Borrelia miyamotoi

Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
RitaA
Posts: 2768
Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by RitaA » Wed 10 Oct 2012 1:29

Some of the following is a duplication/combining of content from the following two threads:

1) Relapsing fevers:

http://www.lymeneteurope.org/forum/view ... vers#p4288

2) New Tick-Borne Disease Discovered:

http://www.lymeneteurope.org/forum/view ... red#p24535

Borrelia miyamotoi is showing up in many parts of the world, so I expect there will be more articles published in the future. This thread is one possible location to post them.

Given that larval ticks can be infected transovarially with B. miyamotoi, and we don't yet have a commercial test is a bit concerning -- especially since it could be mistaken for Lyme disease and/or occur as a co-infection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12202571
J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Sep;40(9):3308-12.

Determination of novel Borrelia genospecies in Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks.

Fraenkel CJ, Garpmo U, Berglund J.

Source

Department of Infectious Diseases, Blekinge Hospital, S-371 85 Karlskrona, Sweden

Abstract

A total of 301 adult questing Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at 15 different locations along the south and east coasts of Sweden to determine the Borrelia genospecies diversity. Thirty-two ticks (11%) were found to be positive by nested PCR with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-specific primers. Species determination was based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the flagellin gene. Five different Borrelia species were found. The nucleotide sequence of the Borrelia DNA found in two ticks differed extensively from the nucleotide sequences of the Borrelia DNA found in the other ticks, and analysis revealed that they were closely related to the relapsing fever borrelia species Borrelia miyamotoi. This is the first report of a B. miyamotoi-like borrelia in I. ricinus and in Europe. Moreover, the Borrelia DNA of two ticks (6%) clustered within the B. valaisiana complex. B. valaisiana has not previously been reported in Sweden. B. afzelii DNA was found in 14 ticks (44%), and B. garinii DNA was found in 10 ticks (31%). B. burgdorferi sensu stricto DNA was found in four ticks (13%). We conclude that all of the known human-pathogenic species (B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) and B. valaisiana found elsewhere in Europe are also present in the Swedish host-seeking tick population and that a B. miyamotoi-like Borrelia species seems to be present in I. ricinus ticks in Europe.

PMID:
12202571
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC130762
Free PMC Article


The full article is here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC130762/
[snip]

DISCUSSION

The genetic diversity of Borrelia species in the tick population has not previously been studied in Sweden. In this study five different Borrelia species were identified. We obtained Borrelia DNA from two I. ricinus ticks that were not closely related to any of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies. Phylogenetic analysis of the flagellin and 16S rRNA sequences indicated that they were closely related to the B. miyamotoi genospecies, previously isolated only in Japan from I. persulcatus ticks (10). B. miyamotoi has not yet been shown to cause disease in humans and is phylogenetically most closely related to B. lonestari among the relapsing fever borreliae (11, 27). B. lonestari is transmitted by the hard A. americanum tick (classified within the Metastriata subfamily) (5) and can cause an erythema migrans-like rash (15). B. lonestari is also closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis, Borrelia theileri, which is transmitted by hard ticks from the Metastriata subfamily (28). Phylogenetic analysis distinguishes two separate clusters within the group of RF borreliae that are transmitted by ixodid ticks: the Metastriata tick-transmitted species B. lonestari and B. theileri cluster together, and the B. miyamotoi-like borreliae transmitted by Ixodes spp. form a separate cluster. The present study is the first report of B. miyamotoi-like Borrelia species in Europe and in I. ricinus ticks. We found B. miyamotoi-like DNA in two ticks collected 400 km apart, which indicates that the findings were not isolated but, rather, that the species is geographically widespread. The monophyletic cluster of B. miyamotoi-like borreliae thus seems to be distributed on two continents and transmitted by two subspecies of Ixodes ticks. Although genetically classified within the RF borreliae, B. miyamotoi seems to have ecological characteristics of a borrelia of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Further studies are needed to characterize the biological properties of this Borrelia species. Isolation and more records are needed to confirm its presence in the European tick population.

The primers used in this study were not designed to find any borreliae other than those from the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The tick templates in which the B. miyamotoi-like DNA was found reacted with the primers, but the PCR products were of a different size.

[snip]

Of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato species found, B. afzelii and B. garinii dominated, with 44 and 31% of the Borrelia isolates being of these two species, respectively, which is consistent with clinical findings in Sweden (22) and with reports from Europe (13). B. burgdorferi sensu stricto has just recently been found in Swedish LB patients by PCR (23) and has previously been reported from Ixodes ticks collected from migrating birds arriving in Sweden (21). B. valaisiana has been reported from a number of European countries (13), but it has never before been reported in Sweden.

[snip]

We conclude that all of the known pathogenic species (B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu strico) and B. valaisiana found elsewhere in Europe are also present in the Swedish host-seeking tick population. Of particular interest is our finding of B. miyamotoi-like Borrelia in Europe.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15498172
Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sep;10(9):1661-4.

Typing of Borrelia relapsing fever group strains.

Bunikis J, Tsao J, Garpmo U, Berglund J, Fish D, Barbour AG.

Source

University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, USA

Abstract

Partial sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer showed two to four genotypes each for Borrelia hermsii and B. turicatae, both relapsing fever agents transmitted by argasid ticks, and for B. miyamotoi and B. lonestari, transmitted by ixodid ticks. Field surveys of Ixodes ticks in Connecticut and Sweden showed limited local diversity for B. miyamotoi.

