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Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 11:05
by Yvonne
Infection. 1999;27(4-5):275-7. Links

Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquitoes.

Halouzka J, Wilske B, Stünzner D, Sanogo YO, Hubálek Z.
Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno.

During the years 1995-1996, a total of 1,743 overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus female mosquitoes were tested for the presence of spirochetes in several localities in South Moravia, Czech Republic.The spirochetes were observed in 5% of the mosquitoes investigated. One of the five isolated strains of spirochetes (BR-84) was identified as Borrelia afzelii. The potential role of mosquitoes in the ecology and epidemiology of Lyme disease (LD) borreliae should be further investigated.

PMID: 10885843

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 11:06
by Yvonne
1: Med Vet Entomol. 1998 Jan;12(1):103-5. Links

Isolation of the spirochaete Borrelia afzelii from the mosquito Aedes vexans in the Czech Republic.

Halouzka J, Postic D, Hubálek Z.
Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.

During the years 1993-1995, a total of 3580 culicine mosquitoes of six species were collected in South Moravia, Czech Republic, and examined by dark-field microscopy for the presence of borreliae. Females of Aedes cantans, Ae. sticticus, Ae. vexans, Culex pipiens and Cx pipiens biotype molestus (but not Ae. geniculatus or Culiseta annulata) harboured spirochaetes, the frequencies ranging from 0.7% to 7.8%. One isolate (BR-53) from Ae. vexans was identified as Borrelia afzelii genospecies. The potential role of mosquitoes in the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis should be investigated.

PMID: 9513946

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 11:08
by Yvonne
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2002;9(2):257-9. Links

Positive findings of Borrelia burgdorferi in Culex (Culex) pipiens pipiens larvae in the surrounding of Brno city determined by the PCR method.

Zákovská A, Nejedla P, Holíková A, Dendis M.
Department of Comparative Animal Physiology and General Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

After first finding Borrelia in the midgut of imago mosquitoes, we concentrated on the presence of Borrelia in mosquito development stages--larvae of the third or fourth instar. In the summer season in the years of 2000-2001 a total of 439 Culex (Culex) pipiens pipiens larvae were collected from a barrel of rainwater in the Obrany holiday area of Brno city (East Moravia, Czech Republic). The larvae midgut was observed under dark-field microscopy. Ten DFM positive samples (2.28%) were further analysed using the single-tube nested PCR method for the presence of flagellum DNA sequence specific for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, of which 5 were positive. Borrelian positivity of Culex (C.) pipiens pipiens larvae was 1.14%. One spirochete isolated strain in BSK-H medium was obtained. PCR detection for borrelian DNA of the isolated strain was negative. From these results we can conclude that a low percentage Borreliae can be also found in mosquito larvae and are likely to survive into imago stage.

PMID: 12498597

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 11:08
by Yvonne
Folia Biol (Krakow). 2006;54(1-2):55-9. Links

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in mosquitoes from Szczecin area.

Kosik-Bogacka DI, Kuźna-Grygiel W, Górnik K.
Chair and Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Pomeranian Medical University, Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland.

The aim of the study was to determine the level of infection in mosquitoes with spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the woody areas of Szczecin. The mosquitoes were collected from May to September 2003. The spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi s. l., present in mosquitoes were detected in mosquitoes with indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using rabbit anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies and goat anti-rabbit IgG marked with fluorescein isocyanate (FITC). A total of 1557 females and 58 males were collected. They represented the genera Aedes (63%) and Culex (37%). The infection level of the mosquitoes from the area studied amounted to 1.7%. The results of the present study confirm the potential of these arthropods to spread Lyme borreliosis.

PMID: 17044261

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 13:58
by Yvonne
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005 Fall;5(3):227-32. Links

Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in mites parasitizing small rodents.

Netusil J, Zákovská A, Horváth R, Dendis M, Janouskovcová E.
Department of Comparative Animal Physiology and General Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Ticks (especially those in the family Ixodidae) are the primary vectors of the infectious agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which causes Lyme disease. To determine the potential role of mites as vectors of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, mites were collected from wild rodents in the Bazantula region of North Moravia (Czech Republic). These samples were examined for the presence of Borreliae by using DFM and PCR methods. Mites positive for the presence of DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu lato were determined as members of the families Haemogamasidae and Parasitidae. One sample from a mite of genus Haemogamasus was successfully isolated, and the specimen was confirmed as B. afzelii by using PCR-RFLP and by gradient SDS-PAGE. This suggests the possible participation of gamasid mites in borrelial circulation in nature and also points to the utility of further such studies to identify potential vectors (other than ticks) of the spirochete.

PMID: 16187890

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 13:59
by Yvonne
1: Med Parazitol (Mosk). 1999 Apr-Jun;(2):26-30. Links

An experimental study of the capacity of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst, 1913) to ingest, maintain and transmit Borrelia
[Article in Russian]

Lopatina IuV, Vasil'eva IS, Gutova VP, Ershova AS, Burakova OV, Naumov RL, Petrova AD.
For the first time a possibility of the gamasina mites' O. bacoti participation in Lyme disease spirochetes' circulation has been demonstrated. It has been experimentally shown that Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are received by O. bacoti, survive in them for at least 21 days and are transmitted to white mice through mites' bites. Mice's infestation has occurred in 23% of cases. It is suggested that other bloodsucking gamasina mites inhabiting the Lyme borreliosis reservoir rodents nests may be capable of participating in borrelia circulation in the Lyme disease endemic areas.

