one sweet-smelling alternative that is proving to be quite powerful in the fight... (Source: NaturalNews.com)


Thursday 7 August 2014

Interaction of BBK32 with Fibronectin [Protein Structure and Folding]

BBK32 is a fibronectin (FN)-binding protein expressed on the cell surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. There is conflicting information about where and how BBK32 interacts with FN. We have characterized interactions of a recombinant 86-mer polypeptide, “Bbk32,” comprising the unstructured FN-binding region of BBK32. Competitive enzyme-linked assays utilizing various FN fragments and epitope-mapped anti-FN monoclonal antibodies showed that Bbk32 binding involves both the fibrin-binding and the gelatin-binding domains of the 70-kDa N-terminal region (FN70K). Crystallographic and NMR analyses of smaller Bbk32 peptides complexed, respectively, with 2–3FNI and 8–9FNI, demonstrated that binding occurs by β-strand addition. Isothermal titration calorimetr...


Wednesday 6 August 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in New Jersey

Gaito A, Gjivoje V, Lutz S, Baxter B (Source: Infection and Drug Resistance)



Wednesday 30 July 2014

Seeks, Finds, threats Lyme disease!

Lyme borreliosis is a disease commonly found in humans. Here we report the case of a young, healthy girl presenting with symptomatic first- and second-degree atrioventricular blocks secondary to cardiac myocarditis. The disappearance of the conduction anomaly after antibiotic treatment confirmed Lyme disease before the results from the serology. Therefore, when a healthy, young person suddenly presents with an atrioventricular conduction block, physicians should consider a diagnosis of Lyme disease. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)

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Wednesday 30 July 2014

Seeks, finds, threats: Lyme disease!

Lyme borreliosis is a disease commonly found in humans. Here we report the case of a young, healthy girl presenting with symptomatic first- and second-degree atrioventricular blocks secondary to cardiac myocarditis. The disappearance of the conduction anomaly after antibiotic treatment confirmed Lyme disease before the results from the serology. Therefore, when a healthy, young person suddenly presents with an atrioventricular conduction block, physicians should consider a diagnosis of Lyme disease. (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)


Monday 28 July 2014

Advice varies for suspected Lyme disease.

Authors: Eggertson L PMID: 25070984 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: cmaj)


Monday 28 July 2014

Antibodies to Endothelial Cell Growth Factor and Obliterative Microvascular Lesions in the Synovium of Patients With Antibiotic‐Refractory Lyme Arthritis

ConclusionThe correlations of ECGF autoantibody reactivity with obliterative microvascular lesions imply that these autoantibodies may be involved in the obliterative process, suggesting that anti‐ECGF antibodies have specific pathologic consequences in the synovial tissue of patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Monday 21 July 2014

Lyme Disease Risk Influences Human Settlement in the Wildland-Urban Interface: Evidence from a Longitudinal Analysis of Counties in the Northeastern United States.

This study provides some of the first evidence of human behavioral responses to Lyme disease risk via settlement decisions. PMID: 25048372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)


Friday 18 July 2014

Intermediate uveitis in children and young adults: differences in clinical course, associations and visual outcome

Conclusions IU with onset in childhood and early adulthood showed a similar visual course at intermediate follow-up. Associated diseases and complication patterns differed between children and young adults. (Source: British Journal of Ophthalmology)


Friday 18 July 2014

Lyme disease in Haryana, India

Vijayeeta Jairath, Manu Sehrawat, Nidhi Jindal, VK Jain, Parul AggarwalIndian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 2014 80(4):320-323Lyme disease is a multiorgan animal-borne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. This case series highlights its presence in Haryana, a nonendemic zone. The first case was a 27-year-old housewife who presented with an annular erythematous patch with a central papule following an insect bite on the left upper arm. The second case was a 32-year-old farmer who gave a history of insect bite on the right arm followed by the development of an erythematous patch with a central blister. The third case, a 17-year-old boy presented with a history of tick bite over right thigh and a typical bull's eye lesion with central ulceration. ...

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Monday 14 July 2014

Culling Deer Herd Curbs Lyme Disease, Study Says

Title: Culling Deer Herd Curbs Lyme Disease, Study SaysCategory: Health NewsCreated: 7/11/2014 5:35:00 PMLast Editorial Review: 7/14/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)


Monday 7 July 2014

Babesiosis in Pregnancy.

CONCLUSION:: Diagnosis of babesiosis in pregnancy requires a high index of suspicion to ensure early treatment and optimal pregnancy outcomes. PMID: 25004307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology)

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Monday 7 July 2014

Resurrecting the 'yuppie vaccine'

Nature Medicine 20, 698 (2014). doi:10.1038/nm0714-698 Author: Cassandra Willyard The only vaccine ever approved to protect against Lyme disease was pulled off the market in 2002, and drugmakers have yet to offer an alternative. What's taking so long? Cassandra Willyard investigates. (Source: Nature Medicine)


Monday 7 July 2014

Veterinarian in Indiana Warns of Leptospirosis and Lyme Disease Dangers

(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))


Friday 4 July 2014

Properties of P13 Borrelia Porin [Microbiology]

P13 is one of the major outer membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Previous studies described P13 as a porin. In the present study some structure and function aspects of P13 were studied. P13 showed according to lipid bilayer studies a channel-forming activity of 0.6 nanosiemens in 1 m KCl. Single channel and selectivity measurements demonstrated that P13 had no preference for either cations or anions and showed no voltage-gating up to ±100 mV. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to isolate and characterize the P13 protein complex in its native state. The complex had a high molecular mass of about 300 kDa and was only composed of P13 monomers. The channel size was investigated using non-electrolytes revealing an apparent diameter of about 1.4 nm with a 400-Da mol...


Thursday 3 July 2014

One Tick Bite Can Equal Two Infections

In New York state study, 1 in 10 of the bugs carried both Lyme disease and babesiosis (Source: WebMD Health)


Thursday 3 July 2014

BorreliaBase: a phylogeny-centered browser of Borrelia genomes

Conclusions: With a genome phylogeny at its center, BorreliaBase allows online identification of hypervariable lipoprotein genes, potential regulatory elements, and recombination footprints by providing evolution-based expectations of sequence variability at each genomic locus. The phylo-centric design of BorreliaBase (http://borreliabase.org) is a novel model for interactive browsing and comparative analysis of bacterial genomes online. (Source: BMC Bioinformatics - Latest articles)

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Wednesday 2 July 2014

Lyme disease "doesn't kill you, but it squeezes every drop of life from you"

Summer is a high-risk season for Lyme disease, which is caused by a bacteria transmitted by ticks. Dr. Bernard Raxlen of Lyme Resource Medical in New York explains what to watch out for and how to treat it. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)


Tuesday 1 July 2014

Fewer Deer may Mean Less Lyme Disease

Annapolis, MD; July 1, 2014 – Since white-tailed deer serve as the primary host for the adult blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) — the vector for Lyme disease — scientists have wondered whether reducing the number of deer in a given area would also mean fewer cases of Lyme disease. Now, after a 13-year study was conducted, researchers in Connecticut have found that reduced deer populations can indeed lead to a reduction in Lyme disease cases. read more (Source: ESA News)


Tuesday 1 July 2014

Reducing deer populations may reduce risk of Lyme disease

(Entomological Society of America) After a 13-year study was conducted, researchers in Connecticut have found that reduced deer populations can lead to a reduction in Lyme disease cases. The results of their study are published in the Journal of Medical Entomology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Tuesday 1 July 2014

Antinuclear antibody seropositivity in men with cutaneous B-cell lymphoma of the scalp.

Authors: Rangwala S, Duvic M Abstract Patient 1: A 65-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 2-month history of large erythematous patches of the right temporal scalp. The patient was otherwise in good health and taking no medications. He denied a family history oflymphomas or autoimmune diseases. No hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy was appreciated. A complete blood cell count, serum protein electrophoresis, peripheral blood flow cytometric analysis, bone marrow biopsy, Helicobacter pylori titers, and Borrelia burgdorferi titers were within normal range. The antinuclear antibody titer was positive at 1:640 and showed a homogenous pattern. Rheumatoid factor, SSA (Ro), and SSB (La) antibody titers were negative. Computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were u...


Monday 30 June 2014

Update: Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is probably the most common tick-borne illness in the U.S., and the best understood. It's a regional disease, very common in some areas, vanishingly rare in others for reasons that aren't yet clear. There are about 35,000 cases reported yearly in the U.S., but this likely underestimates the true incidence as many people either don't seek help or are not properly diagnosed. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)

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Friday 27 June 2014

Inside a top school’s science program

Students in the science research program at Burnt Hills-Ballston Lake High School have reclassified stars, presented at the prestigious Intel Science Talent Search competition and other conferences and met with top scientists researching in their field of interest. “The program definitely changed my life and I’m 100 percent grateful for the opportunity,” says Katie Bashant, who is spending her summer in a research lab focused on Lyme disease at University of Utah. Bashant is a junior at the… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)


Friday 27 June 2014

UTSA and SwRI award $250,000 to advance clean emissions, explore antimicrobials

(University of Texas at San Antonio) Southwest Research Institute and The University of Texas at San Antonio today announced funding for two new joint research projects to advance clean emission technologies and study novel antimicrobials targeting Lyme disease. Funding through the organizations' Connecting through Research Partnerships program has been granted for $250,000 through August 2015 -- $125,000 for each project. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)


Friday 27 June 2014

BorrelIa InfectIon In Ixodes pararIcInus tIcks (acarI: Ixodidae) from northwestern argentina.

Authors: Nava S, Barbieri AM, Maya L, Colina R, Mangold AJ, Labruna MB, Venzal JM Abstract The aim of this work was to describe for the first time the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infecting ticks in Argentina. Unfed specimens of Ixodes pararicinus collected from vegetation in Jujuy Province were tested for Borrelia infection by PCR targeting the gene flagellin (fla), the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS) and the 16S rDNA (rrs ) gene. One male and one female of I. pararicinus collected in Jujuy were found to be positive to Borrelia infection with the three molecular markers tested. Phylogenetically, the Borrelia found in I. pararicinus from Jujuy belongs to the B. burgdorferi s.l complex, and it was similar to one of the genospecies detected in I. aragaoi from ...


Thursday 26 June 2014

Respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone in Lyme disease.

CONCLUSION: Respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone is impaired in Lyme disease, which suggests that Lyme disease may directly affect the vagus nerve or the brainstem. PMID: 24976922 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)

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Thursday 26 June 2014

Primary leptomeningeal CNS lymphoma presenting as bilateral facial nerve palsy

Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy (BFNP) is an extremely rare condition that can occur in the central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases (Lyme disease, meningitis, syphilis), immuno-inflammatory disorders (Guillain–Barrè syndrome, neurosarcoidosis), or in potentially life-threatening diseases, such as hematologic malignancies . Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare tumor, whose most common subtype is the diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is typically confined to the CNS at diagnosis, and represents 2.2% of all the CNS neoplasms . Patients usually present with encephalopatic or focal signs, or, more infrequently, with cranial nerve palsies, which tend to follow the leptomeningeal involvement . The isolated leptomeningeal PCNSL, without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence ...


Wednesday 25 June 2014

The effectiveness of permethrin-treated deer stations for control of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis on Cape Cod and the islands: a five-year experiment

When white-tailed deer visit corn-baited "4-poster" feeding stations, they come into contact with permethrin-treated rollers. In the 5-yr controlled experiment reported here, this host-targeted technology caused a reduction in tick abundance, but the effect was small compared to other studies. Image: White-tailed deer visiting a treated feeding station with inset image of a blacklegged tick. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Wednesday 25 June 2014

Unraveling lyme disease

(Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 25 June 2014

New Insights Into Stages of Lyme Disease Symptoms From a Novel Hospital-Based Registry.