PMID:
15498172
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3320305
Free PMC Article


The full article is here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3320305/
[snip]

The Study

The public health importance of the newly discovered species remains to be determined. However, finding B. miyamotoi s.l. in I. scapularis, I. ricinus, and I. persulcatus, the predominant vectors of Lyme borreliosis in North America, Europe, and Asia, respectively, complicates interpreting epidemiologic studies of Lyme borreliosis and other ixodid-borne disorders. A method to identify and distinguish strains within species is needed to carry out studies of the population biology and of the possible etiologic roles of these organisms. Since most of these microorganisms are to date uncultivable or poorly cultivable, a method using DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is preferable.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16506458
J Med Entomol. 2006 Jan;43(1):120-3.

Detection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California.

Mun J, Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Lane RS.

Source

Division of Insect Biology, 201 Wellman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3112, USA.

Abstract

We investigated whether host-seeking nymphs and adults of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in far-western North America, are infected naturally with relapsing-fever group spirochetes in Mendocino County, California. Relapsing-fever group borreliae were detected in four (1.7%) of 234 nymphal and two (0.7%) of 282 adult host-seeking I. pacificus ticks by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and flagellin genes, respectively, exhibiting 99 and 98.5% sequence homology to Borrelia miyamotoi Fukunaga. Phylogenetic analysis based on these two genes revealed that the borreliae detected in these ticks belong to the relapsing-fever group and that these are closely related to, if not identical with, B. miyamotoi.

PMID:
16506458
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19996447
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Dec;81(6):1120-31.

Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species.

Barbour AG, Bunikis J, Travinsky B, Hoen AG, Diuk-Wasser MA, Fish D, Tsao JI.

Source

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-4028, USA.

Abstract

The Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi and the relapsing fever group species Borrelia miyamotoi co-occur in the United States. We used species-specific, quantitative polymerase chain reaction to study both species in the blood and skin of Peromyscus leucopus mice and host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs at a Connecticut site. Bacteremias with B. burgdorferi or B. miyamotoi were most prevalent during periods of greatest activity for nymphs or larvae, respectively. Whereas B. burgdorferi was 30-fold more frequent than B. miyamotoi in skin biopsies and mice had higher densities of B. burgdorferi densities in the skin than in the blood, B. miyamotoi densities were higher in blood than skin. In a survey of host-seeking nymphs in 11 northern states, infection prevalences for B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi averaged approximately 0.20 and approximately 0.02, respectively. Co-infections of P. leucopus or I. scapularis with both B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi were neither more nor less common than random expectations.

PMID:
19996447
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2841027
Free PMC Article


The full article is here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841027/
Transovarial transmission of B. miyamotoi

Scoles and others 12 reported that vertical transmission of B. miyamotoi in the laboratory was common and found filial infection prevalences among larvae of 0.06 to 0.73. In this study, which used a sensitive qPCR, filial infection frequency in larvae was 0.77. Transovarial transmission of B. burgdorferi in I. scapularis is either nonexistent or rare. 17–19 The infection of unfed larvae is prima facie evidence for a different niche for B. miyamotoi from that of B. burgdorferi in ticks. This, along with the evidence of a different niche for the spirochetes in P. leucopus distinguishes B. miyamotoi from B. burgdorferi and serve to separate their fates.

When the distribution of B. miyamotoi spirochetes in the tissues of ticks is studied, we predict that this species’ cells will be more widely distributed in unfed ticks than is the case for B. burgdorferi, which is predominantly found in the midgut of flat nymphs. 60,61 Supporting evidence was the earlier observation by Lane and Burgdorfer 62 that transovarially transmitted spirochetes in I. pacificus were distributed throughout the larva’s tissues. These spirochetes were probably B. miyamotoi, because they were not bound by a monoclonal antibody that was specific for B. burgdorferi,63 and B. miyamotoi is now known to occur in these ticks. 11

Although many of the details of the life cycle of B. burgdorferi and related species remain to be characterized, the basic features of the natural history of this microorganism are understood.3 This is not the case for B. miyamotoi, which is representative of a newly described group of species that resemble relapsing fever species in some ways and Lyme borreliosis species in others. Like B. hermsii and most other relapsing fever species,2 B. miyamotoi enhances its fitness by the strategy of transovarial transmission. The association between bacteremia with B. miyamotoi and larval activity was evidence for this (Figure 2). However, with filial infection frequencies of < 0.80, vertical transmission alone will likely not suffice for maintenance in the environment for more than a few generations. 64 Horizontal amplification of B. miyamotoi occurs in vertebrates, as has been documented with P. leucopus in the laboratory 12 and under natural conditions by this study. However, the limited empiric findings to date suggest that this mode of transmission seems to be less efficient for B. miyamotoi than for B. burgdorferi. Better understanding of how B. miyamotoi is maintained enzootically calls for further clarification of the relative importance of vertical and horizontal transmission by this species.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21381356
Ter Arkh. 2010;82(11):74-80.

[Relapsing borrelioses fevers: forgotten and new ones].

[Article in Russian]

Platonov AE, Maleev VV, Karan' LS.

Abstract

Relapsing fever borrelioses are widely spread in the endemic regions of Eurasia, Africa, and America as before and account for significant morbidity and mortality; however, these infections have been recently underestimated. The pathogens of the fevers are the Borrelia species transmitted by ticks of the Ornithodoros genus; they genetically differ from the pathogens of Lyme borreliosis--Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato transmitted by Ixodes ticks. The species Borrelia miyamotoi belongs to the genetic species of Borrelia, the causative agents of relapsing fevers. The authors found Borrelia of this species in the Ixodes ticks of Russia and first showed that B. miyamotoi were able to induce multiple cases in man, which had been earlier diagnosed as erythema-free Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis. The review considers the pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, and treatment of "old" relapsing fever borrelioses versus the available data on the "new" infection caused by B. miyamotoi. This must assist Russian physicians and scientists both to treat "old" and new tick-borne relapsing borrelioses and to schedule studies of the "new" B. myamotoi infection.

