[Tick-borne neuroinfections: Clinical characteristics, immunopathogenesis, and new pharmacotherapeutic strategies]

Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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[Tick-borne neuroinfections: Clinical characteristics, immunopathogenesis, and new pharmacotherapeutic strategies]

Post by RitaA » Thu 12 Jan 2017 8:28

Ter Arkh. 2016;88(11):55-61.

[Tick-borne neuroinfections: Clinical characteristics, immunopathogenesis, and new pharmacotherapeutic strategies].

[Article in Russian]

Kon'kova-Reidman AB1.

Author information

1South Ural State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Chelyabinsk, Russia.


AIM:To study the semiotics of neurological lesions in patients with tick-borne encephalitis, Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITBB) and mixed infection (MI), their immunopathogenesis, and the possibilities of current pathogenetic pharmacological correction.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A total of 220 patients with tick-borne encephalitis, ITBB, and MI concurrent with the syndromes of central nervous system lesions were examined. The immunological studies encompassed the examination of mononuclear cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the population and subpopulation composition of lymphocytes, and nitroxidergic processes in the serum and CSF from the total level of final stable nitric oxide metabolites. For pharmacotherapeutic correction, the metabolic drug cytoflavin was used as newly indicated.

RESULTS:Cytofluorometric analysis of the CSF cellular composition showed the mononuclear cell predominance of CD3+ (58.6%), CD4+ (57.2%), CD8+ (16.8%) lymphocytes and monocytes (34.4%), which expressed the phenotypic marker CD14+. This reflects the nature of a local immune response: an increase in the immunoregulatory index CD4+/CD8+ from 3.4 to 5.6, respectively, while the normal proportion of these cells in the blood ranges from 1.5 to 2.2. CSF lymphocytes were found to be ready for Fas-mediated apoptosis dependent on the receptor (CD95+ was 64.3%).There was a correlation using the pair correlation coefficient between the total concentration of the metabolites of the nitroxide molecule and the percentage of CD14+ (r=0.5; p<0.05). The paired Wilcoxon test was used to analyze serum NO2, NO3, and NOx, which revealed significant differences in nitrites [2.70 (1.90, 2.95; p=0.001)] and total NO metabolites [18.00 (18.00, 22.60; p=0.006)] and statistically significant changes in nitrates [13.29 (15.70. 20.30; p=0.075)] in patients receiving cytoflavin infusions.

CONCLUSION:The immune response of Th-1 forms between the CSF phagocytic, antigen-presenting, and immunocompetent lymphocytes in patients with tick-borne neuroinfections. The use of cytoflavin as an agent for neurotransmitter support to correct nitroxidergic processes is pathogenetically justified.

PMID: 28005032
[PubMed - in process]
I did a search on LNE using "Cytoflavin" and there were no hits. Russian researchers have apparently been quite busy studying the positive effects of Cytoflavin -- something that is apparently not available in North America.

My apologies for not having the time to research this more extensively or even provide you with a link, however I believe that Cytoflavin consists of Riboflavin [aka Vitamin B2], Succinic Acid, Inosine and Nicotinamide [aka Vitamin B3].

Here are some earlier studies that suggest a positive effect when Cytoflavin has been used in treating certain groups of patients:

Antibiot Khimioter. 2010;55(1-2):36-41.

[Efficacy of cytoflavin in therapy of encephalophathy in patients with neuroinfection].

[Article in Russian]

Isakov VA, Kovalenko AL, Turkin VV, Makarov VI.


The use of cytoflavin solution in complex therapy of patients with neuroinfection was studied. It showed a favourable effect on the disease clinical process, evident from less pronounced intoxication and meningeal signs by the 11th day of the treatment and improvement of the liquorological picture. The cytoflavin efficacy was also confirmed by normalization of the brain bioelectric activity evident from the electroencephalograms and by reduction of the level of antioxidants, such as metalloproteids and superoxidodismutase, that was in favour of the drug antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects. The use of cytoflavin tablets during in early convalescence period promoted earlier recovery of the intellectual and mnestic reactions. On the whole, the use of cytoflavin promoted favourable process and outcomes of neuroinfections and could be recommended for the use during the acute state and re habilitation of the patients.

PMID: 20583556
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2011;111(3):25-30.

[The complex energy correction of chronic brain ischemia].

[Article in Russian]

Suslina ZA, Rumiantseva SA, Tanashian MM, Skoromets AA, Klocheva EG, Fedin AI, Kovalenko AL, Silina EV, Sholomov II.


Considerable disturbance of all quality of life domains that worsens social adaptation and daily living and results in an asthenic-neurotic syndrome, along with neurologic and mnestic-intellectual disturbances, was revealed in patients with chronic brain ischemia (stages I, II, III). Based on the results of the double blind placebo-controlled trial, the high clinical efficacy of cytoflavin in patients with chronic brain ischemia has been shown. The treatment with cytoflavin decreases the severity of subjective symptoms and complaints thus increasing the working ability of patients, improves balance and gait, decreases the severity of asthenic and neurotic syndromes, improves cognitive and memory functions (information storage, reasoning and attention), positively effects on quality of sleep and all aspects of quality of life, in particular, on physical activity, self-rating of health and viability as well as social activity, mental health and emotional lability.

PMID: 21423112
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2011;111(9):28-31.

[Cytoflavin in the complex treatment of neuroinfections in children].

[Article in Russian]

Skripchenko NV, Egorova ES.


The results of using cytoflavin in the complex treatment of bacterial purulent meningitis and viral encephalitis in 60 children, aged from 1 month to 18 years, are presented. Clinical efficacy of the drug revealed by the decrease in the frequency of residual presentations and reduction of recovery time was demonstrated. The drug had an effect on the endothelial dysfunction, rheologic blood properties, coagulation blood system as a whole and vascular tone as well. Cytoflavin can be recommended in complex pathogenetic treatment of neuroinfections in children.

PMID: 22027666
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

I'll do my best to return to this topic in the not-too-distant future. In the meantime, I would encourage anyone who might be interested to see what they are able to discover.

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Joined: Sun 7 Apr 2013 15:36

Re: [Tick-borne neuroinfections: Clinical characteristics, immunopathogenesis, and new pharmacotherapeutic strategies]

Post by dlf » Thu 12 Jan 2017 16:36

Here is a link to the company that makes it:



POLYSAN Scientific & Technological Pharmaceutical Company is a Russian manufacturer of original drugs - Cycloferon, Reamberin, Cytoflavin and Remaxol. It was established in 1992 by a small creative team of scientists and business people, now POLYSAN has developed into a modern pharmaceutical company with its own high-tech production and R&D facilities.

And another link to the page for Cytoflavin (although there is very little information on the page):


Looking around the website might provide a little more information, but likely not about the formulation of the product.........However, among other things to look at you can take a "virtual tour" of the plant by clicking on the arrows.


Posts: 215
Joined: Fri 2 Nov 2007 0:41

Re: [Tick-borne neuroinfections: Clinical characteristics, immunopathogenesis, and new pharmacotherapeutic strategies]

Post by lou » Fri 13 Jan 2017 2:13

Which is more than is being done in the USA.

I've been to Russia, years ago. Maybe time for a return trip.

However, about ten years ago now, a Russian lyme patient came to the US, in hopes of getting diagnosed/treated for lyme disease. Went to a big name place, the Cleveland Clinic, where they took all his money (which came from the sale of his mother's house) did not diagnose or treat him, and when he would not leave, they called the police.

He had come prepared with a biopsy photo showing a spirochete.

So, let us hope that Russia is now doing a better job with lyme disease.

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