CONCLUSION: The difference between symptoms in the acutely infected patients and those experiencing persistent symptoms is not as large as initially thought. PMID: 24970880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Primary Care)


Wednesday 25 June 2014

Innate immunity networks during infection with Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Oosting M, Buffen K, van der Meer JW, Netea MG, Joosten LA Abstract Abstract The recognition of Borrelia species represents a complex process in which multiple components of the immune system are involved. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and Borrelia spp., from the recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to the induction of a complex network of proinflammatory mediators. Several PRR families are crucial for recognition of Borrelia spp., including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs). TLR-2 is crucial for the recognition of outer surface protein (Osp)A from Borrelia spp. and together with TLR8 mediates phagocytosis of the microorganism and production of type I inter...

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Monday 23 June 2014

SwRI, UTSA to jointly pursue pair of novel research projects

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) have secured $250,000 in funding for a pair of joint research projects designed to advance clean emission technologies and to study novel antimicrobials targeting Lyme disease. Each project will receive $125,000 from the organizations’ Connecting through Research Partnerships program through August 2015. The Connect program, established in 2010 by SwRI and the UTSA Office of the Vice President for Research,… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)


Friday 20 June 2014

Single tick bite can pack double pathogen punch

People who get bitten by a blacklegged tick have a higher-than-expected chance of being exposed to more than one pathogen at the same time. "We found that ticks are almost twice as likely to be infected with two pathogens -- the bacterium that causes Lyme disease and the protozoan that causes babesiosis -- than we would have expected," said a professor of biology involved in a recent study. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Tuesday 17 June 2014

Treatments for Chronic Lyme Disease (PTLDS)

Learn how chronic Lyme disease is diagnosed and what treatments can help. (Source: WebMD Health)


Tuesday 17 June 2014

Baby Boom for Ticks, Lyme Disease Carriers in New EnglandBaby Boom for Ticks, Lyme Disease Carriers in New England

Large numbers of ticks, the parasites that carry Lyme disease, are expected to emerge in New England in the coming weeks, experts said on Friday. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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Tuesday 17 June 2014

Increased diversity of zoonotic pathogens and Borrelia burgdorferi strains in established versus incipient Ixodes scapularis populations across the Midwestern United States.

Authors: Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Walker ED, Tsao JI Abstract The center of origin theory predicts that genetic diversity will be greatest near a species' geographic origin because of the length of time for evolution. By corollary, diversity will decrease with distance from the origin; furthermore, invasion and colonization are frequently associated with founder effects that reduce genetic variation in incipient populations. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, harbors a suite of zoonotic pathogens, and the geographic range of the tick is expanding in the upper Midwestern United States. Therefore, we posited that diversity of I. scapularis-borne pathogens across its Midwestern range should correlate with the rate of the range expansion of this tick as well as subsequent disease e...



Sunday 15 June 2014

Indianapolis Veterinarians Warn of Uptick in Lyme Disease in Pets

(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))


Saturday 14 June 2014

Baby boom for ticks, Lyme disease carriers, seen in New England

LOWELL Mass. (Reuters) - Large numbers of ticks, the parasites that carry Lyme disease, are expected to emerge in New England in the coming weeks, experts said on Friday. (Source: Reuters: Health)


Friday 13 June 2014

Lyme disease mysteries and miseries persist

Summer is peak season for Lyme disease infections, and if it's not caught early it can lead to long-term health problems (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)

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Wednesday 11 June 2014

CXCL13 and neopterin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis and other diseases that cause neuroinflammation

Background: Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is partly based on the detection of intrathecal Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibody production (increased antibody index (AI)). However, AI can be negative in patients with early LNB and, conversely, can remain elevated for months after antibiotic treatment. Recent studies suggested that the chemokine CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a biomarker for active LNB. Also, CSF neopterin-level determination has been used to assess the degree of neuroinflammation in a wide variety of diseases. Methods: CXCL13 concentrations were analyzed in CSF samples of 366 retrospectively identified individuals. The samples represented pretreatment LNB (38 patients), non-LNB comparison patients, tick-borne encephalitis, central nervous...


Wednesday 11 June 2014

Chronic Coinfections in Patients Diagnosed with Chronic Lyme Disease: A Systematic Review

Often, the controversial diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is given to patients with prolonged, medically unexplained physical symptoms. Many such patients also are treated for chronic coinfections with Babesia, Anaplasma, or Bartonella in the absence of typical presentations, objective clinical findings, or laboratory confirmation of active infection. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate several aspects of this practice. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Wednesday 11 June 2014

Chronic coinfections in patients diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease: a systematic literature review

(Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Tuesday 10 June 2014

Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

Authors: Dunaj J, Zajkowska JM, Kondrusik M, Gern L, Rais O, Moniuszko A, Pancewicz S, Swierzbińska R Abstract Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA wa...

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Monday 9 June 2014

A study on the association between infectious burden and Alzheimer's disease

ConclusionsIB consisting of CMV, HSV‐1, B. burgdorferi, C. pneumoniae and H. pylori is associated with AD. This study supports the role of infection/inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of AD. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)


Monday 9 June 2014

Anterior spinal artery infarction causing man-in-the-barrel syndrome

A 54-year-old man with history of hypertension, smoking, and prior myocardial infarctions developed quadriplegia over 90 minutes. Leg strength normalized within hours. Neurologic examination months later revealed man-in-the-barrel syndrome characterized by bilateral arm weakness and atrophy but preserved leg strength (video at Neurology.org/cp). Cervical magnetic resonance T2-weighted sequences showed "pencil-like" lesions on sagittal (figure, A) and "snake-eye pattern" lesions on axial images (figure, B, arrow), characteristic of spinal cord infarction.1 Incidentally detected absence of left vertebral artery flow void (figure, B, arrowheads) led to magnetic resonance angiography, which confirmed occlusion (figure, C). β2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were detected...


Friday 6 June 2014

Lyme Disease

(Source: eMedicineHealth.com)


Friday 6 June 2014

Many Lyme Tests Unnecessary, Experts SayMany Lyme Tests Unnecessary, Experts Say

Most Lyme disease serologic tests were done according to diagnostic recommendations, but only 288,000 of the 2.4 million patients tested were infected; the estimated testing cost was $492 million. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)


Thursday 5 June 2014

Lyme Disease’s Possible Bacterial Predecessor Found in Ancient Tick

A juvenile tick trapped in a 15-million- to 20-million-year-old piece of amber contains a bacterium that could be the oldest documented ancestor of the microbe that causes Lyme disease -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)

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Wednesday 4 June 2014

Don't Get Bugged This Summer!

Don't get bugged this summer! Learn about insect bites and stings, Lyme disease, tick bites and West Nile virus. (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)


Wednesday 4 June 2014

Simple objective detection of human Lyme disease infection using immuno-PCR and a single recombinant hybrid antigen.

Authors: Halpern MD, Molins CR, Schriefer M, Jewett MW Abstract A serology-based, tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease but lacks sensitivity in early disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detection of B. burgdorferi antibodies in Lyme disease patient serum. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and the variability of the background of the assay across a healthy population (n=36) was analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of less than 3%. Using eight antigen-specific iPCR assays and positive call thresholds establi...


Wednesday 4 June 2014

Acetate supplementation modulates brain adenosine metabolizing enzymes and adenosine A2A receptor levels in rats subjected to neuroinflammation

Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that acetate supplementation can modulate brain CD73, AK and adenosine A2A receptor levels, and possibly influence purinergic signaling. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)


Sunday 1 June 2014

A clinical, diagnostic, and ecologic perspective on human anaplasmosis in the Upper Midwest.

CONCLUSION: Continuing expansion of the range of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapuloris), the principal vector of the disease, into areas heavily populated or visited by humans in the region likely will result in this pathogen becoming an even greater burden on human health. Efforts are needed to better characterize the current geographic distribution of human Anaplasma and Ehrlichia cases to identify emerging foci and to better understand the enzootic cycles that maintain the pathogens in the region. Improved diagnostics may assist with such efforts. PMID: 25118439 [PubMed - in process] (Source: WMJ)

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Sunday 1 June 2014

[Two cases of proliferation of monoclonal and monotypic lymphocytes and plasma cells corresponding to acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans.]

Authors: Bertolotti A, Pham-Ledard A, Petrot D, Coindre MC, Brecheteau P, Mendes I, Vergier B, Beylot-Barry M Abstract BACKGROUND: While a dermal proliferation of monotypic monoclonal lymphocytes and plasma cells suggests above all cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (CMZL) or plasmacytoma, it may also correspond to a Borrelia infection of which the clinic picture is evocative, as demonstrated in the cases presented herein. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The files of two patients were submitted for discussion at the regional multidisciplinary staff meeting on cutaneous lymphomas after review of the skin biopsies led to a diagnosis of plasmacytoma and CMZL on the basis of infiltrate containing abundant plasma cells. The infiltrates of both patients showed a kappa monotypic light chain and c...


Friday 30 May 2014

Summer Insect Safety

Source: HealthDay - Related MedlinePlus Pages: Lyme Disease, Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Friday 30 May 2014

Canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in the United States, 2010-2012

The geographic distribution of canine vector-borne disease agents in the United States appears to be expanding. Monitoring canine test results is an important tool for accurately mapping the geographic distribution of these agents. Image: United States distribution maps for heartworm, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Friday 30 May 2014

Ticks may have carried Lyme disease for more than 15 million years

A tiny tick trapped in a droplet of amber more than 15 million years ago appears to have been infected with a bacteria similar to the one that causes Lyme disease in humans, according to new research. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)


Thursday 29 May 2014

Amber discovery indicates Lyme disease is older than human race

Lyme disease is a stealthy, often misdiagnosed disease that was only recognized about 40 years ago, but new discoveries of ticks fossilized in amber show that the bacteria which cause it may have been lurking around for 15 million years -- long before any humans walked on Earth. The findings were made by researchers who studied 15-20 million-year-old amber from the Dominican Republic that offer the oldest fossil evidence ever found of Borrelia, a type of spirochete-like bacteria that to this day causes Lyme disease. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Thursday 29 May 2014

Population genetic structure of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis at an apparent spatial expansion front.

Authors: Kelly RR, Gaines D, Gilliam WF, Jory Brinkerhoff R Abstract Modeling and empirical evidence suggests that Lyme disease is undergoing geographic expansion from principal foci in the midwestern and northeastern United States. Virginia is at the southern edge of the current expansion zone and has seen dramatic rise in human Lyme disease cases since 2007, potentially owing to a recent increase in vector abundance. Ixodes scapularis is known throughout the eastern US but behavioral or physiological variation between northern and southern lineages might lead northern-variant ticks to more frequently parasitize humans. We hypothesized that recent spatial and numerical increase in Lyme disease cases is associated with demographic and/or spatial expansion of I. scapularis and that ...


Wednesday 28 May 2014

Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central new jersey oak/pine woodlands.

MINIMAL ROLE OF EASTERN FENCE LIZARDS IN BORRELIA BURGDORFERI TRANSMISSION IN CENTRAL NEW JERSEY OAK/PINE WOODLANDS. J Parasitol. 2014 May 28; Authors: Rulison EL, Kerr KT, Dyer MC, Han S, Burke RL, Tsao JI, Ginsberg HS Abstract Abstract The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence liza...


Thursday 22 May 2014

Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for B. burgdorferiConcerns Regarding a New Culture Method for B. burgdorferi

A novel, laboratory-developed test for Lyme disease has raised concerns about unacceptable numbers of false-positive results and is not approved by the FDA. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Tuesday 20 May 2014

Update on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-borne Diseases: An Alert for New Hampshire CliniciansUpdate on Lyme Disease and Other Tick-borne Diseases: An Alert for New Hampshire Clinicians

New Hampshire continues to have one of the highest rates of Lyme disease in the nation. The New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services provides recommendations for healthcare providers. State Health Alerts (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)


Tuesday 20 May 2014

Genetic characterization of the human relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and animal reservoirs of Lyme disease spirochetes in France

The genotype of the human pathogen B. miyamotoi circulates simultaneously with Lyme disease spirochetes in ticks and bank voles in France. Even though no human cases have been reported in France, surveillance of B. miyamotoi alone or in association with other spirochetes has to be improved. Image: Collection of ticks by flagging in Ardennes Forest, France. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Monday 19 May 2014

What Causes Leg Pain?