PMID:
21381356
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19725770
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010 Apr;10(3):217-21.

Assessment of polymicrobial infections in ticks in New York state.

Tokarz R, Jain K, Bennett A, Briese T, Lipkin WI.

Source

Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

Abstract

Ixodes scapularis ticks are clinically important hematophagous vectors. A single tick bite can lead to a polymicrobial infection. We determined the prevalence of polymicrobial infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Powassan virus in 286 adult ticks from the two counties in New York State where Lyme disease is endemic, utilizing a MassTag multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Seventy-one percent of the ticks harbored at least one organism; 30% had a polymicrobial infection. Infections with three microbes were detected in 5% of the ticks. One tick was infected with four organisms. Our results show that coinfection is a frequent occurrence in ticks in the two counties surveyed.

PMID:
19725770
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2883481
Free PMC Article


The full article is here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2883481/
Introduction

[snip]

Along with B. burgdorferi, another Borrelia species, Borrelia miyamotoi, has been detected in I. scapularis (Fukunaga et al. 1995, Scoles et al. 2001). Genetically, B. miyamotoi is very similar to “Borrelia lonestari,” a spirochete detected in Amblyomma americanum ticks (Fukunaga et al. 1996, Burkot et al. 2001). Phylogenetic analysis placed both B. miyamotoi and B. lonestari with Borrelia species associated with relapsing fever, although the pathogenicity of both species is unknown.

[snip]

Results

[snip]

B. burgdorferi coinfection with B. miyamotoi and Powassan virus

B. miyamotoi is a relapsing fever-like Borrelia species. This organism was much less frequently detected; only seven ticks (2%) were positive for this organism but all were also coinfected with B. burgdorferi. Infection with Powassan virus was also infrequent. We detected the virus in seven ticks (2% of total). Five of these were collected at location 2 and a single Powassan virus–positive tick each was collected from locations 1 and 3. The majority of these did not exhibit a coinfection; only two of the Powassan virus–positive ticks were coinfected with B. burgdorferi, and another was coinfected with A. phagocytophilum, whereas the remaining four did not harbor any of the other infecting agents we screened for. For confirmation of Powassan virus–positive samples, we amplified by PCR and sequenced a 395-base pair fragment of Powassan virus (Fig. 2A) from each positive tick. All sequences represented genotype II of Powassan virus.

Triple infections

We detected ticks harboring a triple infection with B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. microti at four sites. A total of 14 ticks (5% of total) had such a polymicrobial infection; we also detected a triple infection of B. burgdorferi, A. phagocytophilum, and B. miyamotoi in one tick. Additionally, we detected a single tick from area 5 infected with four pathogens (Fig. 2B).

[snip]

Discussion

[snip]

In addition, we screened for Powassan virus and B. miyamotoi, two microbes of much lower prevalence and not detected at all surveyed sites. Powassan virus has been reported to infect 1–5% of the ticks in the North Central United States, but prevalence studies of other areas are lacking (Ebel et al. 1999, Brackney et al. 2008). We detected Powassan virus and B. miyamotoi in 2% of the ticks we screened. The two microbes had different frequency of coinfection with other pathogens. All seven I. scapularis infected with B. miyamotoi were also coinfected with B. burgdorferi. This is in contrast to Powassan virus–positive ticks, where in four out of the seven infected ticks we did not detect a coinfection. Whether this was a chance result or whether those ticks picked up the virus by feeding on an animal refractory to B. burgdorferi infection is unclear.

Polymicrobial infection following tick bites is an occurrence of which clinically much is still unknown. Our study indicates high coinfection prevalence in ticks within the areas surveyed. How these organisms interact during transmission and disease remains to be determined, but may have important impact on diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases.

[snip]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20734723
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2010 May-Jun;(3):72-7.

[Usage of real time polymerase chain reaction for diagnostics of different tick-borne infections].

[Article in Russian]

Karan' LS, Koliasnikova NM, Toporkova MG, Makhneva MA, Nadezhdina MV, Esaulkova AIu, Romanenko VV, Arumova EA, Platonov AE, Maleev VV.

Abstract

AIM:
To create and test the complex of polymerase chain reaction-based methods for detection of pathogens vectored by ticks in clinical and environmental samples.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Real time PCR methods with hybridization-fluorescent detection were developed for detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophillum, Erlichia muris/E. chaffeensis, and B. miyamotoi. First four methods were combined in one assay in multiprime format. Efficacy of the assay was assessed by testing of blood samples from patients with tickborreliosis (166 patients), tick-born encephalitis (22 patients) and mixed infection tick-borne encephalitis + borreliosis (21 patients) from Sverdlovsk region.

RESULTS:
It was shown that using PCR-based assay for testing the blood samples obtained during admission, it was possible to determine the etiology of disease in 39% of patients, whereas on the basis of serological data diagnosis, as a rule, is made not earlier than on 2nd week of therapy. False-positive results of PCR diagnostics were not observed. Infections caused by Anaplasma or Erlichia were not observed. It was shown that > 50% of cases of tick borreliosis without erythema were caused by B. miyamotoi, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu lato predominated as a causative agent of erythemic form of borreliosis.

CONCLUSION:
Proposed complex of methods is useful for rapid diagnostics of tick-borne infections including previously unknown infection caused by B. miyamotoi.

PMID:
20734723
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20795483
Parazitologiia. 2010 May-Jun;44(3):201-11.

[Detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in ticks Ixodes persulcatus from Russia].

[Article in Russian]

Fomenko NV, Livanova NN, Borgoiakov VIu, Kozlova IV, Shulaĭkina IV, Pukhovskaia NM, Tokarevich KN, Livanov SG, Doroshchenko EK, Ivanov LI.

