Effects of Borrelia on host immune system

Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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RitaA
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Joined: Thu 1 Jul 2010 8:33

Effects of Borrelia on host immune system

Post by RitaA » Tue 3 Feb 2015 6:25

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 2614000601
Effects of Borrelia on host immune system: Possible consequences for diagnostics

Mualla McManus, , ,
Ann Cincotta

Tick Borne Diseases Unit, School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), University of Sydney, 2006 NSW, Australia

Received 10 August 2014, Accepted 6 November 2014, Available online 12 January 2015

doi:10.1016/j.aimed.2014.11.002

Abstract

Borreliosis, Lyme disease, is the fastest growing tick borne infection in the world. Annually 300,000 (0.094%) people are diagnosed in the USA.

Objective

To clarify and aid in the understanding of the indirect diagnostics of Borreliosis in the light of immune dysfunction.

Diagnosis is difficult not only due to multi-systemic and nonspecific nature of symptoms but also due to the indirect diagnostics assuming immuno-competence in all three stages of Borreliosis. Indirect diagnostics are the most common method of testing for Borreliosis as they are cheap and convenient. However due to wide variation in antigenicity of genospecies, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostics can be questioned. Evidence is accumulating which suggests that immune dysregulation induced by Borrelia (and other tick borne infections) can impact the indirect diagnostics, especially in Stage 3. The direct detection of Borrelia using nucleotide amplification method is possible but wider usage of this method is difficult as it has high specificity and narrow sensitivity. In vitro culturing is ideal but difficult as Borrelia has fastidious growth requirements.

Conclusions

The immune status of the borreliosis patient needs to be considered, especially in Stage 3 in conjunction with clinical symptoms in the diagnosis. Borrelia has the ability to manipulate both the innate and active immunity and alter the cytokines secreted hence alter the path of the immune response. Immune parameters such as IFN-gamma/IL-10, lymphocyte markers, complement C3a, C4a, and total immunoglobulin levels may help to discriminate between stages and monitor treatment outcomes. The level of immune dysfunction in Stage 3 may depend on the number of co-infections delivered by a tick bite, such as Babesia, and Rickettsia, the genospecies of Borrelia, other pathogens, the patients’ biome and immunogenetics.

Keywords

Lyme disease; Borreliosis; Immune response; Immune dysfunction; Diagnostics; ELISA; Immunoblot; Stage 3 Borreliosis; Borrelia genospecies; Stages of Lyme disease (Borreliosis)

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ChronicLyme19
Posts: 564
Joined: Mon 11 Aug 2014 17:42
Location: NY, USA

Re: Effects of Borrelia on host immune system

Post by ChronicLyme19 » Tue 3 Feb 2015 14:49

Oh wow, interesting find RitaA. This is the first time I've ever seen some of these called out in relation to Lyme.
Immune parameters such as IFN-gamma/IL-10, lymphocyte markers, complement C3a, C4a, and total immunoglobulin levels may help to discriminate between stages and monitor treatment outcomes.
I've had only a few things turn up weird in my blood work:
Slightly high MCH
Low C3 and C4
Trashed immunoglobulin levels
Every once in a while my AST/ALT will run a little high

And there's the explanation for my low C3 and C4 levels, and further evidence immunoglobulin levels were at least in part caused by Lyme.
Half of what you are taught is incorrect, but which half? What if there's another half missing?

hv808ct
Posts: 256
Joined: Wed 30 Jul 2008 4:11

Re: Effects of Borrelia on host immune system

Post by hv808ct » Tue 3 Feb 2015 15:50

Re: Effects of Borrelia on host immune system
Postby ChronicLyme19 » Tue 3 Feb 2015 14:49

Oh wow, interesting find RitaA. This is the first time I've ever seen some of these called out in relation to Lyme.
Don’t get too excited. This is a data-free, lit review written by a Lyme activist and dues-paying ILADS member who thinks her husband died of LD Down Under. Her conclusion from reading the literature is: “Understanding the immune dysregulation induced by Borrelia and co-infections can aid the interpretation of diagnostics and improve diagnosis of Borreliosis.”

Leaving aside the fact that most successful pathogens—by definition--exploit various components and regulators of the immune system, one doesn’t see much trouble in the decades-old, two-tier antibody test for HIV—the ultimate effector of immune dysfunction. This review is simply an extension of the activist argument that a negative LD test is wrong because __________. Fill in the blank. In this case, it’s immune dysfunction.