Discussion “Growing pains” of the legs are a common complaint in children. Heterogeneous studies from 1928-2004 have found prevalence rates of 2.6-49.4% in children ages 4-19. The studies are heterogeneous because of time, location, and especially definition of growing pains. A study of 1445, 4-6 year olds in 2004 using a validated tool showed a prevalence rate of 36.9%. The definition of growing pains used by Peterson in the 2004 study is chronic “…intermittent (nonarticular) pains in both legs that generally occur late in the day or at night…” with a normal physical examination and laboratory testing (if any is done). The pain is in the thigh or calf muscles. The pain can occur over weeks or months. Patients should not have a history of trauma but bec...


Monday 19 May 2014

Monday's Housecall

THIS WEEK'S TOP STORIES Lyme disease Grassy and heavily wooded areas can be home to ticks, which can carry Lyme disease. Get tips on prevention and how to spot the telltale signs. Tips for dining in or out safely when you have food allergies Preparing meals carefully is vital when you or a family member [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)


Thursday 15 May 2014

West Nile Virus and Lyme Disease Spread Across the U.S.

A new season of West Nile, Lyme and dengue has begun -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Thursday 15 May 2014

Tick-borne infections of animals and humans: a common ground.

Authors: Baneth G Abstract A wide variety of pathogens is transmitted from ticks to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths. of which most have a life cycle that requires passage through the vertebrate host. Tick-borne infections of humans, farm and companion animals are essentially associated with wildlife animal reservoirs. While some flying insect-borne diseases of humans such as malaria, filariasis and Kala Azar caused by Leishmania donovani target people as their main host, major tick-borne infections of humans, although potentially causing disease in large numbers of individuals, are typically an infringement of a circulation between wildlife animal reservoirs and tick vectors. While new tick-borne infectious agents are frequently recognised, emerging ...


Wednesday 14 May 2014

Study Finds Obesity Can Have Negative Effect On Young Breast Cancer Patients

BOSTON (CBS) — A new study says obesity can have a negative effect on young breast cancer patients. Karen Hackett has shed 30 pounds since being diagnosed with breast cancer two years ago. “I’ve made exercise become a priority,” she says. “It’s just part of my day. I try to go sometime around the lunchtime hour and if I don’t, I can go in the evening.” A new study finds obesity leads to poorer outcomes for women like Hackett who were pre- or peri-menopausal when they were diagnosed with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. “That’s the novel finding here, we used to think that this association was really seen primarily in older women, here it’s being seen in young women,” said Dr. Clifford Hudis of Memorial Sloan Kettering ...

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Wednesday 14 May 2014

Chronic lymphomonocytic meningoencephalitis, oligoarthritis and erythema nodosum: report of Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome of long and relapsing evolution

We describe the case of a young female who, over one year, progressively presented with oligoarthritis, cognitive impairment, menigoencephalitis and erythema nodosum. Diagnosis was established by means of the clinical history and a positive serology to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictu. The patient received Ceftriaxone 2 g IV/day during 30 days, followed by 2 months of doxicycline 100 mg bid. Symptoms remitted and the Borrelia serology tests returned to normality. BYS is a new disease described only in Brazil, which has a raising frequency and deserves the attention from the country´s medical board because of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory differences from LD. Despite the fact that it is a hard-to-diagnose zoonosis, it is important to pursuit an early diagnosis because the symp...


Tuesday 13 May 2014

Potentially conflicting selective forces that shape the vls antigenic variation system in Borrelia burgdorferi.

This study provides empirical evidence that conflicting selection pressures on antigenic variation systems can limit the potential antigenic divergence in order to maintain proper molecular function. PMID: 24837669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)


Monday 12 May 2014

It's Spring – Time to Prevent Lyme Disease

(Source: eMedicineHealth.com)


Sunday 11 May 2014

Harsh Winter Does Little To Ease Lyme Disease Woes

PORTLAND, Maine (AP) — The harsh winter did nothing to cull the nationwide tick population, and health officials are primed for a warm season that could see the number of Lyme disease cases rise. In northern New England, the increase in cases of Lyme correlates with a growing population of deer ticks, which transmit the disease, state epidemiologist Stephen Sears said. In Maine and elsewhere, heavy snow acted as an insulating blanket that protected ticks from winter’s cold, state entomologist Charlene Donahue said. Nationwide, the number of cases of Lyme disease has held relatively steady over the past few years, and advocacy groups and federal agencies say they expect this spring, summer and fall to be active seasons for ticks and Lyme. “Everybody’s picking them off th...


Saturday 10 May 2014

Doctors: More Young People Developing Osteoporosis

BOSTON (CBS) – Physicians often refer to osteoporosis as a “Silent Problem” because many patients don’t know they even have it until after they break or fracture a bone. Now an increasing number of young people are developing this bone loss disease. Dr. Nathanial Clark, an endocrinologist at Beth Israel Deaconess in Plymouth, said, “Far more commonly what we are referring to are people generally say in the 40-60 year range, that are being looked at more carefully than previously, whereas before we looked mainly at people who were over the age of 65-70.” Faye Lakeman found out her bones were slowly deteriorating when she was in her early 50s. On a lark, she took part in a free bone screening at a grocery store. Faye’s husband Dan is also suffering from bone loss. “You ar...

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Saturday 10 May 2014

NIH News in Health

Shedding Light on Health Research Helps People and Pets Veterinarians and scientists study diseases that affect both pets and people to improve medical care for humans and our 4-legged friends. Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease Tick-borne diseases are found in many areas across the country, and they’re on the rise. Do what […] (Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog)


Friday 9 May 2014

Local lyme disease company gets $1 million in federal funding

Immuno Technologies Inc., a Memphis-based medical research and development company has been awarded $1 million in federal funding to further develop technology that can help doctors rapidly diagnose Lyme disease. The funding comes through the National Institutes of Health’s Small Business Innovation Research grant program. Immuno Technologies does translational research for infectious diseases, with a focus on Lyme disease. This grant will fund the development of rapid diagnosis methods of Lyme… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)


Thursday 8 May 2014

Yale Researchers: New Tick-Borne Illness Common In Southern New England

NEW HAVEN, Connecticut (CBS) – A new study by Yale researchers suggests that a tick-borne infection similar to Lyme disease has become common in southern New England. Using a new antibody test, researchers found evidence that about 4-percent of people they checked showed evidence of previous Borrelia miyamotoi infection. The prevalence of Lyme disease is about 10 percent. “We expect this to be found wherever Lyme disease is found. It’s likely that that will be the case,” said Peter Krause, M.D., senior research scientist at the Yale School of Public Health and lead author of the study. “The full health impact of this disease is really uncertain at this point. We just have to do more research to determine what the full spectrum of the disease will be.” Borrelia miyamotoi is ...


Wednesday 7 May 2014

Tufts Study: Shock Wave Therapy Could Be Answer For Rotator Cuff Injuries

BOSTON (CBS) — Shoulder pain is one of the most common reasons people go to the doctor and rotator cuff injuries are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain. While most cases are treated with rest, pain killers and physical therapy, a new study out of Tufts Medical Center shows shock wave therapy could be the answer for some. The therapy involves administering sound wave pulses on the outside of the body. It has been used for years to break up “kidney stones” and now doctors in Europe are using it to treat rotator cuff tendonitis. “We found that high energy shock wave therapy is very useful for patients with specifically calcific tendonitis of the shoulder,” said Dr. Raveendhara Bannuru of Tufts Medical. Bannuru looked at 28 studies using shock wave the...


Tuesday 6 May 2014

Harvard Study: Mass. Health Reform Law Lowered Death Rates

BOSTON (CBS) — Harvard researchers estimate that Massachusetts health reform law has prevented some 320 deaths per year or, one life saved for each 830 people gaining coverage. WBZ NewsRadio 1030′s Diane Sterns reports  WBZ NewsRadio 1030WBZ NewsRadio 1030playpausejQuery(document).ready(function($) { cbs_audio_player_v2("audio-player-1"); });   A new study that now appears in the Annals of Internal Medicine says in the first four years after Massachusetts instituted health care reform in 2006, the mortality rate decreased by 2.9-percent. That percentage is compared to similar populations in states that didn’t expand health coverage. The state’s health care reform law has served as a model for the national Affordable Care Act. Benjamin Sommers, assistant profe...

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Tuesday 6 May 2014

Phylogeny of a relapsing fever Borrelia species transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis.

Authors: Barbour AG Abstract The discovery of Borrelia species that were related to the agents of relapsing fever but were transmitted by hard ticks rather than soft ticks challenged previous taxonomies based largely on microbe-host specificities and geographic considerations. One of these newly-identified organisms is the Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato strain LB-2001 from North America and transmitted by Ixodes scapularis. This or related strains have been identified as the cause of human disease, but comparatively little is known about their biology or genetics. Using recently acquired chromosome sequence of LB-2001 together with database sequences and additional sequences determined here, I carried out comparisons of the several species of Borrelia, including those in the two maj...


Tuesday 6 May 2014

It's Spring - Time to Prevent Lyme Disease

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Related MedlinePlus Page: Lyme Disease (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Thursday 1 May 2014

May 2014

Shedding Light on Health: Research Helps People and Pets...Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease...Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last...Paralyzed Men Regain Movement...Featured Web Site: Mental Health Topics (Source: NIH News in Health)


Thursday 1 May 2014

Experiences of patients identifying with chronic Lyme disease in the healthcare system: a qualitative study

Conclusions: Participants reported a significant decline in health status associated with chronic Lyme disease and were often unsatisfied with care in conventional settings. Negative experiences were associated with reports of dismissive, patronizing, and condescending attitudes. Positive experiences were associated with providers who were reported to be attentive, optimistic, and supportive. Consultations with CAM practitioners and use of CAM therapies were common. Actively engaged and sympathetic clinical encounters may foster greater satisfaction in healthcare settings. (Source: BMC Family Practice)


Thursday 1 May 2014

[Public health pests : Arthropods and rodents as causative disease agents as well as reservoirs and vectors of pathogens].

Authors: Faulde M, Freise J Abstract Globally, infectious diseases pose the most important cause of death. Among known human pathogenic diseases, approximately 50 % are zoonoses. When considering emerging infectious diseases separately 73 % currently belong to the group of zoonoses. In Central Europe, hard ticks show by far the biggest potential as vectors of agents of human disease. Lyme borreliosis, showing an estimated annual incidence between 60,000 and 214,000 cases is by far the most frequent tick-borne disease in Germany. Continually, formerly unknown disease agents could be discovered in endemic vector species. Additionally, introduction of new arthropod vectors and/or agents of disease occur constantly. Recently, five mosquito species of the genus Aedes have been newly...


Thursday 1 May 2014

Dityrosine Network Influences Borrelial Persistence in Ticks [Microbiology]

Ixodes scapularis ticks transmit a wide array of human and animal pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi; however, how tick immune components influence the persistence of invading pathogens remains unknown. As originally demonstrated in Caenorhabditis elegans and later in Anopheles gambiae, we show here that an acellular gut barrier, resulting from the tyrosine cross-linking of the extracellular matrix, also exists in I. scapularis ticks. This dityrosine network (DTN) is dependent upon a dual oxidase (Duox), which is a member of the NADPH oxidase family. The Ixodes genome encodes for a single Duox and at least 16 potential peroxidase proteins, one of which, annotated as ISCW017368, together with Duox has been found to be indispensible for DTN formation. This barrier influences pathogen s...

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Thursday 1 May 2014

[Threat of transmission of infectious pathogens by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Germany].