Abstract

Unfed adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks from five regions of Russia were examined to analyze the distribution and diversity of Borrelia miyamotoi. DNA of B. miyamotoi was found in 1.8% of ticks from Leningrad Oblast, 2.9% from Sverdlovsk, 4.5% from Novosibirsk, 2.3% from Irkutsk Oblast, and 2.5% from Khabarovsk Krai. The molecular typing of the B. miyamotoi DNA was based on the partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, p66, and glpQ genes. The only genetic variant of B. miyamotoi was detected in all samples of ticks collected from these five territories.

PMID:
20795483
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20229127
Ecohealth. 2010 Aug;7(1):47-63. Epub 2010 Mar 13.

Invasion of the lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis: implications for Borrelia burgdorferi endemicity.

Hamer SA, Tsao JI, Walker ED, Hickling GJ.

Source

Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA

Abstract

Lyme disease risk is increasing in the United States due in part to the spread of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis, the principal vector of the spirochetal pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi. A 5-year study was undertaken to investigate hypothesized coinvasion of I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi in Lower Michigan. We tracked the spatial and temporal dynamics of the tick and spirochete using mammal, bird, and vegetation drag sampling at eight field sites along coastal and inland transects originating in a zone of recent I. scapularis establishment. We document northward invasion of these ticks along Michigan's west coast during the study period; this pattern was most evident in ticks removed from rodents. B. burgdorferi infection prevalences in I. scapularis sampled from vegetation in the invasion zone were 9.3% and 36.6% in nymphs and adults, respectively, with the majority of infection (95.1%) found at the most endemic site. There was no evidence of I. scapularis invasion along the inland transect; however, low-prevalence B. burgdorferi infection was detected in other tick species and in wildlife at inland sites, and at northern coastal sites in years before the arrival of I. scapularis. These infections suggest that cryptic B. burgdorferi transmission by other vector-competent tick species is occurring in the absence of I. scapularis. Other Borrelia spirochetes, including those that group with B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii, were present at a low prevalence within invading ticks and local wildlife. Reports of Lyme disease have increased significantly in the invasion zone in recent years. This rapid blacklegged tick invasion--measurable within 5 years--in combination with cryptic pathogen maintenance suggests a complex ecology of Lyme disease emergence in which wildlife sentinels can provide an early warning of disease emergence.

PMID:
20229127
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20844223
J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Nov;48(11):4169-76. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Prevalence and diversity of Borrelia species in ticks that have bitten humans in Sweden.

Wilhelmsson P, Fryland L, Börjesson S, Nordgren J, Bergström S, Ernerudh J, Forsberg P, Lindgren PE.

Source

Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Erratum in
J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jan;49(1):481.

Abstract

Members of the genus Borrelia are among the most common infectious agents causing tick-borne disease in humans worldwide. Here, we developed a Light Upon eXtension (LUX) real-time PCR assay that can detect and quantify Borrelia species in ticks that have fed on humans, and we applied the assay to 399 such ticks. Borrelia PCR-positive ticks were identified to species level by sequencing the products of conventional PCR performed using Borrelia group-specific primers. There was a 19% prevalence of Borrelia spp. in the detached ticks, and the number of spirochetes per Borrelia PCR-positive tick ranged from 2.0 × 10(2) to 4.9 × 10(5), with a median of 7.8 × 10(3) spirochetes. Adult ticks had a significantly larger number of spirochetes, with a median of 8.4 × 10(3) compared to the median of nymphs of 4.4 × 10(3). [corrected] Adult ticks also exhibited a higher prevalence of Borrelia (33%) than nymphs (14%). Among the identified species, Borrelia afzelii was found to predominate (61%) and was followed by B. garinii (23%), B. valaisiana (13%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (1%), B. lusitaniae (1%), and B. miyamotoi-like (1%). Also, 3% of the ticks were coinfected with multiple strains of B. afzelii. Notably, this is the first report of B. lusitaniae being detected in ticks in Sweden. Our LUX real-time PCR assay proved to be more sensitive than a corresponding TaqMan assay. In conclusion, the novel LUX real-time PCR method is a rapid and sensitive tool for detection and quantification of Borrelia spp. in ticks.

PMID:
20844223
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3020888
Free PMC Article

The full article is here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3020888/
[snip]

Ixodes ricinus has been found in 23 of the 25 provinces in Sweden (9), but it is most common in the southern and central parts of the country and along the northeastern coast (14). Various investigators have described the prevalence and diversity of Borrelia in ticks collected in the field in Sweden (4, 8, 9, 14), and to date, five species of these bacteria have been recorded: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and also one that is closely related to B. miyamotoi, which is known to be associated with relapsing fever. According to the cited studies, the prevalence of Borrelia spp. in Sweden varies between 3% and 23%. However, detection was not achieved by real-time PCR in those investigations, and thus, no attempts were made to quantify the Borrelia spirochetes in the ticks. To our knowledge, no quantification of Borrelia spirochetes in ticks detached from humans has ever been performed.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20950628
J Theor Biol. 2011 Jan 21;269(1):96-103. Epub 2010 Oct 13.

Loop analysis for pathogens: niche partitioning in the transmission graph for pathogens of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis.

Davis S, Bent SJ.