“Dr Mualla McManus is an expert on the evidence and dilemma of testing for Lyme Disease and will speak of its unacknowledged presence in Australia. McManus’s husband died of the disease and the foundation was begun in his name. Even in the face of increasing evidence, medical authorities in Australia still deny that we have Lyme Disease in Australia and treatment is being denied to the sufferers of the disease. Testing facilities in Australia are inadequate.”

Dr Mualla McManus – BSci (Hons) (immunology), BPharm, MSc. (haematology), PhD (neurology), MBA, AACP, MPS, ILADS member.

Ms. Ann Cincotta – BPharm, DHP

Dr Ann Mitrovic – BSci, PhD (Pharmacology) Noted in the Acknowledgement.

velvetmagnetta
Posts: 469
Joined: Sun 23 Feb 2014 22:47

Re: Effects of Borrelia on host immune system

Post by velvetmagnetta » Wed 4 Feb 2015 4:54

It's probably going to take spouses, parents, and children of Lyme sufferers who have died from the disease to effect change in the direction of Lyme research. That new direction being, specifically, forward.

lou
Posts: 215
Joined: Fri 2 Nov 2007 0:41

Re: Effects of Borrelia on host immune system

Post by lou » Sun 15 Mar 2015 1:27

I agree velvet. We sure can't rely on the medical establishment which has found the rewards of denial to exceed those of honesty.

velvetmagnetta
Posts: 469
Joined: Sun 23 Feb 2014 22:47

Re: Effects of Borrelia on host immune system

Post by velvetmagnetta » Sun 15 Mar 2015 11:00

lou wrote:I agree velvet. We sure can't rely on the medical establishment which has found the rewards of denial to exceed those of honesty.
Yes, Lou. I've read in some of your other posts how you are trying to understand what possible motive people going into the medical field to become healers would have to disparage and insult suffering patients, denying them care whether they really do have Lyme disease or if not, not even trying to find out what it is that they do have. What is that mindset? How did it come to be? Is it due to a massive, world-wide bio-weapon cover-up? Or is it a massive, world-wide incompetency cover-up?

(I tend to believe the latter...)

And now that it's all out in the open, now that everybody knows how poorly this epidemic has been managed especially with the Desperate Housewives' Yolanda Foster very publicly and desperately seeking treatment outside the United States, how will the entrenched, anti-chronic Lyme crowd respond?

I hope they will finally see that the after-effects of a Lyme infection (whether due to a current or past infection) are much more severe than just a little fatigue and joint pain. Our lives have been completely disrupted! Many of us are unable to work, bed-ridden, and in serious overwhelming pain. Why? What is causing all this pain and debility?

I cannot fathom how the CDC can post right out in the open for all us incredibly sick people to see, that the supposed 20% of us who experience treatment failure and are staying ill indefinitely, that they don't know why we are still sick, but it's probably due to some kind of Lyme-induced immune deficiency...or something. And, since other diseases can leave the body ravaged, then why not Lyme?

They acknowledge that 20% of us, 20% of 300,000 is 60,000...60,000 people every damn year will not get better with antibiotics! So, in 5 years, there will be a minimum of 300,000 people becoming sick and disabled and unable to work, collecting disability from the government, losing jobs, friends, depending on family to survive, losing quality of life...losing happiness.

But all the CDC has to say is that it might be due to some immune deficiency thingy or something like that. Whatever. You probably will get better. Maybe. Oh well. We're not even going to find out why.

It's probably this...It could be that.

Well, which is it? How can you, in good conscience, give us guesses with no hope or even interest in finding out what it is that's wrong with us...let alone how to make us better?




And hv808ct, I don't know if you've had any medical training, but comparing the immune dysfunction caused by HIV with the proposed immune dysregulation caused by the Lyme spirochete is just...completely wrong. Not even apples and oranges. That's like comparing apples and poodles! wtf?

It's just...I don't know what to say. Crack open a biology textbook someday and study the intricacies involved in an HIV infection and what it does to the human immune system and how it does it. The way it is proposed that the Lyme bacteria hides from, fools, and messes up the immune complement system is utterly and completely different from the way the (HIV) human immunodeficiency virus infects and sets up shop in the human body.

My God. There are plenty of peer-reviewed research papers on the subject. Read one!

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