Authors: Dobler G, Fingerle V, Hagedorn P, Pfeffer M, Silaghi C, Tomaso H, Henning K, Niedrig M Abstract Tick-transmitted diseases are of great importance for the general health of the German population. Several viruses, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Uukuniemi virus, Tribec virus, Eyach virus or bacteria, such as Borrelia, Rickettsiae, Francisella tularensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) and Coxiella burnetii were detected in the most prominent tick in Germany, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. While infections, such as TBE and Lyme disease are well known, other infections are hardly known even among experts. Although there have been a few descriptions of isolated cases in Germany, a systematic investigation regarding the distribut...


Thursday 1 May 2014

The Impact of Three Genospecies of Borrelia on Expression of Genes Associated with Chemokines and Their Receptors in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts in Vitro

An important role in pathomechanism of Lyme disease is played by the ability of spirochetes to spread within tissues, and to adhere (to platelets, erythrocytes and vascular epithelium). The principal factors regulating that process are chemokines, cytokines and adhesion particles. The aim of this study was to select genes related to the chemokines and their receptors, differentiating the type of infection in the system model, i.e. a culture of normal human diploid fibroblasts infected with three different spirochete genospecies: B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferii sensu stricto, by comparing the infected fibroblast culture with that of the control fibroblast. The differences in the expression of genes selected on the basis of a scientific database Affymetrix were analysed by compari...


Thursday 1 May 2014

A Tale of Two Syndromes: Lyme Disease Preceding Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

We report a short series of two women who present with persistent symptoms of orthostatic intolerance consistent with POTS after treated Lyme disease. (Source: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology)


Thursday 1 May 2014

[Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany : Epidemiological aspects].

Authors: Frank C, Faber M, Hellenbrand W, Wilking H, Stark K Abstract Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infecti...


Thursday 1 May 2014

The lymphocyte transformation test for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis could fill a gap in the difficult diagnostics of borreliosis.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)

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Wednesday 30 April 2014

Lyme Disease

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 370, Issue 18, Page 1724-1731, May 2014. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)


Monday 28 April 2014

Lyme disease risk not amplified in a species-poor vertebrate community: Similar Borrelia burgdorferi tick infection prevalence and OspC genotype frequencies.

Authors: States SL, Brinkerhoff RJ, Carpi G, Steeves TK, Folsom-O'Keefe C, Deveaux M, Diuk-Wasser MA Abstract The effect of biodiversity declines on human health are currently debated, but empirical assessments are lacking. Lyme disease provides a model system to assess relationships between biodiversity and human disease because the etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted in the United States by the generalist black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) among a wide range of mammalian and avian hosts. The 'dilution effect' hypothesis predicts that species-poor host communities dominated by white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) will pose the greatest human risk because P. leucopus infects the largest numbers of ticks, resulting in higher human exposure to infected I. scap...


Saturday 26 April 2014

Avoiding tick-borne illnesses for people and pets

Paul Mead, M.D., and Liz Murphy, DVM, talk about tick-borne illnesses in humans and dogs. Tick-borne illnesses like Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever are spread by the black-legged tick, or deer tick. Dr. Murphy and Dr.Mead join "Sound Medicine" to discuss how humans and dogs contract tick-borne illnesses disease and how people can reduce their risk for these diseases..... (Source: Sound Medicine)


Saturday 26 April 2014

Needham Couple Pushes To Ban Morcellation For Fibroids

BOSTON (CBS) – Uterine fibroids are one of the most common health problems women face. The treatment options have usually been considered pretty routine. Now there are new concerns about a widely used procedure for fibroids known as morcellation. The fear is it can spread cancer. Amy Reed of Needham is now going through chemotherapy because she has stage 4 leimyosocarcoma. “It was very hard initially,” she said. “The level of anxiety is horrible.” It is not the outcome she expected to face after going into Brigham and Women’s Hospital last October to have fibroids removed. Instead of full abdominal surgery, Amy’s doctor used a morcellator, which is a minimally invasive approach. The tumors are shredded into pieces and extracted thru a small tube. As Amy went into the hosp...

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Friday 25 April 2014

Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region

Model for the current predicted distribution of I. scapularis in the transboundary region, was generated based on the collection of this tick species in different locations in both Texas and north-eastern Mexico. The presence of the bacterial pathogen B. burgdorferi, as well as the reservoir host Peromyscus leucopus, have also been described in this region. Image: Ixodes scapularis distribution in the Texas-Mexico transbounday region. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Friday 25 April 2014

Acute and chronic pain associated with Lyme borreliosis: Clinical characteristics and pathophysiologic mechanisms

Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by several related borrelial subspecies referred to generally as Borrelia burgdorferi . It is transmitted by infected Ixodes ticks, and is the most common vector-borne infection occurring in endemic geographic areas in the temperate Northern hemisphere . In the United States, where reporting is mandatory, documented infection occurred in 50,000 persons between 1982 (when the etiologic agent was first identified) and 1994 . Since 1994, more than 500,000 new cases have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, averaging 20,000 to 30,000 cases per year . Many more cases are never reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , suggesting that millions of United States inhabitants have had symptomatic Lyme infect...


Thursday 24 April 2014

FDA Proposes First Regulations For E-Cigarettes

WASHINGTON (AP) — The federal government wants to ban sales of electronic cigarettes to minors and require approval for new products and health warning labels. While the proposal being issued Thursday by the Food and Drug Administration won’t immediately mean changes for the popular devices, the move is aimed at eventually taming the fast-growing e-cigarette industry. The agency said the proposal sets a foundation for regulating the products but the rules don’t immediately ban the wide array of flavors of e-cigarettes, curb marketing on places like TV or set product standards. Any further rules “will have to be grounded in our growing body of knowledge and understanding about the use of e-cigarettes and their potential health risks or public health benefits,” FDA ...


Tuesday 22 April 2014

Electrochemotherapy as a novel treatment for primary cutaneous marginal zone B‐cell lymphomas

Abstract In the present study, we describe the use of electrochemotherapy as alternative therapy for primary cutaneous marginal zone B‐cell lymphomas in patients unsuitable for surgery or radiotherapy. Our experience refers to three patients with primary cutaneous marginal zone B‐cell lymphomas related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection, treated with specific antimicrobial therapy and electrochemotherapy. (Source: Dermatologic Therapy)


Tuesday 22 April 2014

Choosing Wisely: The American College of Rheumatology's Top 5 for Pediatric Rheumatology

ConclusionThe ACR pediatric rheumatology Top 5 is one of the first pediatric subspecialty–specific Choosing Wisely Top 5 lists and provides an opportunity for patients and providers to discuss appropriate use of health care in pediatric rheumatology. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)

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Monday 21 April 2014

RheumShorts: Methotrexate, Basiliximab, and Norwegian Lyme (CME/CE)

(MedPage Today) -- Subcutaneous methotrexate can be given at higher doses than in the oral route, while maintaining bioavailability, which could make for better tolerance and better adherence to treatment guidelines, a new study suggested. (Source: MedPage Today Geriatrics)


Monday 21 April 2014

The challenge of diagnosing Lyme disease

(Source: NaturalNews.com)


Monday 21 April 2014

Lyme Disease: A Review of Its Epidemiology, Evaluation, and Treatment

Lyme disease, a tick-borne illness transmitted to humans, has become increasingly recognized. (Source: Psychosomatics)


Friday 18 April 2014

New CDC/FDA Warning Against Unapproved Lyme Culture TestNew CDC/FDA Warning Against Unapproved Lyme Culture Test

Investigators from the CDC and FDA have issued a new warning about the use of unvalidated Lyme disease tests, sparked by inquiries to the CDC about a test marketed by Advanced Laboratory Services. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)


Friday 18 April 2014

Avoid New Lyme Culture Test, Say CDC and FDA

(MedPage Today) -- CDC and the FDA have again cautioned the public about the use of an unapproved test for diagnosing Lyme disease. (Source: MedPage Today Geriatrics)

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Friday 18 April 2014

CDC Warns Against Use of Unapproved Lyme Disease Test (FREE)

By Cara Adler An unapproved test that uses a new culture method for Borrelia burgdorferi could misdiagnose Lyme disease, CDC and FDA researchers warn in MMWR.The test … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Friday 18 April 2014

Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for Borrelia burgdorferi Not Approved for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease.

Authors: Nelson C, Hojvat S, Johnson B, Petersen J, Schriefer M, Beard CB, Petersen L, Mead P, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC Abstract In 2005, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning regarding the use of Lyme disease tests whose accuracy and clinical usefulness have not been adequately established. Often these are laboratory-developed tests (also known as "home brew" tests) that are manufactured and used within a single laboratory and have not been cleared or approved by FDA. Recently, CDC has received inquiries regarding a laboratory-developed test that uses a novel culture method to identify Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease. Patient specimens reportedly are...


Friday 18 April 2014

A phylogenomic and molecular marker based proposal for the division of the genus Borrelia into two genera: the emended genus Borrelia containing only the members of the relapsing fever Borrelia, and the genus Borreliella gen. nov. containing the members of the Lyme disease Borrelia (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex).

Authors: Adeolu M, Gupta RS Abstract The genus Borrelia contains two groups of organisms: the causative agents of Lyme disease and their relatives and the causative agents of relapsing fever and their relatives. These two groups are morphologically indistinguishable and are difficult to distinguish biochemically. In this work, we have carried out detailed comparative genomic analyses on protein sequences from 38 Borrelia genomes to identify molecular markers in the forms of conserved signature inserts/deletions (CSIs) that are specifically found in the Borrelia homologues, and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) which are uniquely present in Borrelia species. Our analyses have identified 31 CSIs and 82 CSPs that are uniquely shared by all sequenced Borrelia species, providing molec...


Thursday 17 April 2014

Concerns Regarding a New Culture Method for Borrelia burgdorferi Not Approved for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)


Thursday 17 April 2014

Defensin from the ornate sheep tick Dermacentor marginatus and its effect on Lyme borreliosis spirochetes.

Authors: Chrudimská T, Ceřovský V, Slaninová J, Rego RO, Grubhoffer L Abstract Expression of the previously reported defensin of the tick Dermacentor marginatus (defDM) was analysed in different organs by RT-PCR. mRNA of the defDM gene was detected in the hemolymph, midgut and salivary glands. Moreover defDM was isolated from the tick hemolymph using RP-HPLC and its sequence was determined by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Synthetic peptide was used for determining biological activities. The results showed an anti-Gram-positive bacterial role for the defensin. As D. marginatus ticks appear not to be vectors of the Lyme disease agent of the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, we tested the influence of defDM on Borrelia afzelii. There is a very clear borrelicidal ...

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Wednesday 16 April 2014

Harvard Researchers: Feminine Girls, Masculine Boys Have Higher Cancer Risk

BOSTON (CBS) — Researchers at Harvard School of Public Health have found that very feminine girls and strongly masculine boys are more likely to engage in behaviors that pose cancer risks than their gender non-conforming peers. WBZ NewsRadio1030′s Diane Stern reports Feminine Girls, Masculine Boys And Cancer Risk BehaviorsWBZ NewsRadio 1030playpausejQuery(document).ready(function($) { cbs_audio_player_v2("audio-player-3"); }); Scientists analyzed data from over 9,000 adolescents. The study compared cancer risk behaviors to the participants’ gender expressions. The study found that the most feminine girls were more likely to use tanning beds and be physically inactive. The most masculine boys were more likely to use chewing tobacco and smoke cigars. “Our findings indica...


Wednesday 16 April 2014

Local Company Instrumental In First Regenerated Esophagus

BOSTON (CBS) —- A local company is part of a second breakthrough in regeneration of human body parts. A research team led by Paolo Macchiarin at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden has successfully transplanted a regenerated esophagus into a rat. The results were published in Nature Communications on Tuesday. WBZ NewsRadio 1030′s Diane Stern reports  WBZ NewsRadio 1030WBZ NewsRadio 1030playpausejQuery(document).ready(function($) { cbs_audio_player_v2("audio-player-4"); });   Harvard Apparatus Regenerative Technology developed the bio-reactor that was essential in creating the esophagus. Last year, the same company regenerated a human trachea and transplanted it into a human. HART CEO David Green says the study is promising as it represents advancements toward the translation of ...


