What does this prove? 2 infected males!!!!!Attempts at contact transmission of B. burgdorferi from 2 infected females to 2 uninfected male and 2 uninfected female hamsters and from 2 infected males to 2 uninfected male and uninfected female hamsters via urine or feces failed.
??????? full text not availableAlthough adult females seroconverted or had positive splenic cultures at 20 days gestation, the placentas and fetuses were uniformly culture-negative
A distinction has to be made about the American an European Borrelia. From literatur it is known that the European genospecies differs from teh American. They differ in virulence, symptoms, transmission speed, EM appearance etc.Current laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis relies on tests for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi with known limitations. By using a simple extraction procedure for urine samples, B. burgdorferi DNA was amplified by a nested PCR with primers that target the specific part of the flagellin gene. To control possible inhibition of the enzyme (polymerase), a special assay using the same primers was developed. We examined 403 urine samples from 185 patients with skin manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Before treatment, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 88 of 97 patients with Lyme borreliosis. After treatment, all but seven patients became nonreactive. Six of these seven persons suffered from intermittent migratory arthralgias or myalgias, and one from acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Two of 49 control patients with various dermatologic disorders and none out of 22 presumably healthy persons were reactive in the PCR. In addition to urine, breast milk from two lactating women with erythema migrans was tested and also found reactive. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA can be detected with high sensitivity (91%) by a nested PCR in urine of patients with Lyme borreliosis. In addition, this test can be a reliable marker for the efficacy of treatment.
There is no European study that proves that sexual transmission does not exist.
The absence of prove is not a prove of absence.
You may wonder why after after 30 years there has never been a study about this subject.
Anyway Lyme disease is easy to cure with 14 days of AB and seldom become chronic and when relapses occur it is because of reinfections.
As soon as there is a vaccine available you will see that Lyme become a venereal disease because of the potential market.
ORAL INFECTIONZentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):49-54.
Experimental inoculation of dogs with Borrelia burgdorferi.
To determine if dogs could serve as a reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi, three beagles were inoculated subcutaneously (SQ) with 200 laboratory cultured spirochetes which were originally isolated from blood of a Peromyscus leucopus from Ft. McCoy, Wisc. One four month old beagle was inoculated SQ with 5 ground Ixodes dammini from Shelter Island, N.Y. which came from an area with a 50% B. burgdorferi tick infection rate; and another uninfected four month old beagle was housed loose on the floor with the tick inoculated dog. All three spirochete inoculated beagles developed IFA antibody titers to B. burgdorferi of (7 log2) to (8 log2) by day 28 post inoculation. All were apparently healthy and no spirochetes were cultured from the blood. In an attempt to exacerbate the disease two of the dogs were given 3 mg of dexamethasone on day 68 post inoculation. B. burgdorferi was isolated from blood of all these dogs on days 4 and 97 days post inoculation. The tick inoculated dog developed a B. burgdorferi IFA antibody titer of (10 log2) by day 14 post inoculation. The contact exposed dog also developed a B. burgdorferi IFA antibody titer of (7 log2) on post contact day 21 indicating contact infection. B. burgdorferi was not isolated from either of these dogs. These results indicate that, contact transmission of B. burgdorferi may occur between dogs, dogs can be subclinically infected with B. burgdorferi and have persistent infections.
Other transmission routesAm J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 Mar;36(2):402-7.
Oral infection of Peromyscus maniculatus with Borrelia burgdorferi and subsequent transmission by Ixodes dammini.
Burgess EC, Patrican LA.
We determined if deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) could be infected by Borrelia burgdorferi and develop sufficient spirochetemia to infect larval Ixodes dammini. Ten P. maniculatus were infected orally with 0.05 ml phosphate buffered saline containing approximately 400 B. burgdorferi. On days 21 or 28 after infection (AI) larval I. dammini were fed on the deer mice. Each of the P. maniculatus developed antibodies (up to 7 log2) to B. burgdorferi and B. burgdorferi was isolated from the blood of 1 deer mouse on day 51 AI. Nymphs resulting from these larvae were then allowed to feed on 10 uninfected P. maniculatus. All 10 of these tick-infected P. maniculatus developed antibodies (up to 7 log2) to B. burgdorferi, and B. burgdorferi was isolated from the blood of 1 of the 10 P. maniculatus 15 days after tick feeding and from the pooled organs of another of the tick-infected P. maniculatus. Six of the orally infected P. maniculatus developed clinical signs including ruffled hair coat, inappetence, reluctance to move, and lameness in the rear legs. All P. maniculatus tissues were grossly and histologically normal on necropsy. These findings show that P. maniculatus are susceptible to oral infection and develop sufficient spirochetemias to infect I. dammini larvae.
Am J Vet Res. 1992 Sep;53(9):1507-11.
Experimentally induced infection of cats with Borrelia burgdorferi.
To determine whether cats could be infected experimentally with Borrelia burgdorferi, 15 cats were inoculated with approximately 1,000 B burgdorferi. Seven cats were inoculated by the IV route, 2 by the oral route, 2 by the ocular route, and 4 by the oral-ocular route. Six control cats were inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline solution by the IV, oral, and ocular routes. Prior to the start of the study, all 21 cats were seronegative for B burgdorferi on the basis of results of the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test, and their blood was B burgdorferi culture negative. All of the IV, orally, and ocularly inoculated cats developed IgG antibodies to B burgdorferi as detected by IFA testing. Of 4 oral-ocularly inoculated cats, 2 developed IFA-detectable antibodies and the remaining 2 cats developed low-titer response (1:128) on postinoculation (PI) day 10 only. All control cats remained seronegative. The organism was detected in blood smears from 2 of the IV inoculated cats on PI days 10 and 24 and from 2 oral-ocularly infected cats, 1 on PI days 17 and 24 and 1 on PI day 10. Spirochetes were not detected in the blood after PI day 24. The organism was isolated from tissues of only 1 cat (the lung of an ocularly inoculated cat necropsied at 7 months after inoculation). Spirochetes were not isolated from control cats. Neither clinical signs of infection nor gross or histologic abnormalities were found in any of the inoculated or control cats. Results indicate that cats are susceptible to infection with B burgdorferi, but clinically apparent disease may not be common.