Stability & individuality in Borrelia burgdorferi genomes

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inmacdonald
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Stability & individuality in Borrelia burgdorferi genomes

Post by inmacdonald » Fri 16 Mar 2012 22:55

To the members of the forum:

Link: http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0033280

The latest report from Dr Sherwood Casjens
on the State of the Union of Mini - Chromosomes of various strains of
Borrelia burgdorferi has just been released

Plasmid number differs by individual strain, with the "textbook"
Plasmid count of 21 only found in one of four strains discussed.
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Abstract (excerpt)
"......the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end we present a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the numerous plasmids of B. burgdorferi isolates B31, N40, JD1 and 297. These strains were chosen because they include the three most commonly studied laboratory strains, and because they represent different major genetic lineages and so are informative regarding the genetic diversity and evolution of this organism. A unique feature of Borrelia genomes is that they carry a large number of linear and circular plasmids, and this work shows that strains N40, JD1, 297 and B31 carry related but non-identical sets of 16, 20, 19 and 21 plasmids, respectively, that comprise 33–40% of their genomes. We deduce that there are at least 28 plasmid compatibility types among the four strains. "....


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Alan B. MacDonald MD

Pandora
Posts: 252
Joined: Tue 20 Mar 2012 14:58

Re: Stability & individuality in Borrelia burgdorferi genom

Post by Pandora » Tue 20 Mar 2012 22:27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22419104
Here, we report high sequence diversity in genes of the VirB/VirD
type IV secretion system (T4SS),
amongst Bartonella from natural rodent populations in NE Poland.

http://iai.asm.org/content/suppl/2012/0 ... 11-s01.pdf
Supplementary Fig. S1. Clustal W sequence alignment of homologous B. burgdorferi MTA/SAH
nucleosidases. The three proteins of B. burgdorferi, exported Bgp and MtnN and cytoplasmic Pfs,
show homology to the MTA/SAH nucleosidase enzyme present in a variety of bacteria.
The amino acids identified
on the basis of the crystal structure and enzymatic activity determination of E. coli enzyme are indicated.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389487 2012 Mar 2
J Bacteriol. 2012 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]
From these collective data, we conclude that TprC is a bona fide

rare OMP as well as a functional ortholog of E. coli OmpF.

CRASP-4 exposed to the borrelial surface preferentially binds CFHR1 and CFHR2 while binding of CFH and CFHR5 could only be detected under artificial experimental conditions. Although binding of CFHRs appears to be not necessary for complement resistance, the impact of these particular host proteins for immune evasion and pathogenesis of Borreliae warrants further investigations.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article ... ool=pubmed
https://dmauldin.gdxbase.org/page/Overv ... e_id/81494
They could say it is our genes not the borrelia's causing the disease and get their way with chemo.
This war must have the people on board in every way.

Pandora
Posts: 252
Joined: Tue 20 Mar 2012 14:58

Re: Stability & individuality in Borrelia burgdorferi genom

Post by Pandora » Fri 23 Mar 2012 10:10

http://www.rexresearch.com/montagnier/montagnier.htm

Finally, a Babesia sp. Xinjiang-like parasite (which shared 99.5% identity with the original strain of Babesia sp. Xinjiang) was isolated using this in vitro culture system from 1 of 19 sheep blood samples collected from western Gansu province, China.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22386948

Pandora
Posts: 252
Joined: Tue 20 Mar 2012 14:58

Re: Stability & individuality in Borrelia burgdorferi genom

Post by Pandora » Sat 24 Mar 2012 0:55

The end of the road ... Charles Weissmann
http://www.landesbioscience.com/journal ... cle/19778/
While I was quite confident that we would succeed in the cloning, there was no way of knowing at the time if biologically active eukaryotic protein could be produced in E.coli. It was only a year later that Genentech reported expression of human growth hormone in E.coli.
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The Report "Darwinian evolution of prions in cell culture" (J. Li et al., 12 February 2010, p. 869, published online 31 December 2009) has caused a sensation on the Web. A group of Florida-based scientists headed by Charles Weissmann have claimed that prion proteins develop drug resistance—that is to say, they are capable of adaptive change, mutation, and evolution. However, in 1997, Laura Manuelidis of the Yale School of Medicine published a Report on the evolution of a strain of Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, with a careful analysis of the infection (1), contradicting the conclusion of Weissmann′s team.

It is important to ascertain whether Weissmann′s team was dealing exclusively with prion proteins, given that it is very difficult to isolate them from nucleic acid contamination. Many scientists, including protein-only hypothesis adherents, identified RNA in similar transplanted inoculants. Stanley Prusiner, the leading advocate for the protein-only hypothesis, confirmed during a 2004 interview with The New York Times that protein-only infection would be conclusively evident if experimental scientists inoculate a synthetic protein to produce transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in animals—in that case, there would be no possibility of inoculum contamination (2).

Prusiner and his research team tried to initiate the disease by inoculating laboratory mice with what he claimed was a synthetic protein. However, Prusiner′s team observed only some questionable signs of infection at about 600 or more days after inoculation (3), approximately the life expectancy of laboratory mice. Inoculation with an infected brain homogenate normally leads to an indication of brain pathology in mice brains in about 70 days (4).

The adaptation that Weissmann′s team observed is a perfect example of a conventional RNA virus behavior, not of a protein. Therefore, what this group has discovered might be evidence of a virus hypothesis, not a protein-only hypothesis.

Igor V. Zaitsev

Science Department, Borough of Manhattan Community College, The City University of New York, New York, NY 10007-1097, USA.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5 ... i_el_13550

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