Wednesday 16 April 2014

Immune System Research May Help Doctors Predict Who Gets Long-Term Complications From Lyme Disease - 4/16/14

A team of scientists led by Johns Hopkins and Stanford University researchers has laid the groundwork for understanding how variations in immune responses to Lyme disease can contribute to the many different outcomes of this bacterial infection seen in individual patients. (Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine News)


Monday 14 April 2014

Adverse moisture events predict seasonal abundance of Lyme disease vector ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

Seasonal incidence of tick adverse moisture events can explain inter-annual variability seen in vector blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) abundance, offering the possibility to more accurately predict human Lyme borreliosis incidence. Image: Nymphal blacklegged tick feeding (Courtesy Dr. Thomas Mather - Center for Vector-Borne Disease) . (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 14 April 2014

Seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy adults from western Norway: risk factors and methodological aspects

In conclusion, antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. are common in blood donors in western Norway. The results may be used for evaluation of predictive values of test results in patients, as well as a basis for test algorithms in the laboratory. (Source: APMIS)

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Sunday 13 April 2014

Prevent Tick Bites While Enjoying the Outdoors

With no vaccines for Lyme and other tick-borne diseases, expert explains how to avoid infection Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: Tick Bites (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)


Saturday 12 April 2014

The British bug that could paralyse you

Literary agent Ed Victor (pictured) who represents Nigella Lawson contracted Lyme disease after a crimson 'bull's eye mark' appeared on his leg. (Source: the Mail online | Health)


Thursday 10 April 2014

Boston Reports Recent Spike In Flu Cases

BOSTON (CBS) – Flu season may appear to be over, but flu cases are on the rise again in Boston, city health officials said on Thursday. The Boston Public Health Commission reports that there were 116 newly reported cases of flu in Boston between March 30 and April 5. That brings this season’s total number of reported cases in the city to 1,237. More than 25 percent of these cases have resulted in hospitalization, and there have been 11 flu-related deaths. MORE HEALTH NEWS FROM CBS BOSTON Health Officials: MERS Patient Traveled Through BostonHarsh Winter Does Little To Ease Lyme Disease WoesDoctors: More Young People Developing OsteoporosisYale Researchers: New Tick-Borne Illness Common In Southern New England (Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports...


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Beth Israel Doctors Using Google Glass In ER

BOSTON (CBS) — Doctors at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center are the first in the country to be using Google Glass technology to save valuable seconds. Google introduced the Glass technology in 2013 and only a limited number of people have been able to try it. Beth Israel Deaconess is the first hospital in the world to use the high-tech classes for direct patient care. Dr. Steven Horng is an emergency room physician who spearheaded a program to bring the technology to the ER. What they do is project an image of the patient’s screens so information about the patient is obtained right away. Information like the patient’s name, their past medical history, even X-rays can all come up with Google Glass and could be life-saving, especially if a patient can’t communicat...


Wednesday 9 April 2014

When the Typical Becomes Atypical: Anti-Ri Antibody Associated Paraneoplastic Syndrome WITHOUT Opsoclonus-Myoclonus (P7.024)

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate a case of anti-Ri-associated paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome without its "classic" opsoclonus-myoclonus.BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes cause significant morbidity and mortality. Its heterogeneous clinical presentations are underrecognized, delaying diagnosis and treatment.DESIGN/METHODS: A 64-year-old man noted fatigue, diplopia and left eyelid ptosis. Three months later he developed generalized weakness, dysarthria, dysphagia and respiratory failure. He had smoked cigarettes for 40 years. Examination demonstrated lethargy, tongue myoclonus, bilateral horizontal gaze palsy and ptosis. He had neck and proximal muscle weakness, significant left leg paresis and hyporreflexia, hyperactive reflexes elsewhere and bilateral Babinski sign. Sensory exami...


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Hyperacusis as the Initial Presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (P5.233)

CONCLUSIONS: We describe the first case of hyperacusis as the initial presenting complaint of CJD. This case highlights the wide spectrum of initial symptoms in patients with spongiform encephalopathy.Disclosure: Dr. Merkler has nothing to disclose. Dr. Safdieh has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Diagnostic Dilemma Of Encephalomyelitis Due To Lyme Neuroborreliosis (P2.313)

CONCLUSIONS:Although reported in the literature, encephalomyelitis from lyme neuroborreliosis is rare. Identification of this disease can be difficult but early recognition and treatment with antibiotics leads to marked improvement, as demonstrated in our case.Study Supported by:n/aDisclosure: Dr. Stroup has nothing to disclose. Dr. Daudi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Patel has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Monoclonal B Cell Population in a Patient With Neurosarcoidosis (P5.175)

We present a case of transverse myelitis as the sole manifestation of sarcoidosis with a concomitant monoclonal B cell population identified in the CSF.A 48 year old male with past medical history of pulmonary embolism, insulin dependent Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia presented with six months of gait ataxia, difficulty urinating, and lower extremity paresthesias. Spinal MRI showed abnormal signal and enhancement throughout the cervical and thoracic cord. He was diagnosed with transverse myelitis and underwent extensive workup to identify the underlying etiology. No demyelinating lesions were seen on brain MRI. Lumbar puncture had normal cell counts and opening pressure with elevated protein and glucose (77mg/dL and 159mg/dL respectively). Hemoglobin A1C was 9.1%. Serum ...


Wednesday 9 April 2014

Widespread Leptomeningeal Involvement in Borreliosis (P2.317)

CONCLUSIONS: We describe an atypical case of B. burgdorferi causing multiple cranial neuropathies associated with polyradiculitis. This case highlights the spectrum of neurological disease in Lyme disease.Study Supported by: N/ADisclosure: Dr. Maciel has nothing to disclose. Dr. Wang has nothing to disclose. Dr. Shirvalkar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Merkler has nothing to disclose. Dr. Safdieh has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

An Unusual Case Of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Presenting With Simultaneous IIIrd, VIth and V11th Nerve Palsies (P6.305)

CONCLUSIONS: CN palsies other than VIth nerve are an atypical presentation of IIH and are only described in case reports. Infectious (especially Lyme's), inflammatory (especially Sarcoid), rheumatologic and other auto immune causes must be ruled out. Treatment should be initiated promptly and offending agents should be discontinued to prevent permanent visual loss.Study Supported by: NoneDisclosure: Dr. Katyayan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Parachuri has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sallowm has nothing to disclose. Dr. Walsh has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 9 April 2014

Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration with Castleman Disease: A Case Report (P1.027)

CONCLUSIONS: Although a specific autoantibody was not identified, the rarity of both Castleman disease and cerebellar degeneration, in conjunction with the well-described neoplastic and paraneoplastic associations of both, strongly suggests a relationship not previously described.Disclosure: Dr. Lee has nothing to disclose. Dr. Le has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Wednesday 9 April 2014

Con-focal Microscopy Documents Significant Epidermal Nerve Demyelization in Patients With Clinical Neuropathy But Normal Neurophysiologic Studies (P7.107)

Discussion: Inflammatory neuropathies of small fibers are difficult to document . The ability to see demyelization of small myelinated fibers of the skin through con-focal microscopy will enable the proper diagnosis and treatment.Disclosure: Dr. Katz has received personal compensation for activities with Forest Laboratories, Inc. as a speaker. (Source: Neurology)


Wednesday 9 April 2014

A Case of Primary Meningeal Melanoma (P7.255)

CONCLUSIONS:Primary meningeal melanoma is a neoplasm of leptomeningeal melanocytes embryonically originating from the neural crest. Initial presentation can vary from nerve palsies, focal weakness, seizure and personality changes. This patient presented with seizure and abnormal brain imaging. Diagnosis was established on the basis of CSF analysis, brain biopsy and immunohistological studies.Study Supported by:Disclosure: Dr. Roy has nothing to disclose. Dr. Al Zahmi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Danialan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mandavilli has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)


Tuesday 8 April 2014

Intermediate uveitis in children and young adults: differences in clinical course, associations and visual outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: IU with onset in childhood and early adulthood showed a similar visual course at intermediate follow-up. Associated diseases and complication patterns differed between children and young adults. PMID: 24713505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology)


Monday 7 April 2014

Africa: World Health Day - Stop Disease-Carrying Pests

[State Department]Washington -Mosquitoes, flies, ticks, water snails and other pests can carry diseases that sicken more than 1 billion people each year with malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, yellow fever and other dangerous conditions. Half the world -- 3.6 billion people -- live in areas where they risk exposure to what are known as vector-borne diseases. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

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Monday 7 April 2014

World Health Day 2014

It's World Health Day and the focus this year is on vector-borne diseases, or diseases that can be transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and water snails. Unfortunately, while the CDC states that "vector-borne diseases account for 17% of the estimated global burden of all infectious diseases," it is important to remember that there are no vaccines to help prevent most of them. These diseases include dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Chagas disease, and malaria, which remains "one of the most severe public health problems worldwide."...Read Full Post (Source: About.com Pediatrics)


Sunday 6 April 2014

Structural characterization of CspZ, a complement regulator factor H and FHL‐1 binding protein from Borrelia burgdorferi

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Journal)


Saturday 5 April 2014

Lyme arthritis in Southern Norway - an endemic area for Lyme Borreliosis

Conclusions: Our data shows that LA in Southern Norway is a benign disease which successfully can be treated with antibiotics even in patients treated with GC prior to antibiotics. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)


Friday 4 April 2014

Seasonal Prevalence of Lyme Disease Spirochetes in a Heterothermic Mammal, the Edible Dormouse (Glis glis).

Authors: Fietz J, Tomiuk J, Matuschka FR, Richter D Abstract In Europe, dormice serve as competent reservoir hosts for particular genospecies of the tick-borne agent of Lyme disease (LD) and seem to support them more efficiently than do mice or voles. The longevity of edible dormice (Glis glis) and their attractiveness for ticks may result in a predominance of LD spirochetes in ticks questing in dormouse habitats. To investigate the role of edible dormice in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we sampled skin tissue from the ear pinnae of dormice inhabiting five different study sites in south western Germany. Of 501 edible dormice, 12.6% harbored DNA of LD spirochetes. Edible dormice were infected most frequently with the pathogenic LD spirochete Borrelia afzelii. DNA of B. g...


Thursday 3 April 2014

The paradox of the binomial Ixodes ricinus activity and the observed unimodal Lyme borreliosis season in Hungary

(Source: International Journal of Environmental Health Research)

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Thursday 3 April 2014

Evolutionary Genomics of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: Findings, Hypotheses, and the Rise of Hybrids.

Authors: Qiu WG, Martin CL Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.), the group of bacterial species represented by Lyme Disease pathogens, has one of the most complex and variable genomic architectures among prokaryotes. Showing frequent recombination within and limited gene flow among geographic populations, the B. burgdorferi s.l. genomes provides an excellent window into the processes of bacterial evolution at both within- and between-population levels. Comparative analyses of B. burgdorferi s.l. genomes revealed a highly dynamic plasmid composition but a conservative gene repertoire. Gene duplication and loss as well as sequence variations at loci encoding surface-localized lipoproteins (e.g., the PF54 genes) are strongly associated with adaptive differenc...


Wednesday 2 April 2014

Harvard Study Raises Questions About Mammograms

BOSTON (CBS) –A recent study out of Harvard suggests that deciding when and how often to have a mammogram is not a black or white issue. Researchers looked at 50 years worth of data on the effectiveness of mammograms and concluded that the benefits of screening are often overstated and that the harms are often downplayed. They found mammograms decreased the risk of dying from breast cancer by only about 19-percent. The survival benefit was even less for women in their 40′s, but more for women in their 60′s, who are much more likely to get breast cancer. That said, among women in their 40′s and 50′s who get mammograms every year for 10 years, more than half of them will receive a false positive result. Mammograms involve small concentrated doses of radiation an...