Source

Yale School of Public Health, 60 College St., P.O. Box 208034, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Abstract

In population biology, loop analysis is a method of decomposing a life cycle graph into life history pathways so as to compare the relative contributions of pathways to the population growth rate across species and populations. We apply loop analysis to the transmission graph of five pathogens known to infect the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In this context loops represent repeating chains of transmission that could maintain the pathogen. They hence represent completions of the life cycle, in much the same way as loops in a life cycle graph do for plants and animals. The loop analysis suggests the five pathogens fall into two distinct groups. Borellia burgdorferi, Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum rely almost exclusively on a single loop representing transmission to susceptible larvae feeding on vertebrate hosts that were infected by nymphs. Borellia miyamotoi, in contrast, circulates among a separate set of host types and utilizes loops that are a mix of vertical transmission and horizontal transmission. For B. miyamotoi the main loop is from vertebrate hosts to susceptible nymphs, where the vertebrate hosts were infected by larvae that were infected from birth. The results for Powassan virus are similar to B. miyamotoi. The predicted impacts of the known variation in tick phenology between populations of I. scapularis in the Midwest and Northeast of the United States are hence markedly different for the two groups. All of these pathogens benefit, though, from synchronous activity of larvae and nymphs.

Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID:
20950628
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22000350
Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Oct;17(10):1816-23.

Humans infected with relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia.

Platonov AE, Karan LS, Kolyasnikova NM, Makhneva NA, Toporkova MG, Maleev VV, Fish D, Krause PJ.

Source

Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia.

Abstract

Borrelia miyamotoi is distantly related to B. burgdorferi and transmitted by the same hard-body tick species. We report 46 cases of B. miyamotoi infection in humans and compare the frequency and clinical manifestations of this infection with those caused by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi infection. All 46 patients lived in Russia and had influenza-like illness with fever as high as 39.5°C; relapsing febrile illness occurred in 5 (11%) and erythema migrans in 4 (9%). In Russia, the rate of B. miyamotoi infection in Ixodes persulcatus ticks was 1%-16%, similar to rates in I. ricinus ticks in western Europe and I. scapularis ticks in the United States. B. miyamotoi infection may cause relapsing fever and Lyme disease-like symptoms throughout the Holarctic region of the world because of the widespread prevalence of this pathogen in its ixodid tick vectors.

PMID:
22000350
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3310649
Free PMC Article


The full article is here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310649/
Borrelia miyamotoi, discovered in Japan in 1995, belongs to the relapsing fever group of Borrelia (1). Relapsing fever borreliae infections are characterized by influenza-like illness and >1 relapse episode of bacteremia and fever. B. miyamotoi is more distantly related to B. burgdorferi, a group of spirochetes that includes B. burgdorferi s.l. strains (B. afzelii; B. garinii; and B. burgdorferi s.s., the causative agent of Lyme disease) (2,3). In Eurasia and North America, B. miyamotoi is found in a small percentage of all species of ixodid tick vectors of B. burgdorferi, including Ixodes persulcatus (1,3,4), I. ricinus (5–7), I. scapularis (2,3,8,9), and I. pacificus (10). It is transmitted transovarially and transstadially by ticks and coexists with B. burgdorferi (2,3). Recently, we discovered B. miyamotoi in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks in the European and Asian regions of Russia. In these areas, human ixodid tick-borne infections, including those caused by B. afzelii, B. garinii, and viral tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV; genus Flavivirus) are endemic and transmitted by the same tick species.

Despite the presence of B. miyamotoi in vector ticks, to our knowledge, human disease caused by this spirochete has not been definitively established. We previously noted presumptive B. miyamotoi infection in residents of central Russia with influenza-like illness but were uncertain whether their clinical manifestations were caused by co-infecting B. burgdorferi s.l. species (11–13). To confirm those findings and develop initial estimates of the prevalence and severity of B. miyamotoi infection, we conducted a comparative cohort study. We used improved antibody assays and PCRs to compare the relative frequency and clinical manifestations of B. miyamotoi infection with those of B. garinii infection in Russia and B. burgdorferi infection in the United States.

[snip]

Therapy and Clinical Outcome

Antimicrobial drug therapy for the B. miyamotoi patients was started ≈1 week after admission when IgM-based serologic tests results confirmed the diagnosis (median 7 days, IQR 6–10 days). Therapy consisted of ceftriaxone, 2 g intravenously every 24 hours for 2 weeks (42 patients) or doxycycline 100 mg orally every 12 hours for 2 weeks (2 patients). Two patients received no antimicrobial drug while hospitalized; 1 later received doxycycline at home, and the other was readmitted to the hospital for relapse and received ceftriaxone. Patients with B. garinii infection received doxycycline (71%) or ceftriaxone (29%) immediately after admission because diagnosis of borreliosis, based on presence of EM, was made at the time of admission. B. burgdorferi patients all received doxycycline, 100 mg orally every 12 hours, or amoxicillin, 500 mg orally every 8 hours, for 2–4 weeks. A Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction was noted for 7 (15%) of the 46 B. miyamotoi patients. More such reactions might have been expected if treatment had not been delayed until ≈1 week after admission. A single course of ceftriaxone or doxycycline appeared to clear B. miyamotoi infection.

Relapsing Infection

Of the 46 B. miyamotoi patients, 5 (11%, 95% confidence interval 2%–20%) experienced relapse of febrile illness; 1 patient experienced 2 relapses before hospital admission, and 4 experienced 1 relapse after hospitalization but before the start of antimicrobial drug therapy. Thus, antimicrobial drugs might have prevented relapse in those who received this therapy. The mean time between relapses was 9 days (range 2 days to 2 weeks). The maximum fever and duration of illness did not differ significantly for the first and second episodes of illness (Figure 2). No clinical or laboratory findings indicated other infections (including blood-borne, skin, neurologic, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and urologic) or medical conditions that could account for these febrile episodes.

[snip]

B. miyamotoi infection may have negative health consequences, including relapsing disease that may last for months and may not respond to inappropriate antimicrobial drug therapy. The discovery of a Borrelia sp. that is pathogenic in humans and transmitted by an array of ixodid ticks greatly expands the potential geographic distribution of this disease (1–11). Further investigation of possible B. miyamotoi infection in humans is warranted wherever I. pacificus, I. persulcatus, I. ricinus, and I. scapularis ticks are found.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21421790
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 May;77(10):3244-54. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Investigation of genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected during surveillance in Canada.

