Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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The obtained results show that amoxicillin exhibited high extracellular but low
intracellular concentrations; azithromycin exhibited high intracellular but low extracellular
concentrations, clarithromycin exhibited high concentrations both intracellularly and
Therefore, amoxicillin, accordingly to results previously reported, has a very
limited intracellular penetration and leaves high concentrations in extracellular fluids. Thus it
can be used against pathogens proliferating in body fluids. On the contrary, azithromycin is
characterized by higher intracellular and relatively low extracellular concentrations thus it
should be particularly effective in the treatment of infections sustained by intracellular
pathogens. The azithromycin concentrations into extracellular fluid could be ineffective
against extracellular pathogens.
Clarithromycin seems to be equally distributed both intracellularly and
extracellularly, reaching active concentrations against pathogens proliferating in both areas.
An ideal antimicrobial drug should be able to penetrate into the cell reaching
antibacterial concentrations and maintain adequate extracellular active levels. In fact, if an
antimicrobial drug is too effectively transported or too efficiently stored into the cells, its
extracellular concentrations might be insufficient to clear pathogen from extracellular fluids.
Clarithromycin seems to have a well balanced intra and extracellular distribution,
thus can be effective in the eradication of intra and extracellular pathogens.