Info about Lyme round bodies (cyst form)

General or non-medical topics with information and discussion related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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Re: Info about Lyme cysts

Post by X-member » Sat 31 Dec 2011 15:50

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967786

J Basic Microbiol. 2010 Dec;50 Suppl 1:S5-17.
Metamorphosis of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms--RNA, lipid and protein composition in context with the spirochetes' shape.Al-Robaiy S, Dihazi H, Kacza J, Seeger J, Schiller J, Huster D, Knauer J, Straubinger RK.
SourceInstitute of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, University of Leipzig, Germany.

Abstract
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, has the ability to undergo morphological transformation from a motile spirochetal to non-motile spherical shape when it encounters unfavorable conditions. However, little information is available on the mechanism that enables the bacterium to change its shape and whether major components of the cells--nucleic acids, proteins, lipids--are possibly modified during the process. Deducing from investigations utilizing electron microscopy, it seems that shape alteration begins with membrane budding followed by folding of the protoplasmatic cylinder inside the outer surface membrane. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that a deficiency in producing functioning periplasmic flagella did not hinder sphere formation. Further, it was shown that the spirochetes' and spheres' lipid compositions were indistinguishable. Neither phosphatidylcholine nor phosphatidylglycerol were altered by the structural transformation. In addition, no changes in differential protein expression were detected during this process. However, minimal degradation of RNA and a reduced antigen-antibody binding activity were observed with advanced age of the spheres. The results of our comparisons and the failure to generate mutants lacking the ability to convert to spheres suggest that the metamorphosis of B. burgdorferi results in a conditional reconstruction of the outer membrane. The spheres, which appear to be more resistant to unfavorable conditions and exhibit reduced immune reactivity when compared to spirochetes, might allow the B. burgdorferi to escape complete clearance and possibly ensure long-term survival in the host.

Henry
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Re: Info about Lyme cysts

Post by Henry » Sat 31 Dec 2011 16:36

Carina: I am unable to read the full manuscript. May I ask what were the UNFAVORABLE conditions used by the authors to generate these different forms of Borrelia?
Last edited by Henry on Sat 31 Dec 2011 17:04, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Info about Lyme cysts

Post by X-member » Sat 31 Dec 2011 16:49

From Brorsons info (in an earlier post):

http://www.pnas.org/content/106/44/18656.full
Unfavorable conditions include changes in solution chemistry: acidity-alkalinity, salts, gas composition; concentrations of antibiotics, sugars, or other organic compounds such as amino acids. Transition from one growth medium to a second of different viscosity or temperature stimulates the formation of RBs. Starvation, threat of desiccation, exposure to oxygen gas, total anoxia and/or sulfide may induce RB formation (3–13). RBs revert to the active helical swimmers when favorable conditions that support growth return (3–5).

Henry
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Re: Info about Lyme cysts

Post by Henry » Sat 31 Dec 2011 16:52

Carina: You didn't answer my question. What were the unfavorable conditions used by the authors of the paper that you cited to generate the forms of Borrelia they describe?

Henry
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Re: Info about Lyme cysts

Post by Henry » Sat 31 Dec 2011 17:16

I make one last attempt to eliminate all of the confusion and clarify the situation once and for all:

Do Borrelia form “cysts”, as part of their natural growth cycle, to protect them from being inactivated by antibiotics?

The clear and simple answer is “no”. According to Saunder’s “Dictionary and Encyclopdeia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology”, there are two definitions of the term “cyst”. The first is used to describe any closed cavity or sac -- both normal and abnormal -- that is lined by epithelial cells, although in some locations, it may be lined by connective tissue or bone. The second is used to describe a stage in the life cycle of certain parasites (e.g., Echinococcus granulosus) during which they are enclosed within a protective sac called a hydatid cyst. Some bacteria (Bacillus and Clostridia species) -- certainly not Borrelia burgdorferi -- form protective structures called endospores; however, no bacteria form cysts. Therefore, use of the term “cyst” with reference to B. burgdorferi or any other bacterium is incorrect. In most cases, the term is used to convey the false impression that, by forming “cysts”, Borrelia are some how able to escape destruction by antibiotics and host immune defense mechanisms, so that they can establish a long-term persistent infection. Although some even advocate additional treatment with metronidazole to eliminate these “cysts” (1), there is no evidence that they have any clinical relevance.

Some investigators mistakenly use the term “cyst” to describe those structures (e.g., L-forms or “cell-wall deficient” variants) that are not part of the normal growth cycle of Borrelia, but which are formed after exposure to antibiotics that influence cell wall formation. Such variants are of two types and differ only in the amount of residual cell wall material that they possess: spheroplasts, which still contain some remnants of cell wall material; and, protoplasts which are completely devoid of any cell wall material (2). Both types may be stable or unstable, depending on their capacity to revert to the original parental cell type when placed in an antibiotic- free environment. If reversion occurs, it occurs relatively early after antibiotic treatment, i.e., when the levels of antibiotic first begin to decline (2). Since neither variant is surrounded by a “cyst-like” protective structure, there is no reason to assume that they are any less permeable or susceptible to antibiotics than the original parental cell type. In most cases, these structures have not been characterized with respect to B. burgdorferi and then only with regard to their morphology. No well-controlled functional or physiological studies have been conducted to demonstrate that they are relevant to human disease. Two studies show that such residual structures may exist in mice after treatment for B. burgdorferi infection; however, these forms are not cultivable, not virulent, and eventually are eliminated by host defense mechanisms without causing disease (3,4,5).