Ogden NH, Margos G, Aanensen DM, Drebot MA, Feil EJ, Hanincová K, Schwartz I, Tyler S, Lindsay LR.

Source

Zoonoses Division, Centre for Food-Borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Jeanne Mance Building, 200 Eglantine, Tunney's Pasture, AL 1906B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0K9, Canada

Abstract

The genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the agent of Lyme disease in North America, has consequences for the performance of serological diagnostic tests and disease severity. To investigate B. burgdorferi diversity in Canada, where Lyme disease is emerging, bacterial DNA in 309 infected adult Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in surveillance was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis of outer surface protein C gene (ospC) alleles. Six ticks carried Borrelia miyamotoi, and one tick carried the novel species Borrelia kurtenbachii. 142 ticks carried B. burgdorferi sequence types (STs) previously described from the United States. Fifty-eight ticks carried B. burgdorferi of 1 of 19 novel or undescribed STs, which were single-, double-, or triple-locus variants of STs first described in the United States. Clonal complexes with founder STs from the United States were identified. Seventeen ospC alleles were identified in 309 B. burgdorferi-infected ticks. Positive and negative associations in the occurrence of different alleles in the same tick supported a hypothesis of multiple-niche polymorphism for B. burgdorferi in North America. Geographic analysis of STs and ospC alleles were consistent with south-to-north dispersion of infected ticks from U.S. sources on migratory birds. These observations suggest that the genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi in eastern and central Canada corresponds to that in the United States, but there was evidence for founder events skewing the diversity in emerging tick populations. Further studies are needed to investigate the significance of these observations for the performance of diagnostic tests and clinical presentation of Lyme disease in Canada.

PMID:
21421790
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3126474
Free PMC Article


The full article is here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3126474/
Discussion

In this study, we identified a wide diversity of B. burgdorferi STs, as well as the presence of other tick-borne Borrelia spp. These findings have significance for the diagnosis of Lyme disease, and the possible occurrence of disease caused by other tick-borne bacteria, in eastern and central Canada.

First, this study determined that, as well as carrying B. burgdorferi, I. scapularis ticks collected in Canada also carry relapsing-fever-like spirochetes, most likely B. miyamotoi. The implications for public health are currently uncertain, because it is not known whether this species is pathogenic to humans. The prevalence of ticks infected with these spirochetes in nature is likely to be higher than revealed in our study: the screening PCRs would not have been positive if ticks had been infected only with B. miyamotoi. We identified only ticks coinfected with B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi, not ticks that were infected with B. miyamotoi alone. Studies on questing I. scapularis in the United States have shown an approximate 1:10 ratio of B. miyamotoi to B. burgdorferi (3), while in our study the ratio was 1:24.

Second, one tick carried an entirely new Borrelia sp. (ST281), which was most closely related to B. bissetii, and we have proposed that it be named Borrelia kurtenbachii (26). Strains belonging to this bacterial species found in the United States, e.g., 25015, have been shown to be mildly pathogenic in mice (1, 10). However, determining that ticks collected in Canada can carry this Borrelia sp. and that ticks in Canada can carry B. miyamotoi raises the possibility (which needs further study) that infections in humans for which we currently have no diagnostic methods could be occurring in Canada. Therefore, the possible presence of these species needs to be taken into consideration in diagnosis of human and animal patients.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21923267
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Jan;12(1):21-7. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

Absence of Lyme disease spirochetes in larval Ixodes ricinus ticks.

Richter D, Debski A, Hubalek Z, Matuschka FR.

Source

Abt. Parasitologie, Institut für Pathologie, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Abstract

To determine which kind of spirochete infects larval Ixodes ricinus, we examined questing larvae and larvae derived from engorged females for the presence of particular spirochetal DNA that permitted species differentiation. Borrelia miyamotoi was the sole spirochete detected in larval ticks sampled while questing on vegetation. Questing nymphal and adult ticks were infected mainly by Borrelia afzelii, whereas larval ticks resulting from engorged females of the same population were solely infected by B. miyamotoi. Since larvae acquire Lyme disease spirochetes within a few hours of attachment to an infected rodent, questing larvae in nature may have acquired Lyme disease spirochetes from an interrupted host contact. Even if transovarial transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes may occasionally occur, it seems to be an exceedingly rare event. No undisputable proof exists for vertical transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes, whereas B. miyamotoi appears to be readily passed between generations of vector ticks.

PMID:
21923267
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

User avatar
panda
Posts: 279
Joined: Fri 20 Jul 2012 21:59

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by panda » Tue 16 Oct 2012 6:30

Parasit Vectors. 2012 Oct 11;5(1):231. [Epub ahead of print]
Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A.
Hamer SA, Hickling GJ, Keith R, Sidge JL, Walker ED, Tsao JI.


ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND: Wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and Ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, Borrelia miyamotoi and B. andersonii in a region of Michigan where the zoonotic pathogen B. burgdorferi co-circulates.

METHODS:
Over a four-year period, wild birds (n = 19,631) and rabbits (n = 20) were inspected for tick presence and ear tissue was obtained from rabbits. Samples were tested for Borrelia spirochetes using nested PCR of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS) and bidirectional DNA sequencing. Natural xenodiagnosis was used to implicate wildlife reservoirs.

