I.scapularis Ticks Collected by Surveillance in Canada

General or non-medical topics with information and discussion related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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Yvonne
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I.scapularis Ticks Collected by Surveillance in Canada

Post by Yvonne » Tue 29 Apr 2008 11:02

Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected by Passive Surveillance in Canada: Analysis of Geographic Distribution and Infection with Lyme Borreliosis Agent Borrelia burgdorferi

Passive surveillance for the occurrence of the tick Ixodes scapularis Say (1821) and their infection with the Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. has taken place in Canada since early 1990. Ticks have been submitted from members of the public, veterinarians, and medical practitioners to provincial, federal, and university laboratories for identification, and the data have been collated and B. burgdorferi detected at the National Microbiology Laboratory. The locations of collection of 2,319 submitted I. scapularis were mapped, and we investigated potential risk factors for I. scapularis occurrence (in Québec as a case study) by using regression analysis and spatial statistics. Ticks were submitted from all provinces east of Alberta, most from areas where resident I. scapularis populations are unknown. Most were adult ticks and were collected in spring and autumn. In southern Québec, risk factors for tick occurrence were lower latitude and remote-sensed indices for land cover with woodland. B. burgdorferi infection, identified by conventional and molecular methods, was detected in 12.5% of 1,816 ticks, including 10.1% of the 256 ticks that were collected from humans and tested. Our study suggests that B. burgdorferi-infected I. scapularis can be found over a wide geographic range in Canada, although most may be adventitious ticks carried from endemic areas in the United States and Canada by migrating birds. The risk of Lyme borreliosis in Canada may therefore be mostly low but more geographically widespread than previously suspected

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Yvonne
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Re: I.scapularis Ticks Collected by Surveillance in Canada

Post by Yvonne » Tue 29 Apr 2008 11:06

Investigation of Ground Level and Remote-Sensed Data for Habitat Classification and Prediction of Survival of Ixodes scapularis in Habitats of Southeastern Canada

In southeastern Canada, most populations of Ixodes scapularis Say, the Lyme disease vector, occur in Carolinian forests. Climate change projections suggest a northward range expansion of I. scapularis this century, but it is unclear whether more northerly habitats are suitable for I. scapularis survival. In this study, we assessed the suitability of woodlands of the Lower Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Plain region for I. scapularis by comparing tick egg survival in four different woodlands. Woodlands where I. scapularis are established, and sand dune where I. scapularis do not survive, served as positive and negative control sites, respectively. At two woodland sites, egg survival was the same as at the positive control site, but at two of the sites survival was significantly less than either the positive control site, or one of the other test sites. Egg survival in all woodland sites was significantly higher than in the sand dune site. Ground level habitat classification discriminated among woodlands in which tick survival differed. The likelihood that I. scapularis populations could persist in the different habitats, as deduced using a population model of I. scapularis, was significantly associated with variations in Landsat 7 ETM+ data (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI] and Tasselled Cap indices). The NDVI index predicted habitat suitability at Long Point, Ontario, with high sensitivity but moderate specificity. Our study suggests that I. scapularis populations could establish in more northerly woodland types than those in which they currently exist. Suitable habitats may be detected by ground-level habitat classification, and remote-sensed data may assist this process

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Yvonne
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Re: I.scapularis Ticks Collected by Surveillance in Canada

Post by Yvonne » Wed 28 Apr 2010 14:05

http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/pro ... ase_cd.pdf

Infectious Diseases Protocol, 2009

Appendix B: Provincial Case Definitions for Reportable Diseases

Disease: Lyme Disease :

http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/pro ... ase_cd.pdf
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Yvonne
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Re: I.scapularis Ticks Collected by Surveillance in Canada

Post by Yvonne » Wed 28 Apr 2010 14:10

http://ehsehplp03.niehs.nih.gov/article ... hp.0901766

Active and Passive Surveillance, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Elucidate the Process of Lyme Disease Risk Emergence in Canada
Abstract


Background: Northward expansion of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis is driving Lyme disease (LD) emergence in Canada. Information on mechanisms involved is needed to enhance surveillance here, and identify where LD risk is emerging.

Objectives: Passive and active surveillance, and phylogeographic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi were used to investigate LD risk emergence in Quebec.

Methods: In active surveillance, ticks were collected from the environment and captured rodents. B. burgdorferi transmission was detected by serological analysis of rodents and polymerase chain reaction assays of ticks. Spatiotemporal trends in passive surveillance data assisted interpretation of active surveillance. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of B. burgdorferi in ticks identified likely source locations of B. burgdorferi.

Results: In active surveillance, I. scapularis were found at 55% of sites, and were more likely to be found at sites with a warmer climate. B. burgdorferi was identified at 13 I. scapularis-positive sites but infection prevalence in ticks and animal hosts was low. Low infection prevalence in ticks submitted in passive surveillance after 2004, from the tick-positive regions identified in active surveillance, coincided with an exponential increase in tick submissions at this time. MLST analysis suggested recent introduction of B. burgdorferi from northeastern USA.

Conclusions: These data are consistent with I. scapularis ticks dispersed from the USA, by migratory birds, founding populations where the climate is warmest, then establishment of B. burgdorferi from the USA several years after I. scapularis have established. These observations provide vital information for public health to minimize the impact of LD in Canada.

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Yvonne
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Re: I.scapularis Ticks Collected by Surveillance in Canada

Post by Yvonne » Fri 13 Aug 2010 10:10

http://www.globalsaskatoon.com/Lyme+dis ... story.html

Lyme disease carrying tick in Nova Scotia
The Nova Scotia department of health confirms that disease-spreading ticks have been spotted in the province.


The tiny blacklegged tick, or deer tick, can be a carrier of Lyme disease.


Symptoms often start with a bulls-eye rash, followed by a fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. A bite can also lead to more severe symptoms, such as facial palsy, chronic joint problems, and heart problems.


On Tuesday, the province’s department of health confirmed that the parasites have been found in Pictou County – and that means a likely increase in Lyme disease.


The department says there have been 50 cases of Lyme disease in the province since 2002. 39 of those cases stem from insect bites.


However, a board member from the Canadian Lyme Foundation believes the problem is much more widespread. Larry Burke says that the number of cases is in the hundreds.


In Bedford, several residents living on Snowy Owl Drive have contracted Lyme disease. The area borders Admiral Park, where tick-infected deer often travel.


Greg Maloney, a Lyme disease patient, says the lack of action to combat Black Tick leaves Nova Scotia residents at great risk, especially because Lyme disease is not easy to diagnose. He says that because the disease emulates many other types of diseases, Lyme disease is often misdiagnosed.

Lyme disease is treatable with antibiotics, but it can lead to a lifetime of recurring symptoms.
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