Wednesday 2 April 2014

Strain-specific Lyme disease immunity lasts for years

Lyme disease, if not treated promptly with antibiotics, can become a lingering problem for those infected. But a new study led by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania has some brighter news: Once infected with a particular strain of the disease-causing bacteria, humans appear to develop immunity against that strain that can last six to nine years. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)


Wednesday 2 April 2014

World Health Day 2014: Preventing vector-borne diseases

2 April 2014 -- More than half the world’s population is at risk from diseases such as malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, schistosomiasis, and yellow fever, carried by mosquitoes, flies, ticks, water snails and other vectors. Every year, more than 1 billion people are infected and more than 1 million die from vector-borne diseases. This World Health Day – 7 April – WHO is highlighting the serious and increasing threat of vector-borne diseases, with the slogan “Small bite, big threat”. (Source: WHO news)


Wednesday 2 April 2014

Strain-specific Lyme disease immunity lasts for years, Penn research finds

(University of Pennsylvania) A new study led by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania shows that humans appear to develop immunity against specific strains of the Lyme disease that can last six to nine years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)

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Wednesday 2 April 2014

Diversity of antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally-infected beagle dogs.

Authors: Baum E, Grosenbaugh DA, Barbour AG Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted whole cell-based preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity in those responses between individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult, colony-bred beagle dogs that were experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those on a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinan...


Tuesday 1 April 2014

Exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi and Other Tick-Borne Pathogens in Gettysburg National Military Park, South-Central Pennsylvania, 2009

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)


Monday 31 March 2014

A Better Way To Test Blood Pressure

BOSTON (CBS) – Have you ever had your blood pressure checked in both arms at your doctor’s office? Researchers at Mass General Hospital say you probably should. A small difference between the two arms is normal. But a larger one could mean you’re at risk for heart disease. Dr. Ido Weinberg, a vascular medicine specialist, and colleagues at MGH, looked at data on nearly 3,400 local residents over the age of 40 enrolled in the Framingham heart study. “Patients who have that difference between arms could end up developing heart and blood vessel disease,” Dr. Weinberg said. Researchers found that people with a systolic blood pressure difference of 10 points or more between their arms were 38% more likely to develop a blood vessel disorder like a heart attack, stro...


Monday 31 March 2014

[Lyme disease acrodermitis chronica atrophicans: Misleading vascular signs.]

We present a patient who exhibited an atypical clinical presentation of Lyme disease acrodermatitis chronic atrophicans. The clinical outcome was quite favorable with treatment, confirming the diagnosis. Such treatments, which are well tolerated and highly effective, are essential since an untreated disease can lead to potentially severe neurological involvement. PMID: 24698204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires)


Sunday 30 March 2014

[CXCL13: a biomarker for acute Lyme neuroborreliosis : Investigation of the predictive value in the clinical routine.]

CONCLUSIONS: The biomarker CXCL13 has a higher sensitivity (100 % vs. 87 %) with a specificity (99 %) comparable with the established diagnostic markers for LNB, e.g. CSF pleocytosis and Borrelia-AI in the investigated patient population. The negative predictive value of CXCL13 is 100 %. Therefore, a normal CXCL13 level virtually excludes LNB. In the clinical routine CXCL13 is a valuable and practical diagnostic marker for LNB and can even detect an acute LNB in patients without CSF pleocytosis. PMID: 24682168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Nervenarzt)

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Saturday 29 March 2014

Oral doxycycline for Lyme neuroborreliosis with symptoms of encephalitis, myelitis, vasculitis or intracranial hypertension

ConclusionTreatment with oral doxycycline resulted in a similar decrease in CSF mononuclear cell counts in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis with CNS symptoms compared with patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis with PNS symptoms. The results indicate that oral doxycycline is an effective treatment for Lyme neuroborreliosis irrespective of the severity of symptoms. (Source: European Journal of Neurology)


Thursday 27 March 2014

A82: Lyme Arthritis: an Emerging Clinical Problem in Nova Scotia, Canada

Conclusion:Increasing numbers of children with Lyme arthritis are being seen in the pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. LD was not considered as a diagnosis in the majority of cases by the referring physician. A quarter of patients also had a history of unrecognized neurologic manifestations of LD. In keeping with published North American reports, most patients had an excellent outcome however a proportion continued to have arthritis and disability following antibiotic therapy. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 26 March 2014

FDA Allows NH Girl To Try Controversial Brain Tumor Drug

MANCHESTER, N.H. (CBS) — McKenzie Lowe is looking great and feeling well. “Sometimes I have little headaches but they’re really little. They don’t bother me that much,” she says. And now comes news that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted her wish to allow her to try a controversial drug her family believes could help cure her inoperable brain tumor. “Oh I started crying,” says the girl’s grandfather Frank LaFountain. But the good news was quickly tempered because there’s a new fight for the family. They have to find a doctor willing to administer the unapproved drug and so far, no luck. “We need a doctor is what we basically need right now,” said LaFountain. “Anywhere in the country doesn’t matter where. We’re going to ...


Wednesday 26 March 2014

Mice are reservoirs for tick-borne pathogens, amplify risk of Lyme disease and other tick-borne ailments

People living in northern and central parts of the U.S. are more likely to contract Lyme disease and other tick-borne ailments when white-footed mice are abundant. Mice are effective at transferring disease-causing pathogens to feeding ticks. And, according to an in-press paper in the journal Ecology, these "super hosts" appear indifferent to larval tick infestations. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Wednesday 26 March 2014

Comparison of serological and molecular panels for diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs

Conclusions: We conclude that serological and PCR assays should be used in parallel to maximize CVBD diagnosis (Source: BioMed Central)

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Tuesday 25 March 2014

‘Diabetes Day’ Stresses Importance Of Prevention

BOSTON (CBS) — The American Diabetes Association is encouraging all Americans to find out if they’re at risk for developing Type Two diabetes. Tuesday is national “Diabetes Day.” Dr. Jorge Plutzky, Director of the Vascular Prevention Program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, says simple changes that make a world of difference when it comes to diabetes. WBZ NewsRadio 1030′s Diane Stern reports play pause Diabetes Day Stresses Importance Of Prevention Diane Stern Although there is evidence that childhood obesity is going down, Plutzky sa...


Tuesday 25 March 2014

Tips and tricks to stay safe from ticks

Jolyon Medlock, Medical Entomologist at Public Health England, explains why ticks are a health concern and outlines prevention tips for the public Related items from OnMedicaMosquitoes win battle of repellentEaster farm visit infection warningPublic warned to avoid tick bites and Lyme disease (Source: OnMedica Views)



Monday 24 March 2014

Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

Infections with Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were molecularly detected in domestic and stray cats from sourthern Portugal. Image: Male domestic cat from the region of Lisbon. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 17 March 2014

People, Pets, and Parasites: One Health Surveillance in Southeastern Saskatchewan.

Authors: Schurer JM, Ndao M, Quewezance H, Elmore SA, Jenkins EJ Abstract Residents of remote and Indigenous communities might experience higher exposure to some zoonotic parasites than the general North American population. Human sero-surveillance conducted in two Saulteaux communities found 113 volunteers exposed as follows: Trichinella (2.7%), Toxocara canis (4.4%), Echinococcus (4.4%), and Toxoplasma gondii (1.8%). In dogs, 41% of 51 fecal samples were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, 3% of 77 were sero-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, and 21% of 78 for T. gondii. Echinococcus exposure was more likely to occur in non-dog owners (odds ratio [OR]: 11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-107, P = 0.03); although T. canis was more likely to occur in children (ages 4...

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Saturday 15 March 2014

Identifying erythema migrans rash in patients with lyme disease.

Authors: Dardick K PMID: 24695559 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Family Physician)


Wednesday 12 March 2014

Antibodies to endothelial cell growth factor and obliterative microvascular lesions in synovia of patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis

Conclusions. The correlations of ECGF autoantibody reactivity with obliterative microvascular lesions imply that these autoantibodies may be involved in the obliterative process, suggesting that anti‐ECGF antibodies have specific pathologic consequences in synovial tissue in patients with antibiotic‐refractory Lyme arthritis. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)


Wednesday 12 March 2014

Identification of OppA2 linear epitopes as serodiagnostic markers for Lyme disease.

Authors: Signorino G, Arnaboldi PM, Petzke MM, Dattwyler RJ Abstract Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on the serological detection of antibodies against the etiologic agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. Current diagnostics are insensitive at detecting early infection, when treatment is most effective. This deficiency results from the limited number of B. burgdorferi antigens expressed in early infection, and the use of an insensitive two-tier paradigm, put in place to deal with insufficient specificity associated with the use of whole protein antigens and/or bacterial lysates as serodiagnostic targets. Whole protein antigens contain epitopes that are unique to B. burgdorferi as well as 'cross-reactive' epitopes found in other bacteria. One method for overcoming the limitation...


Friday 7 March 2014

Lost first world war training battlefield discovered in Hampshire

Elaborate trench network was identified from old aerial photographs on land that is still owned by Ministry of DefenceA few suspiciously straight lines in a corner of a 1951 aerial photograph showing acres of featureless scrubby heath have led archaeologists to a lost first world war landscape.The mock battlefield, used for training soldiers before they were shipped across the Channel to confront the real thing, is complete with zig-zags of frontline, communication and reserve trenches, the enemy's front line, terrifyingly visible less than 200 yards away – and, a little further on, a holiday camp in Gosport, Hampshire.Browndown is still owned by the Ministry of Defence, but well used by local dog walkers, who knew there were humps, bumps and hollows into which a dog could annoyingly van...


Friday 7 March 2014

Identification of a core sequence for the binding of BosR to the rpoS promoter region in Borrelia burgdorferi.

Authors: Ouyang Z, Zhou J, Brautigam CA, Deka RK, Norgard MV Abstract The alternative sigma factor RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi plays a central role in modulating host adaptive responses when spirochetes cycle between ticks and mammals. The transcriptional activation of σ54-dependent rpoS requires a Fur homologue designated as BosR. Previously, we found that BosR directly activates rpoS transcription by binding to the rpoS promoter. However, many other DNA-binding features of BosR have remained obscure. In particular, the precise DNA sequence targeted by BosR has not yet been completely elucidated. The prediction of a putative Per box within the rpoS promoter region has further confounded the identification of the BosR binding sequence. Herein, by using electrophoretic mobility sh...

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Thursday 6 March 2014

Letter From the Editor: The Great Mimickers in Radiology

Many diseases have been referred to as “great imitator” or “great mimicker.” For the sake of accuracy, I looked up the definition in The Dictionary of Modern Medicine (JC. Segen, CRC Press; 1992): “The great imitator is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases. Most great imitators are systemic in nature.” The list of diseases referenced is pretty long and includes approximately 15 entities, among which are quite a few that we, radiologists, rarely encounter as the diseases do not exhibit abnormal imaging findings (e.g., Lyme disease or fibromyalgia). The list of “great imitators” for radiologists is quite different, as it is based on imaging findings and not on signs and symptoms. This issue ...


Wednesday 5 March 2014

Mouse vaccine could protect humans from Lyme disease

The only vaccine against tick-borne Lyme disease was pulled from the market because of side effects in humans. But could it still be useful?     (Source: New Scientist - Health)


Wednesday 5 March 2014

Why are there several species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in dogs and humans?

Authors: Skotarczak B Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochete bacteria species some of which cause borreliosis in humans and dogs. Humans and dogs are susceptible to illness from many of the same tick-borne pathogens, including B. burgdorferi s.l. (Bbsl). Little is known about the pathogenic role of the species of Bbsl in canines. The molecular methods which detect and amplify the DNA of borreliae and allow the differentiation of borreliae species or strains have not been used in canine diagnostics yet. Until now, it has been believed that in European dogs, like in humans, at least three pathogenic species occur but the most frequently described symptoms may be associated with the infection caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto species. A dog as well as a...