RESULTS:
Ixodes dentatus, a tick that specializes on birds and rabbits and rarely bites humans, was the most common tick found, comprising 86.5% of the 12,432 ticks collected in the study. The relapsing fever group spirochete B. miyamotoi was documented for the first time in ticks removed from wild birds (0.7% minimum infection prevalence; MIP, in I. dentatus), and included two IGS strains. The majority of B. miyamotoi-positive ticks were removed from Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Borrelia andersonii infected ticks removed from birds (1.6% MIP), ticks removed from rabbits (5.3% MIP), and rabbit ear biopsies (5%) comprised twelve novel IGS strains. Six species of wild birds were implicated as reservoirs for B. andersonii. Frequency of I. dentatus larval and nymphal co-feeding on birds was ten times greater than expected by chance. The relatively well-studied ecology of I. scapularis and the Lyme disease pathogen provides a context for understanding how the phenology of bird ticks may impact B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii prevalence and host associations.

CONCLUSIONS:
Given the current invasion of I. scapularis, a human biting species that serves as a bridge vector for Borrelia spirochetes, human exposure to B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii in this region may increase. The presence of these spirochetes underscores the ecological complexity within which Borrelia organisms are maintained and the need for diagnostic tests to differentiate among these organisms.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23057837 [abstract]

http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/cont ... -5-231.pdf [provisional full text, pdf]


Camp Other
Posts: 996
Joined: Wed 2 Mar 2011 4:32
Contact:

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by Camp Other » Thu 13 Dec 2012 2:46

I bumped this because I keep mulling it over in my mind, wondering if this might be part of the problem with missed early diagnosis for patients - and why some might fail treatment.

How on the mark am I - or am I off base in being concerned about this?

According to the above Platonov (2011) paper RitaA cited (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310649/), it stated that ~15% of Ixodes scapularis ticks in northeastern US carried Borrelia miyamotoi. This number, from Fish's research, published back in 2001... How many ticks are carrying this relapsing fever organism now, a decade later?

The state health depts. are obviously already overwhelmed by Lyme disease reporting alone and epidemiolgical reports are being done by algorithm in cash-strapped state budgets - rather than using individual case reports. We don't know the actual number of Lyme disease cases reliably... how can we even know how many people have had B. miyamotoi because I doubt it's even on doctors' radars?

If you go to a site such as medscape and others, they state relapsing fevers come from soft bodied ticks. The news is not out there that Ixodes carry relapsing fever spirochetes - yet here they are. And according to the research cited on this thread and elsewhere, B. miyamotoi is less likely to present with a rash at the bite site.

If you look at the discussions had elsewhere about the time of attachment needed to transmit Lyme disease Borrelia from the tick to the host, I have to also wonder about this issue with B. miyamotoi. In soft bodied ticks, transmission of relapsing fever spirochetes is said to occur very quickly because soft bodied ticks attach and fall off their host after a quick feed. They are attached under an hour, not attached for days. So this brings up the question: How quickly does a relapsing fever spirochete get transmitted from a hard bodied tick to its mammalian host?

And then there is the issue of serotypes. I know that they found B. turicatae (see Cadavid et al) serotypes showed localization in different tissue types, i.e. one found in the blood, one found in the CNS... And relapsing fever spirochetes may be more neurotropic than a number of B. burgdorferi genotypes - but that's something that would need to be confirmed. I don't know, and it is true that some B. burgdorferi genotypes - including the most common and invasive ones - show up in the CNS, such as OspC A RST 1. But how quickly does this happen from time of inoculation to invasion of the CNS? And when looking at relapsing fever spirochetes, is there a huge time differential there as well, depending on type?

There is research showing that once relapsing fever spirochetes clear the blood, they can be isolated in the brain and not be detected by serological testing. They become a latent infection.

For all the comparisons many patients like to make between syphilis spirochetes - Treponema - and Lyme disease spirochetes - B. burgdorferi - maybe that kind of comparison needs to stop, and a serious comparison and analysis needs to be made between relapsing fever spirochetes and B. burgdorferi instead. Even those who talk about passing B. burgdorferi down in utero would do better to cite the case of relapsing fever which was passed from mother to child and reported to the CDC recently - rather than compare Lyme disease to syphilis, even if they do have some things in common.

There's more where this came from, but I guess I wanted to emphasize that it makes more sense to me to look at relapsing fever spirochetes as B. burgdorferi's closing living genetic relatives for comparison - rather than looking to syphilis as much as some people have.

Thoughts on all this?

Camp Other
Posts: 996
Joined: Wed 2 Mar 2011 4:32
Contact:

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by Camp Other » Thu 13 Dec 2012 4:01

By the way, miyamotoi does cross-react with B. burgdorferi serology, according to the Russian paper.

There is an old paper which compares serology for relapsing fever spirochetes with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, and the most consistent bands for relapsing fever are 60 and 41 kda.

See: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01710797 (full text can be downloaded from there)

Infection
1992, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 283-286
Relapsing fever and its serological discrimination from lyme borreliosis
Dr. med. P. -M. Rath, Prof. Dr. med. et Dipl. Chem. F. -J. Fehrenbach, Gertrud Rögler, Prof. Dr. med. H. D. Pohle, Dr. med. vet. A. Schönberg

The basic deal:

When testing B. hermsii (not miyamotoi - still looking for serology on miyamotoi) against B. burgdorferi immunoblot in early infection, here's how things shake out...

B. hermsii is Immunoblot IgM positive for B. burgdorferi (cross-reactive):
60 kda
41 kda (no surprise here)

B. hermsii is immunoblot IgG positive for B. burgdorferi (cross-reactive):
60
41
40
36
34
30
20 kda

One year later, Igm to Bb or Bh is not detectable.

IgG bands 60, 41, and 36 were still detectable.

Edited to Add:

Now this is interesting.

