Intracellular Borrelia

General or non-medical topics with information and discussion related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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Intracellular Borrelia

Post by X-member » Wed 28 Dec 2011 18:57

In this topic we can post info about that.

From Norway (Brorson):

http://www.siv.no/webpro/dokument/56400 ... tikkel.pdf
Når Borrelia er lokalisert intracellulært, vil B-lactamantibiotika
ikke klare å utrydde bakterien. Tetracykliner og makrolider
vil da være mer effektive.
Translation (with google translate and me):
When Borrelia is localized intracellularly, B-lactamantibiotics
not be able to eradicate the bacterium. Tetracyclines and macrolides
will then be more effective.
Last edited by X-member on Mon 20 Feb 2012 21:40, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by X-member » Wed 28 Dec 2011 19:15

Lida Mattman:

http://www.avonhistory.org/bug/l2.htm
Pointing to the screen, Mattman announced that we were the first audience to see a remarkable photo of Multiple Sclerosis spinal fluid mixed with red blood cells. The red blood cells on the screen were filled with many spirochetes that were also seen emerging from the red blood cells....

The spirochetes weren't only in the red blood cells, they PREFER the red blood cells. With this observation, Mattman feels that persistent infection could be attributed to the fact that antibiotics do not easily penetrate the red blood cell to target the spirochete.
I told you (in another topic), that I (in my own microscope when I added a high dose of Doxy to the blood on the glass) I obsevered one spiro that was on it's way out (from a blood cell) quickly went inside (into the blood cell) again.

This had nothing to do with my Lyme diagnose, and the skilled Swedish microbiologists confirmation that it IS Lyme bacteria that I have in my blood, that I talked about (in another topic). One member asked me about this, but this was not the case. The blood cell and the spiro that went inside the blood cell again in my blood was my own observation!
Last edited by X-member on Wed 28 Dec 2011 20:11, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by X-member » Wed 28 Dec 2011 19:25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173306
Infect Immun. 2011 Mar;79(3):1338-48. Epub 2010 Dec 20.
Invasion of eukaryotic cells by Borrelia burgdorferi requires β(1) integrins and Src kinase activity.
Wu J, Weening EH, Faske JB, Höök M, Skare JT.
Source407 Reynolds Medical Building, Department of Microbial and Molecular Pathogenesis, College of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843-1114, USA.

Abstract
Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most widespread tick-borne infection in the northern hemisphere that results in a multistage disorder with concomitant pathology, including arthritis. During late-stage experimental infection in mice, B. burgdorferi evades the adaptive immune response despite the presence of borrelia-specific bactericidal antibodies. In this study we asked whether B. burgdorferi could invade fibroblasts or endothelial cells as a mechanism to model the avoidance from humorally based clearance. A variation of the gentamicin protection assay, coupled with the detection of borrelial transcripts following gentamicin treatment, indicated that a portion of B. burgdorferi cells were protected in the short term from antibiotic killing due to their ability to invade cultured mammalian cells. Long-term coculture of B. burgdorferi with primary human fibroblasts provided additional support for intracellular protection. Furthermore, decreased invasion of B. burgdorferi in murine fibroblasts that do not synthesize the β(1) integrin subunit was observed, indicating that β(1)-containing integrins are required for optimal borrelial invasion. However, β(1)-dependent invasion did not require either the α(5)β(1) integrin or the borrelial fibronectin-binding protein BBK32. The internalization of B. burgdorferi was inhibited by cytochalasin D and PP2, suggesting that B. burgdorferi invasion required the reorganization of actin filaments and Src family kinases (SFK), respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that B. burgdorferi can invade and retain viability in nonphagocytic cells in a process that may, in part, help to explain the phenotype observed in untreated experimental infection.

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by X-member » Wed 28 Dec 2011 19:27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17045505
Microbes Infect. 2006 Nov-Dec;8(14-15):2832-40. Epub 2006 Sep 22.
Invasion of human neuronal and glial cells by an infectious strain of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Livengood JA, Gilmore RD Jr.
SourceCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-borne Infectious Diseases, 3150 Rampart Road, CSU Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA.