References

1. Brorson, O, and Brorson, SH. An in vitro study of the susceptibility of mobile cystic forms of Borreli burgdorferi to metronidazole. APMIS 107: 566-576, 1999.

2. Allan, EJ, Hoischen, D, and Gumpert, Bacterial L-forms. J. Advan. Applied Microbiol. 68: 2-39, 2009.

3. Hodzic, E, Feng, S, Holden, K, et al. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52: 1728-1736, 2008.

4. Bockenstedt, LK, Mao, J, Hodzic, E et al. Detection of attenuated. Non-infectious spirochetes in Borrelia-burgdorferi- infected mice after antibiotic treatment. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 1430-1437, 2002.

5. Wormser, GP, and Schwartz, I. Antibiotic treatment of animals infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 22: 387-395, 2009.

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Re: Info about Lyme cysts

Post by X-member » Sat 31 Dec 2011 17:36

And again!

This discussion started when I talked about a picture of my blood OUTSIDE the body (on a spiro and a "round body"), and I called the "round body" a cyst!

But, Brorson give us other terms used for it too:

http://www.pnas.org/content/106/44/18656.full
We reexamine evidence and point to mainly Russian studies ignored in English scientific literature that spirochete round bodies (RBs, also called coccoid bodies, globular bodies, spherical bodies, cysts, granules, L-forms, sphaeroplasts, or vesicles) are fully viable. RBs are spherical, membrane-bounded structures that appear in pure cultures as they age in proportion to the disappearance of helical forms. They tend to be immotile or less motile than typical helical-shaped spirochetes although they twitch and may move laterally. Analysis by thin section transmission electron microscopy (tsTEM) has revealed the presence of coiled protoplasmic cylinders and flagella inside RBs that lead investigators to hypothesize that they are pleiomorphic stages of spirochetes (1) or that they are moribund. Anglophone medical discussion of spirochetoses (spirochete-associated infirmities, such as Lyme disease or syphilis) omit mention of “round bodies” or state that they have no clinical relevance (2). Yet evidence abounds not only that RBs are viable but also that they may locomote, grow, and reproduce.

If Henry want to discuss more about this (with someone else), he can do soo!

Henry
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Re: Info about Lyme round bodies (cysts)

Post by Henry » Sat 31 Dec 2011 18:06

Carina: I don't really care about your picture and what you think it represents. The main purpose of this discussion is whether Borrelia really do form "cysts". The abstracts you presented were designed to address that issue, were they not? My last submission is all that I have to say about the subject. I now close and rest my case.

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Re: Info about Lyme round bodies (cysts)

Post by X-member » Sat 31 Dec 2011 18:12

Henry, you wrote:
Carina: I don't really care about your picture and what you think it represents. The main purpose of this discussion is whether Borrelia really do form "cysts". The abstracts you presented were designed to address that issue, were they not? My last submission is all that I have to say about the subject. I now close and rest my case.
From the first post:

Carina:
How it is possible to take pictures of, or film something that don't exist?

If the "thing" that forms in the end of the spiro (on YouTube) is not a cyst, so tell me/us what it is then? Maybe we all (including Brorson, Norway) are stupid? And have to be educated by someone that know this better, so that we use the correct term instead, like we had to learn not to use the term chronic (= of long duration) Lyme?

Tell us the correct term then!

Thank you!

And that question is already answered (with the help of the info from Brorson).

And if someone want to discuss those forms more in this topic, it is OK, but I do not take part in any more discussions about this!

Henry
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Re: Info about Lyme round bodies (cysts)

Post by Henry » Sat 31 Dec 2011 18:59

Carina: Since you would like names for these structures, I suggest cell-wall or cell-membrane deficient variants, L forms, sphaeroplast, and/or protoplast, depending on their particular characteristics. The term "cyst" is incorrect and should not be used. That is all that I am saying, which is reasonable enough and based on the scientific evidence that is available (see references that I cited).

Margarita
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Re: Info about Lyme round bodies (cysts)

Post by Margarita » Sat 31 Dec 2011 19:29

Thanks, Henry, now can you tell us what you think of ILADS members conviction that borrelia cell-wall deficient round forms are much more antibiotic resistant than the regular form spirochetes.

Henry said:
Carina: Since you would like names for these structures, I suggest cell-wall or cell-membrane deficient variants, L forms, sphaeroplast, and/or protoplast, depending on their particular characteristics. The term "cyst" is incorrect and should not be used. That is all that I am saying, which is reasonable enough and based on the scientific evidence that is available (see references that I cited).

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