Does anyone know what the kda's were pre-Dearborn? The above paper was written 1992. If I do a head-to-head comparison between the above positive kda's for B. burgdorferi from B. hermsii sample against the CDC's IgM and IgG requirements for B. burgdorferi kda, here is how it looks:

B. hermsii is Immunoblot IgM positive for B. burgdorferi (cross-reactive):
60 kda
41 kda (no surprise here)

Required IgM bands for CDC positive B. burgdorferi test:
39 kda (BmpA)
41 kda (Fla)
24 kda (OspC)

B. hermsii is immunoblot IgG positive for B. burgdorferi (cross-reactive):
60
41
40
36
34
30
20 kda

Require 5 out of 10 of the following IgG bands for B. burgdorferi positive test:
93 kda
66
58
45
41 (Fla)
39 (BmpA)
30
28
21 (Osp C)
18

So it looks like only 41,39,30, and 21 may have potential overlap there, depending on how the blot is done.

Am I missing something?

Second Edit:

Here is a paper which appears to list the original reactive Borrelia antigens:
Serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis by Western immunoblot reactivity of various significant antibodies against B. burgdorferi. J Clin Microbial 1992; 30: 370-376.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article ... 62/?page=4

I imagine these would be the Pre-Dressler/Dearborn list?

94 kda
83
75
66
60
55
46
41
39
34
31
29
22
17 kda

Of the ones missing today I hadn't already listed for B. hermsii, 60 kda seems to be the main obvious one knocked out of CDC requirements.

Of course, I have to wonder how B. lonestari and B. miyamotoi are or are not cross-reactive to any of B. burgdorferi.

dorothy de kok
Posts: 64
Joined: Fri 2 Nov 2012 15:03

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by dorothy de kok » Thu 13 Dec 2012 9:21

Thanks for posting this CO.

I agree that the discussion around Lyme needs to be broadened to include RF. We know so little about Lyme so I don't know if adding another pile of unknown on top of that is going to help. But some questions may be answered along the way.

Have any studies been done to investigate long term sequelae of RF? I can't find anything.

RobertF
Posts: 65
Joined: Wed 25 Jul 2007 23:29
Location: The Netherlands
Contact:

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by RobertF » Thu 13 Dec 2012 15:03

The problem is that today we are dealing with 3rd generation Elisa which consits of recombinant antigens and the less as posible for increased specificity

Nohlmans et al. found in Dutch ticks large variatioan in OspA from 31-34kD
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC227892/

and Wang et al. found for OspC a rage from 21-25kD
http://cmr.asm.org/content/12/4/633.full.pdf

Latest study of Guang Xu et al. showed that the US has 18 genospecies based on OspC
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term ... %20methods
(for those who wants teh fulltext of this study mail me to borreliose@hotmail.com)

What we donot know is, what the antigenic variations in vivo are of these different genospecies

One thing is clear, the standaard Elisa will miss a lot.

Camp Other
Posts: 996
Joined: Wed 2 Mar 2011 4:32
Contact:

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by Camp Other » Thu 13 Dec 2012 22:11

RobertF wrote:The problem is that today we are dealing with 3rd generation Elisa which consits of recombinant antigens and the less as posible for increased specificity

Nohlmans et al. found in Dutch ticks large variatioan in OspA from 31-34kD
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC227892/

and Wang et al. found for OspC a rage from 21-25kD
http://cmr.asm.org/content/12/4/633.full.pdf

Latest study of Guang Xu et al. showed that the US has 18 genospecies based on OspC
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term ... %20methods
(for those who wants teh fulltext of this study mail me to borreliose@hotmail.com)

What we donot know is, what the antigenic variations in vivo are of these different genospecies

One thing is clear, the standaard Elisa will miss a lot.
As I see it, an added issue here is clinical suspicion.

There is a separate assay for relapsing fever out there - I'm assuming that in the areas of the US where soft bodied ticks are known to cause relapsing fever that some doctors at least have some familiarity with the disease and will use this assay and not one for Lyme disease... However, in areas of the country with Ixodes ticks, such as the northeast US, suspicion will be towards Lyme disease and an ELISA for that will be used - unless an EM rash and tick bite are physically obvious.

I guess one of my questions is how many of the relapsing fever bands are cross-reactive for other diseases? And of those, how many are treated with antibiotics if present, anyway?

But what my overriding concern was is the invisibility of the fact that hard bodied ticks can carry relapsing fever type spirochetes, and if these spirochetes produce a disease which is less likely to present with an EM rash, then it's more likely doctors will miss the case entirely.

I'm not sure how concerned to be about what I call uncertainties - such as do these spirochetes engage in any lateral gene transfer with non-relapsing fever spirochetes such as B. burgdorferi. If this occurs, what does that do to new population virulence? But I have no evidence this occurs (I've been looking, wondering if this happens) so I have focused more on the known issues.

Camp Other
Posts: 996
Joined: Wed 2 Mar 2011 4:32
Contact:

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by Camp Other » Thu 13 Dec 2012 22:17

dorothy de kok wrote:Thanks for posting this CO.

I agree that the discussion around Lyme needs to be broadened to include RF. We know so little about Lyme so I don't know if adding another pile of unknown on top of that is going to help. But some questions may be answered along the way.

Have any studies been done to investigate long term sequelae of RF? I can't find anything.
Dorothy, you might want to check out this link:
http://www.lymeneteurope.org/forum/view ... ?f=5&t=549

It contains a lot of papers on relapsing fever and Lyme disease in the brain, including residual brain infection in relapsing fever.

lou
Posts: 215
Joined: Fri 2 Nov 2007 0:41

Re: Borrelia miyamotoi

Post by lou » Thu 13 Dec 2012 23:41

I wonder if the tests for relapsing fever are accurate. Maybe there are any number of strains confusing the issue here. Someone should start testing patients for both, see what happens.

On the other hand, we know the tests in the U.S. anyway are designed to catch B31 of Bb so it would seem that any other strains or species that did not cross react would be missed too.

Post Reply