Bacteriophage Therapy against biofilm infections

Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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panda
Posts: 279
Joined: Fri 20 Jul 2012 21:59

Re: Bacteriophage Therapy against biofilm infections

Post by panda » Wed 3 Oct 2012 14:39

Dear Dr. MacDonald,

That is a very interesting point not to overlook the spread of other species than Bbss, which has also a wide genetic diversity as known until today. It seems US-animals and humans have not to wait longer. Two examples:

Smith RP, Muzaffar SB, Lavers J, Lacombe EH, Cahill BK, Lubelczyk CB, et al.
Borrelia garinii in seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae), Atlantic Coast, North America.
Emerg Infect Dis . 2006 Dec.
“Abstract
Borrelia garinii is the most neurotropic of the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato that cause Lyme disease in Europe, where it is transmitted to avian and mammalian reservoir hosts and to humans by Ixodes ricinus. B. garinii is also maintained in an enzootic cycle in seabirds by I. uriae, a tick found at high latitudes in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. To determine whether B. garinii is present in seabird ticks on the Atlantic Coast of North America, we examined 261 I. uriae ticks by polyclonal antiborrelial fluorescent antibody. Ten of 61 ticks from Gull Island, Newfoundland, were positive for borreliae by this screen. Amplicons of DNA obtained by PCR that targeted the B. garinii rrs-rrla intergenic spacer were sequenced and matched to GenBank sequences for B. garinii. The potential for introduction of this agent into the North American Lyme disease enzootic is unknown.”

http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1212.060448

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Genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi and detection of B. bissettii-like DNA in serum of north-coastal California residents.
Girard YA, Fedorova N, Lane RS.
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Mar;49(3):945-54. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21177909/ [abstract]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3067736/ [full text]

Abstract
In North America, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne disease caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. We studied the genetic diversity of LB spirochetes in north-coastal California residents. Spirochete DNA was detected in 23.7% (27/114) of the study subjects using a PCR protocol optimized for increased sensitivity in human sera. Californians were most commonly infected with B. burgdorferi ospC genotype A, a globally widespread spirochete associated with high virulence in LB patients. Sequence analysis of rrf-rrl and p66 loci in 11% (3/27) of the PCR-positive study subjects revealed evidence of infection with an organism closely related to B. bissettii. This spirochete, heretofore associated with LB only in Europe, is widely distributed among ticks and wildlife in North America. Further molecular testing of sera from residents in areas where LB is endemic is warranted to enhance our understanding of the geographic distribution and frequency of occurrence of B. bissettii-like infections.

(…)
six genospecies have been identified in North American ticks, i.e., B. americana, B. andersonii, B. bissettii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. californiensis, and B. carolinensis
(…)
Nucleotide sequence analysis of the B. burgdorferi ospC gene that encodes a major immunoreactive surface lipoprotein, OspC, revealed that only 62% of the genotypes in infected I. scapularis nymphs also exist in I. pacificus nymphs in Mendocino County (13). A testimony to the divergence of LB spirochetes in California from those in the Northeast is the fact that the most common ospC genotype of the Mendocino County nymphs collected in 2004, accounting for 24% of the alleles, was the previously undescribed ospC genotype H3 (13).
(…)
Sequence analysis of PCR-positive sera revealed that disseminated B. burgdorferi infections in this community typically involved a single, highly virulent ospC genotype. Notably, three CHR residents had evidence of infection with a B. bissettii-like spirochete, suggesting that B. bissettii should be evaluated more closely as a potential human pathogen in the United States.
(…)
RESULTS
In serum from CHR study subjects, we detected B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in 27/114 (23.7%) in both years, 19/109 (17.4%) in 1988, and 12/80 (15%) in 1989 (P > 0.05) (Table 1).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article ... /table/T1/
(…)
Three out of 16 (18.8%) and 7/12 (58.3%) (P = 0.039) of the B. burgdorferi PCR-positive sera collected in 1988 and 1989, respectively, were test positive for LB antibodies using the most stringent criteria (Tables 1 and 2).
(…)
Seven (29.2%) of the 24 individuals who were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi reported previous treatment with antibiotics on the 1988 questionnaire (Table 1). Study subject CHR105, who tested positive for a B. bissettii-like agent (see below), also reported antibiotic treatment prior to 1988.
(…)
Using a pairwise distance matrix of a 195-bp region of the rrf-rrl locus, we found that DNA from CHR105-88, CHR3-88, and CHR66-88 was 97 to 100% similar to that of B. bissettii strains 25015 and DN127 and 96 to 98% similar to B. bissettii DNA derived from Czech Republic patient sera.
(…)
We present compelling PCR- and DNA sequence-based evidence of disseminated infection with a B. bissettii-like spirochete in 3 (2.6%) of 114 CHR residents tested. Heretofore, only B. burgdorferi had been identified in human-derived samples in North America. It is not clear from our results whether the agent is associated with disease or specific clinical manifestations because of the simultaneous detection of B. burgdorferi DNA or the lack of available data. Recent descriptions of B. bissettii DNA with genetic similarity to strains DN127 and 25015 in patients with LB symptoms in the Czech Republic and Slovenia, respectively, highlight the growing recognition of B. bissettii as an agent of LB in central and southern Europe (23, 30, 31, 36). In European studies, infection with B. bissettii alone is associated with clinical signs of LB, including flu-like symptoms, arthralgia, weakness, and myalgia, among others (31, 36), or, in a singular case, endocarditis and aortic valve stenosis (30). Laboratory data also support the pathogenic potential of B. bissettii isolates originating in Colorado in CH3/HeJ mice (33).
(…)

Best wishes,
Panda

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inmacdonald
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Re: Bacteriophage Therapy against biofilm infections

Post by inmacdonald » Wed 3 Oct 2012 15:41

Dear Panda,

You are AMAZING!!

thanks very very much for resetting our USA borrelia vistas.

Best to you,

alan

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panda
Posts: 279
Joined: Fri 20 Jul 2012 21:59

Re: Bacteriophage Therapy against biofilm infections

Post by panda » Fri 5 Oct 2012 2:05

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article ... ure/F0001/
"Global distribution of Borrelia garinii in the marine infection cycle. Seabird colonies where B. garinii spirochetes are known"

from:
Global ecology and epidemiology of Borrelia garinii spirochetes.
Comstedt P, Jakobsson T, Bergström S.
Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2011;1. doi: 10.3402/iee.v1i0.9545. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22957111 [abstract]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426327/ [full text]

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