Monday 3 March 2014

Tick Test for Persistent Lyme Disease Tried in HumansTick Test for Persistent Lyme Disease Tried in Humans

A small experiment to see whether uninfected ticks could "diagnose" a lingering Lyme infection in people produced modest results, researchers say. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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Saturday 1 March 2014

Borreliosis and synovial lesions

Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by the spirohete Borrelia burgdorferi. In the northeastern United States where the disease is endemic, the main vectors are the hard ticks Ixodes scapularis and lxodes pacificus. (Source: Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery)


Friday 28 February 2014

Tick test for persistent Lyme disease tried in humans

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A small experiment to see whether uninfected ticks could "diagnose" a lingering Lyme infection in people produced modest results, researchers say. (Source: Reuters: Health)


Tuesday 25 February 2014

Geographic and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the United States.

This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA. PMID: 24568883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)


Friday 21 February 2014

Outer Surface Proteins of Borrelia: Peerless Immune Evasion Tools.

Authors: Pulzova L, Bhide M Abstract Lyme borreliosis (LB), caused by Borrelia burgdorferi(B.b.), is the most frequently diagnosed tick-borne zoonosis in temperate zones of the Northern hemisphere. Borreliais unique among bacteria in its ability to express a wide variety of lipoproteins on its surface, which play an essential role in pathogenesis. Surface proteins of spirochetes are important virulence determinants, immune evasion molecules and adaptation factors in the transmission and interaction with host tissues. Vast diversity in the expressed surface proteome of Borreliain different niches and multifunctionality of proteins are the major strategies of Borreliato avoid the destructive effect of immune system. In this review we provide deep insight into the protein:protein inte...


Tuesday 18 February 2014

Ticks may cause double trouble, Stanford scientists find

(Stanford University) Stanford study finds ticks infected with Lyme disease and newly identified human pathogen are widespread in San Francisco Bay Area. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)

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Friday 14 February 2014

To Stop Lyme, Vaccinate...the Mice?To Stop Lyme, Vaccinate...the Mice?

A new oral vaccine to prevent Lyme disease in mice decreased infection rates in ticks and might help break the cycle of transmission to humans. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)


Friday 14 February 2014

Lymphocyte transformation test for diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is currently not documented to be clinically useful

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)


Friday 14 February 2014

Lack of IgG antibody seropositivity to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Parry–Romberg syndrome and linear morphea en coup de sabre in Mexico

ConclusionIn Mexico there are no previous studies on Borrelia infection and its relationship between PRS or LMCS. Our result showed a lack of association of either clinical entities with anti‐Borrelia‐antibodies. Former reports of this association may suggest coincidental findings without causal relationship. (Source: International Journal of Dermatology)


Wednesday 12 February 2014

Test for persistent Lyme infection using live ticks shown safe in clinical study

(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) In a first-of-its-kind study for Lyme disease, researchers have used live, disease-free ticks to see if Lyme disease bacteria can be detected in people who continue to experience symptoms such as fatigue or arthritis after completing antibiotic therapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Saturday 8 February 2014

Cannabis kicks Lyme disease to the curb

(Source: NaturalNews.com)

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Thursday 6 February 2014

Mathematical Model Developed by UA Physicists Could Help Treat Lyme Disease

(Source: The University of Arizona: Health)


Wednesday 5 February 2014

Evaluation of the Borrelia burgdorferi BBA64 protein as a protective immunogen in mice.

Authors: Brandt KS, Patton TG, Allard AS, Caimano MJ, Radolf JD, Gilmore RD Abstract The Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product is a surface localized lipoprotein synthesized within mammalian and tick hosts and is involved in vector transmission. These properties suggest that BBA64 may be a vaccine candidate against Lyme borreliosis. Protective immunity against B. burgdorferi challenge was assessed in mice immunized with BBA64 protein. Mice developed a high-titered antibody response following immunization with soluble recombinant BBA64, but were not protected when challenged by needle inoculation of culture-grown spirochetes. Likewise, mice passively immunized with an anti-BBA64 monoclonal antibody were not protected against needle-inoculated organisms. BBA64-immunized mice were s...


Tuesday 4 February 2014

Spatiotemporal evolution of erythema migrans, the hallmark rash of lyme disease.

Authors: Vig DK, Wolgemuth CW Abstract To elucidate pathogen-host interactions during early Lyme disease, we developed a mathematical model that explains the spatiotemporal dynamics of the characteristic first sign of the disease, a large (≥5-cm diameter) rash, known as an erythema migrans. The model predicts that the bacterial replication and dissemination rates are the primary factors controlling the speed that the rash spreads, whereas the rate that active macrophages are cleared from the dermis is the principle determinant of rash morphology. In addition, the model supports the clinical observations that antibiotic treatment quickly clears spirochetes from the dermis and that the rash appearance is not indicative of the efficacy of the treatment. The quantitative agreement be...


Saturday 1 February 2014

Common questions about bell palsy.

Authors: Albers JR, Tamang S Abstract Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the pr...


Tuesday 28 January 2014

Genotyping of borrelia from formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded skin biopsies of cutaneous borreliosis and tick bite reactions by assays targeting the IGS‐region, ospA, and OspC genes

ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that genotyping of borrelia can be easily implemented in a routine dermatopathology setting, especially useful as a fast method to confirm early cutaneous borreliosis. Genotyping could also enable earlier treatment of patients infected with invasive strains.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)

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Tuesday 28 January 2014

Genotyping of borrelia from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin biopsies of cutaneous borreliosis and tick bite reactions by assays targeting the IGS-region, ospA, and OspC genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that genotyping of borrelia can be easily implemented in a routine dermatopathology setting, especially useful as a fast method to confirm early cutaneous borreliosis. Genotyping could also enable earlier treatment of patients infected with invasive strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 24471582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Dermatology)


Monday 27 January 2014

Meteorological Influences on the Seasonality of Lyme Disease in the United States.

Authors: Moore SM, Eisen RJ, Monaghan A, Mead P Abstract Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi infection) is the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. The majority of human Lyme disease (LD) cases occur in the summer months, but the timing of the peak occurrence varies geographically and from year to year. We calculated the beginning, peak, end, and duration of the main LD season in 12 highly endemic states from 1992 to 2007 and then examined the association between the timing of these seasonal variables and several meteorological variables. An earlier beginning to the LD season was positively associated with higher cumulative growing degree days through Week 20, lower cumulative precipitation, a lower saturation deficit, and proximity to the Atlantic coast. The...


Saturday 25 January 2014

PCR Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks in Mongolia.

Authors: Masuzawa T, Masuda S, Fukui T, Okamoto Y, Bataa J, Oikawa Y, Ishiguro F, Takada N Abstract A molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to identify the tick-borne disease agents Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Selenge Province, Mongolia. The survey was in response to a suspected A. phagocytophilum infection in a patient. In 2012, a total of 129 questing Ixodes persulcatus adult ticks were sampled by flagging vegetation. A. phagocytophilum and Borrelia spp. were detected by PCR, targeting the 16S rDNA (rrs) and 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, respectively. Infection rates for A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi sensu lato spp. were 6.2% and 55.0%, respectively. Six of the 129 ticks (4.9%) were coinfected with A. phagocytophilum and B....


Thursday 23 January 2014

Ongoing Discussion About the US Clinical Lyme Trials

Although we agree with Klempner et al that results from post hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials need to be viewed with caution, we are concerned that important results from planned analyses of primary hypotheses are being disregarded. The key point is that the study by Krupp et al demonstrated efficacy of ceftriaxone with respect to placebo on the only primary outcome measure that could reasonably be considered valid. That 69% of patients benefited with improvement in fatigue from intravenous ceftriaxone at 6 months compared with 23% of patients given intravenous placebo is a clear demonstration of antibiotic efficacy (P  (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Thursday 23 January 2014

The Reply

The communications from DeLong et al and Fallon et al express concerns about the findings, implications, and methods used in the 4 published treatment trials for persistent symptoms in patients previously treated for Lyme disease. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)


Thursday 23 January 2014

Potential Benefits of Retreatment Highlight the Need for Additional Lyme Disease Research

We are responding to Klempner et al regarding our statistical review of the National Institutes of Health–sponsored antibiotic retreatment trials for Lyme disease. Our primary finding is that the trials did not prove retreatment is ineffective. A basic concept in statistical science regarding randomized controlled trials is that one can only conclude treatment is ineffective when the treatment effect and confidence interval exclude and are below the minimum clinically important difference. None of the trials showed this. Two trials actually demonstrated evidence of improvement in patients with severe symptoms at baseline. The trials without significant findings did not incorporate interactions between treatment and baseline severity in their statistical analysis. The only valid conclu...

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Wednesday 22 January 2014

BORRELIA REMEDY (Borrelia Burgdorferi,) Liquid [Apotheca Company]

Updated Date: Jan 22, 2014 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))


Monday 20 January 2014

Lyme Borreliosis Caused by Diverse Genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in northeastern China

ConclusionIn northeastern China, three genospecies of LB patients were detected. The B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in this study was predominantly B. garinii. A case infected with B. valaisiana‐related genospecies was first reported.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)


Wednesday 15 January 2014

Gut Microbiota of the Tick Vector Ixodes scapularis Modulate Colonization of the Lyme Disease Spirochete.

Authors: Narasimhan S, Rajeevan N, Liu L, Zhao YO, Heisig J, Pan J, Eppler-Epstein R, Deponte K, Fish D, Fikrig E Abstract Arthopods such as Ixodes scapularis ticks serve as vectors for many human pathogens. The arthropod gut presents a pivotal microbial entry point and determines pathogen colonization and survival. We show that the gut microbiota of I. scapularis, a major vector of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, influence spirochete colonization of ticks. Perturbing the gut microbiota of larval ticks reduced Borrelia colonization, and dysbiosed larvae displayed decreased expression of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Diminished STAT expression corresponded to lower expression of peritrophin, a key glycoprotein sc...


Tuesday 14 January 2014

Insights into the Biology of Borrelia burgdorferi Gained Through the Application of Molecular Genetics.

Authors: Groshong AM, Blevins JS Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi, the vector-borne bacterium that causes Lyme disease, was first identified in 1982. It is known that much of the pathology associated with Lyme borreliosis is due to the spirochete's ability to infect, colonize, disseminate, and survive within the vertebrate host. Early studies aimed at defining the biological contributions of individual genes during infection and transmission were hindered by the lack of adequate tools and techniques for molecular genetic analysis of the spirochete. The development of genetic manipulation techniques, paired with elucidation and annotation of the B. burgdorferi genome sequence, has led to major advancements in our understanding of the virulence factors and the molecular events associate...

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Monday 13 January 2014

Recognizing Lyme CarditisRecognizing Lyme Carditis

Three recent cases of sudden cardiac death from Lyme carditis point to the importance of recognizing and promptly treating this complication of Lyme disease. CDC Expert Commentary (Source: Medscape Pediatrics Headlines)


Saturday 11 January 2014

Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Rheumatic Fever.

Authors: Burke RJ, Chang C Abstract Acute rheumatic fever is an inflammatory sequelae of Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis that affects multiple organ systems. The incidence of acute rheumatic fever has been declining even before the use of antibiotics became widespread, however the disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children, particularly in developing countries and has been estimated to affect 19 per 100,000 children worldwide. Acute rheumatic fever is a clinical diagnosis, and therefore subject to the judgment of the clinician. Because of the variable presentation, the Jones criteria were first developed in 1944 to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever. The Jones criteria have been modified throughout the years, most recently in ...


Thursday 2 January 2014

Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds support the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Image: Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. (Source: BioMed Central)


Monday 30 December 2013

A mathematical perspective of seasonal variations in Lyme disease transmission

Lyme disease is a common tick-borne illness caused by a bacterium, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The transmission dynamics of Lyme disease is dependent on a variety of factors, including the length of the tick's life cycle, availability of hosts, climatic conditions and seasonal influences, which are important to understand for control strategies. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)


Monday 30 December 2013

Ménage à trois: Borrelia, dendritic cells, and tick saliva interactions.