PMID: 10703202

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 14:00
by Yvonne
Exp Appl Acarol. 2004;33(1-2):93-102. Links

Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari, Trombiculidae) as a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?

Kampen H, Schöler A, Metzen M, Oehme R, Hartelt K, Kimmig P, Maier WA.
Institute for Medical Parasitology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str, Bonn, Germany.

Larvae of the trombiculid mite Neotrombicula autumnalis were collected at 18 sites in and around Bonn, Germany, to be screened for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. by means of PCR. Questing larvae numbering 1380 were derived from the vegetation and 634 feeding ones were removed from 100 trapped micromammals including voles, mice, shrews and hedgehogs. In a laboratory infection experiment, a further 305 host-seeking larvae from the field were transferred onto Borrelia-positive mice and gerbils, and examined for spirochete infection at various intervals after repletion. In three cases borrelial DNA could be amplified from the mites: (1) from a larva feeding on a wild-caught greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula), (2) from a pool of four larvae feeding on a B. garinii-positive laboratory mouse, and (3) from a nymph that had fed on a B. afzelii-positive laboratory gerbil as a larva. In the first case, borrelial species determination by DNA hybridization of the PCR product was only possible with a B. burgdorferi complex-specific probe but not with a species-specific one. In the second case, probing showed the same borrelial genospecies (B. garinii) as the laboratory host had been infected with. In the latter case, however, DNA hybridization demonstrated B. valaisiana while the laboratory host had been infected with B. afzelii
Subsequent DNA sequencing confirmed much higher similarity of the PCR product to B. valaisiana than to B. afzelii indicating an infection of the mite prior to feeding on the laboratory host. The negligible percentage of positive mites found in this study suggests that either the uptake of borrelial cells by feeding trombiculids is an extremely rare event or that ingested spirochetes are rapidly digested. On the other hand, the results imply a possible transstadial and transovarial transmission of borreliae once they are established in their trombiculid host. However, unless the transmission of borreliae to a given host is demonstrated, a final statement on the vector competence of trombiculid mites is not possible.

PMID: 15285141

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Tue 22 Jul 2008 14:01
by Yvonne
Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1998;45(1):67-72. Links

Investigation of haematophagous arthropods for borreliae--summarized data, 1988-1996.

Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juricová Z.
Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic.

Blood-sucking arthropods, collected in South Moravia, Czech Republic, were examined by darkfield microscopy for borreliae from 1988 to 1996. Among host-seeking ixodid ticks (8481 Ixodes ricinus (L.), 372 Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabr.), 167 Haemaphysalis concinna Koch), borreliae were only observed in adult (23.2%), nymphal (17.2%) and larval (6.3%) I. ricinus. The prevalence of borreliae in I. ricinus did not vary considerably among habitats except for lower values in agroecosystems, xerothermic oak woods and grasslands. The frequency of intensity of spirochaetal infection (log10 counts of borreliae per tick) in I. ricinus approximated the negative binomial distribution. The proportions of host-seeking female and nymphal ticks containing > 100 borreliae were 5.0% and 1.7%, respectively. Among preimaginal ticks (749 I. ricinus, 222 D. reticulatus, 82 H. concinna) parasitizing free-living forest birds and small mammals, borreliae were detected in 6.1% of larval and 10.3% of nymphal I. ricinus, and in one larval H. concinna; 3.2% of the birds and 19.4% of the mammals carried infected ticks. Among 3464 female mosquitoes (Culicidae) of 6 species, 4.1% contained spirochaetes: 1.4% of Aedes vexans Meig., 1.3% of A. cantans (Meig.), 2.2% of A. sticticus (Meig.), 2.2% of Culex pipiens pipiens L. and 5.9% of C. p. molestus Forskal. Borreliae were also detected in 8.4% of 142 fleas (Siphonaptera, largely Ctenophthalmus agyrtes Heller and Hystrichopsylla talpae Curtis) collected from small mammals. Twelve isolates of B. burgdorferi sensu lato have been identified to genospecies: 6 strains from I. ricinus (4 Borrelia garinii Baranton et al., 1 B. afzelii Canica et al. and 1 B. lusitaniae Le Fleche et al.), 1 strain from A. vexans (B. afzelii), 2 strains from C. agyrtes (B. afzelii), and 3 strains from host rodents (B. afzelii).

PMID: 9516997

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Mon 28 Jul 2008 20:13
by Yvonne
Detection of spirochetes in, and isolation from, culicine mosquitoes :

Re: Borrelia in other insects than ticks

Posted: Fri 8 Jan 2010 18:16
by Yvonne
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in mosquitoes from Szczecin area :