Abstract
Human infection by Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent for Lyme disease, can result in serious acute and late-term disorders including neuroborreliosis, a degenerative condition of the peripheral and central nervous systems. To examine the mechanisms involved in the cellular pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis, we investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to attach to and/or invade a panel of human neuroglial and cortical neuronal cells. In all neural cells tested, we observed B. burgdorferi in association with the cell by confocal microscopy. Further analysis by differential immunofluorescent staining of external and internal organisms, and a gentamicin protection assay demonstrated an intracellular localization of B. burgdorferi. A non-infectious strain of B. burgdorferi was attenuated in its ability to associate with these neural cells, suggesting that a specific borrelial factor related to cellular infectivity was responsible for the association. Cytopathic effects were not observed following infection of these cell lines with B. burgdorferi, and internalized spirochetes were found to be viable. Invasion of neural cells by B. burgdorferi provides a putative mechanism for the organism to avoid the host's immune response while potentially causing functional damage to neural cells during infection of the CNS.

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by X-member » Wed 28 Dec 2011 19:34

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15065567
Microbes Infect. 2004 Mar;6(3):312-8.
Survival strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease.
Embers ME, Ramamoorthy R, Philipp MT.
SourceTulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA.

Abstract
To fight, flee or hide are the imperatives of long-term survival by an infectious microbe. Active immune suppression, induction of immune tolerance, phase and antigenic variation, intracellular seclusion, and incursion into immune privileged sites are examples of survival strategies of persistent pathogens. Here we critically review the supporting evidence for possible stratagems utilized by Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, to persist in the mammalian host.

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by X-member » Tue 3 Jan 2012 20:27

As it looks some have claimed that Lyme are not intracellular, before:

http://www.actionlyme.org/BOGUS_RUSSIAN ... TICLES.htm
The CDC says spirochetes are intracellular in 2006:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1704 ... d_RVDocSum

Invasion of human neuronal and glial cells by an infectious strain of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by Camp Other » Wed 4 Jan 2012 6:04

Carina,

I've read the literature on intracellular Bb for a while now, and I think the main reason most of it has not yet been held up as an example of true intracellular behavior can be drawn from the above abstracts:

"To examine the mechanisms involved in the cellular pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis, we investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to attach to and/or invade a panel of human neuroglial and cortical neuronal cells."

"Long-term coculture of B. burgdorferi with primary human fibroblasts provided additional support for intracellular protection."

"Taken together, these results suggest that B. burgdorferi can invade and retain viability in nonphagocytic cells in a process that may, in part, help to explain the phenotype observed in untreated experimental infection."

I may need to reread these publications, but I think the reason why not much weight has been put on these studies has been because a number of them occurred in cultures, occurred in vitro. It's been difficult to come by intracellular examples in vivo. The slides Barthold has of Bb in heart adventitia and other tissues show spirochetes in extracellular (not intracellular) space post-mortem.

This is not to say that intracellular behavior doesn't or can't occur. It's just to say that based on these publications, it's known what can happen in vitro with specific cells - how much confirmation do we need (and have) that it can happen in vivo?

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by X-member » Wed 4 Jan 2012 15:44

It was when I told about a spiro emerging from a red blood cell (in my blood outside the body) that this discussion started! A member then told me (when we talked about this) that borrelia is not intracellular.

I also told that the spiro quickly went back inside the blood cell again when I added a high dose abx to the blood.

So this is not my discussion, if a red blood cell is not a cell! ;)

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by X-member » Sat 28 Jan 2012 20:20

"Video-microscopy and pictures of Borrelia burgdorferi and other spirochete like structures links collection"

By Marie Kroun, MD, Denmark

http://lymerick.net/videomicroscopy.htm

A quote:
Thus Marie Kroun’s microscopy findings support the observation done by others, that Borrelia burgdorferi can be located inside WBC and possibly also RBC, since not all the cellular structures with moving granules in it contain a visible nucleus!

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Re: Intracellular Lyme

Post by inmacdonald » Sun 29 Jan 2012 22:58

Intracellular Borrelia - A bibliography prepared by Dr Harold Smith

http://www.lymenet.de/literatur/intracel.htm


Dr Smith's summation bibliography covers the period up to the year 2000.

In my next post, I shall include additional examples of Intracellular borrelia
from the works of Dr Judith Miklossy, which demonstrate Borrelia inside human
brain cells.

In addition I shall introduce [b]the phenomenon of "transient" intracellular residence[/b]Where Borrelia PENETRATE and PASS through living cells.


Alan B. MacDonald, MD

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