Authors: Mason LM, Veerman CC, Geijtenbeek TB, Hovius JW Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is inoculated into the skin during an Ixodes tick bite where it is recognised and captured by dendritic cells (DCs). However, considering the propensity of Borrelia to disseminate, it would appear that DCs fall short in mounting a robust immune response against it. Many aspects of the DC-driven immune response to Borrelia have been examined. Recently, components of tick saliva have been identified that sabotage DC responses and aid Borrelia infection. In this review, we summarise what is currently known about the immune response of DCs to Borrelia and explore the mechanisms by which Borrelia manages to circumvent this immune response, with or w...

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Sunday 29 December 2013

Occurrence and transmission efficiencies of Borrelia burgdorferi ospC types in avian and mammalian wildlife.

Authors: Vuong HB, Canham CD, Fonseca DM, Brisson D, Morin PJ, Smouse PE, Ostfeld RS Abstract Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in North America, circulates among a suite of vertebrate hosts and their tick vector. The bacterium can be differentiated at the outer surface protein C (ospC) locus into 25 genotypes. Wildlife hosts can be infected with a suite of ospC types but knowledge on the transmission efficiencies of these naturally infected hosts to ticks is still lacking. To evaluate the occupancy and detection of ospC types in wildlife hosts, we adapted a likelihood-based species patch occupancy model to test for the occurrence probabilities (ψ - "occupancy") and transmission efficiencies (ε - "detection") of each ospC type. We detected differen...


Saturday 28 December 2013

On the Curious Motions of Syphilis and Lyme Disease Bacteria

The bacteria that cause syphilis and Lyme Disease have something extraordinary in common: they manage to propel themselves through their environment in spite of the fact their tails are located inside their bodies.For bacteria, they’re also unusually shaped and active. In this movie, you can see the bacteria that cause Lyme Disease moving like living, squirming cavatappi . [More] (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)


Monday 23 December 2013

Lyme borreliosis

Abstract: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-transmitted spirochaetal disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. It is acquired in forested and heathland areas of the temperate northern hemisphere. The most common presentation is an erythematous rash spreading slowly from the site of a tick bite. Clinical manifestations of disseminated infection include facial palsy, viral-like meningitis, radiculopathy, meningoencephalitis and arthritis. Lyme borreliosis responds to antibiotic treatment at all stages, with excellent results for patients with early disease. Patients with long-standing infection causing significant tissue damage can have slow or incomplete recovery. A small minority of treated patients can have persistent non-specific symptoms, similar to those seen following some other inf...


Saturday 21 December 2013

Dietary composition and spatial patterns of polar bear foraging on land in western Hudson Bay

Conclusions: Our results suggest that polar bears are foraging opportunistically in a manner consistent with maximizing intake while minimizing energy expenditure associated with movement. The frequent mixing of plant-based carbohydrate and animal-based protein could suggest use of a strategy that other Ursids employ to maximize weight gain. Further, consuming high rates of certain vegetation and land-based animals that may yield immediate energetic gains could, instead, provide other benefits such as fulfilling vitamin/mineral requirements, diluting toxins and assessing new foods for potential switching. (Source: BMC Ecology - Latest articles)


Friday 20 December 2013

Sensitive multiplex PCR assay to differentiate Lyme spirochetes and emerging pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti

Conclusion: Real-time quantitative PCR using specific primers and molecular beacon probes for the selected amplicon described in this study can detect three tick-borne pathogens simultaneously in an accurate manner. (Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles)


Friday 20 December 2013

Assessment of the potential contribution of the highly conserved C‐terminal motif (C10) of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) in transmission and infectivity

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology)

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Thursday 19 December 2013

A mathematical perspective of seasonal variations in Lyme disease transmission

(Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) Lyme disease is a common tick-borne illness caused by a bacterium, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected ticks. In a paper published last month in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, authors Yuxiang Zhang and Xiao-Qiang Zhao propose a reaction-diffusion model to study transmission dynamics of Lyme disease while taking into account seasonality. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)


Thursday 19 December 2013

Essential factor for Lyme disease transmission identified

(Public Library of Science) Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, hitchhikes in ticks for dissemination to mammalian hosts--including humans. An article in the 19 Dec. issue of PLOS Pathogens identifies HrpA, an RNA helicase, as a crucial player in the transmission from ticks to mammals. George Chaconas and colleagues analyze the molecular function of the HrpA protein and further explore its role in the bacterium's complicated life cycle, in particular for transmission of the pathogen. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)


Thursday 19 December 2013

Occupational exposure to zoonotic agents among agricultural workers in Lombardy Region, northern Italy.

Conclusions: The higher frequency of the presence of serum antibodies to zoonotic agents (e.g. Leptospira spp. and Coxiella burnetii) in animal breeders suggests that they are more exposed to biological agents than workers not involved in animal breeding activities. The risk of contact with HEV deserves further studies because the adoption of different assays can result in significantly different results. The promotion of immunization of agricultural workers might be a priority, in particular for migrants. PMID: 24364433 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM)


Tuesday 17 December 2013

Lysosomal β-glucuronidase regulates Lyme and rheumatoid arthritis severity

Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most prevalent arthropod-borne illness in the United States and remains a clinical and social challenge. The spectrum of disease severity among infected patients suggests that host genetics contribute to pathogenic outcomes, particularly in patients who develop arthritis. Using a forward genetics approach, we identified the lysosomal enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUSB), a member of a large family of coregulated lysosomal enzymes, as a key regulator of Lyme-associated arthritis severity. Severely arthritic C3H mice possessed a naturally occurring hypomorphic allele, Gusbh. C57BL/6 mice congenic for the C3H Gusb allele were prone to increased Lyme-associated arthritis severity. Radiation chimera experiments revealed that resident...

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Tuesday 17 December 2013

[Correspondence] Lyme disease vaccination: safety first

In the Article by Nina Wressnigg and colleagues and the related Comment by Paul Lantos describing a novel Lyme vaccine, the authors attempt to avoid discussion of the side-effects of the previous Lyme vaccine, LYMErix (SmithKline Beecham, Pittsburgh, USA). This approach to safety issues bodes ill for the new Lyme vaccine candidate. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 17 December 2013

[Correspondence] Lyme disease vaccination: safety first – Authors' reply

We refute the assertion by Raphael Stricker and Lorraine Johnson that we avoided discussion of the side-effects of the previously licensed Lyme vaccine, LYMErix, in our report of a novel multivalent candidate vaccine against Lyme borreliosis. In our introduction, we provide a full and balanced description of the hypothesised safety concerns associated with the monovalent outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine LYMErix, and we present and discuss in detail the safety data generated in our phase 1/2 trial of the new multivalent vaccine. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)


Tuesday 17 December 2013

[Correspondence] Lyme disease vaccination: safety first – Author's reply

I wholly concur with Raphael Stricker and Lorraine Johnson that attention to safety must be central to the development of any novel therapeutic agent. Comparative safety has certainly been an open topic of discussion with several second generation vaccines, such as those for acellular pertussis, rotavirus, and Japanese encephalitis, which were developed mainly because of safety concerns with their predecessors. This should no doubt be the case for novel Lyme disease vaccines, whether based on Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) or other antigens. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)


Sunday 15 December 2013

Are Your Fibromyalgia Symptoms Due to Lyme Disease?

Lyme disease is the number one vector borne spreading epidemic worldwide, and mimics common diseases such as Fibromyalgia (FM), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis), autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and MS, as well as psychiatric conditions such as depression and anxiety.read more (Source: Psychology Today Depression Center)


Sunday 15 December 2013

Arthropod bites.

Authors: Juckett G Abstract The phylum Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. Although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. The two medically important spiders in the United States are widow spiders (Latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense muscle spasms, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles), which may cause skin necrosis. Widow bites usually respond to narcotics, benzodiazepines, or, when necessary, antivenom. Most recluse bites resolve uneventfully without aggressive therapy and require only wound care and minor debridement. Tick bites can transmit diseases only after prolonged attachment to the host. Treatment of clothing with permethrin and proper tick removal greatly reduce the risk of infection. Ticks of medi...

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Friday 13 December 2013

Three Sudden Cardiac Deaths Associated with Lyme Carditis — United States, November 2012–July 2013

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)


Friday 13 December 2013

Three sudden cardiac deaths associated with lyme carditis - United States, november 2012-july 2013.

Authors: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Abstract Lyme disease is a multisystem illness caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted by certain species of Ixodes ticks. Approximately 30,000 confirmed and probable cases of Lyme disease were reported in the United States in 2012, primarily from high-incidence states in the Northeast (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont) and upper Midwest (Minnesota and Wisconsin). Common manifestations include cutaneous, neurologic, and rheumatologic signs and symptoms. Symptomatic infection of the heart is rare in recognized Lyme disease cases and usually resolves promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Nonetheless, card...


Friday 13 December 2013

Three Cases of Sudden Cardiac Death Linked to Lyme Carditis (FREE)

By Cara Adler Three cases of sudden cardiac death associated with Lyme carditis were reported in 2012 and 2013 and are described in MMWR … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)


Thursday 12 December 2013

Sudden Cardiac Death in Untreated Lyme CarditisSudden Cardiac Death in Untreated Lyme Carditis

Three sudden cardiac deaths associated with undiagnosed and untreated Lyme carditis highlighted the need to check cardiac status in patients with Lyme disease and Lyme exposure in some heart patients. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)


Wednesday 11 December 2013

Lyme disease in the United Kingdom

Lyme disease, while still an uncommon disease in the UK, is on the increase. Case numbers have increased by 3.6-fold since 2001, with over 950 cases reported by the Health Protection Agency (HPA) in 2011, compared with less than 500 cases annually pre-2004. HPA indications of the true incidence are suggested to be closer to 3000 cases/year, of which around 82% of cases are indigenously acquired. Three genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelli and Borrelia garinii, represent the predominant pathogenic variants in the UK. Erythema migrans is the commonest manifestation, occurring in 60%–91% of cases. In the UK, neuroborelliosis is the most common complication, while myocarditis is unusual, and death from either conduction disease or carditis is extremely rare. T...

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Tuesday 10 December 2013

Co-infection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia species in ticks and in an erythema migrans patient

The co-infection rates with Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks and in patients with early Lyme borreliosis were determined. Image: Ixodes ricinus can carry Borrelia and Rickettsia simultaneously. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)


Monday 9 December 2013

Determinants and protective behaviours regarding tick bites among school children in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

Conclusions: Most children have a good knowledge of ticks and the potential consequences of tick bites. Knowing persons who personally got ill after tick-bite is associated with a good knowledge score and leads to higher susceptibility and better appreciation of the need for body checks. Perceived severity is associated with a good knowledge score and with knowing persons who got ill after tick-bite. Is seems to be useful to additionally address children in health education regarding ticks and tick-borne diseases. The relationship between health education programs for children (and their parents) about ticks and their possible consequences and prevention of these deserves further study. (Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles)


Friday 6 December 2013

Crystal structure of PfbA, a surface adhesin of Streptococcus pneumoniae, provides hints into its interaction with fibronectin.

Authors: Beulin DS, Yamaguchi M, Kawabata S, Ponnuraj K Abstract PfbA is a surface adhesin and invasin of Streptococcus pneumoniae that binds to human fibronectin and plasminogen of the host extracellular matrix. It is a virulence factor for its pathogenesis. The crystal structure of recombinant PfbA150-607 from S. pneumoniae strain R6, was determined using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method and refined to 1.90Å resolution. The structure of rPfbA150-607 revealed that residues Thr150 to Lys570 form a rigid parallel beta helix, followed by a short disordered region (571 to 607) that consists of beta hairpins. The structural organization of the beta helix resembles that of polysaccharide-modifying enzymes. The structural and sequence features essential for fibronectin...


Thursday 5 December 2013

The telomere resolvase of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, promotes DNA single-strand annealing and strand exchange

We report here that ResT also possesses single-strand annealing activity and a limited ability to promote DNA strand exchange reactions on partial duplex substrates. This combination of activities suggests ResT is a nexus between the seemingly distinct processes of telomere resolution and homologous recombination. Implications for hairpin telomere replication and linear plasmid recombination, including antigenic variation, are discussed. (Source: Nucleic Acids Research)